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## Lecture 15 - Discrete Phase Modeling

Applied Computational Fluid Dynamics
Instructor: Andr a!!er
" Andr a!!er #\$%%\$-\$%%&'
" Fluent Inc( #\$%%\$'
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Discrete phase modeling
)
Particle trac!ing(
)
)
Coupled +s( uncoupled(
)
)
,ime stepping(
)
Discreti-ation(
Particle trajectories in a spray dryer
Particle trajectories in a cyclone
3
Discrete phase model
) ,ra.ectories o/ particles0droplets are
computed in a Lagrangian /rame(
1 23change #couple' heat4 mass4 and
momentum 5ith 2ulerian /rame gas phase(
) Discrete phase volume /raction should
pre/era6ly 6e less than 1%7(
1 9o particle-particle interaction or 6rea! up(
) ,ur6ulent dispersion modeled 6y:
1 *tochastic trac!ing(
1 Particle cloud model(
) Model particle separation4 spray drying4
li:uid /uel or coal com6ustion4 etc(
continuous phase
flow field calculation
particle trajectory
calculation
update continuous
phase source
terms
4
DPM theory
,ra.ectory is calculated 6y integrating the particle /orce 6alance
e:uation:
typical continuous phase
control volume
mass, momentum
and heat exchange
( )
p i p p i
p
i i D
p
i
F g u u F
dt
du
/ / ) + + =
drag force is
a function of the
relative velocity
!dditional forces"
#hermophoretic
\$otating reference frame
%rownian motion
&affman lift
'ther user defined)
(ravity force
)
Coupling 6et5een phases
)
;ne-5ay coupling:
1 Fluid phase in/luences particulate phase +ia drag and tur6ulence(
1 Particulate phase has no in/luence on the gas phase(
)
,5o-5ay coupling:
1 Fluid phase in/luences particulate phase +ia drag and tur6ulence(
1 Particulate phase in/luences /luid phase +ia source terms o/ mass4
momentum4 and energy(
1 23amples include:
) Inert particle heating and cooling(
) Droplet e+aporation(
) Droplet 6oiling(
) De+olatili-ation(
) *ur/ace com6ustion(
*
)
Particle types are inert4 droplet and com6usting particle(
Particle types
+
#
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e
particle time
,nert heating
law
-apori.ation
law
%oiling law
#
/
#
v
#
injection
<eat and mass trans/er to a droplet
0
volatile fraction
flashes to vapor
1scape
\$eflect #rap
Particle-5all interaction
)
Particle 6oundary conditions at 5alls4 inlets4 and outlets:
)
For particle re/lection4 a restitution coe//icient e is speci/ied:
t
t
t
n
n
n
v
v
e component: Tangential
v
v
e component: Normal
, 1
, 2
, 1
, 2
=
=
2
Particle /ates
)
=2scaped> tra.ectories are those that terminate at a /lo5 6oundary
/or 5hich the =escape> condition is set(
)
=Incomplete> tra.ectories are those that 5ere terminated 5hen the
ma3imum allo5ed num6er o/ time steps 5as e3ceeded(
)
=,rapped> tra.ectories are those that terminate at a /lo5 6oundary
5here the =trap> condition has 6een set(
)
=2+aporated> tra.ectories include those tra.ectories along 5hich
the particles 5ere e+aporated 5ithin the domain(
)
=A6orted> tra.ectories are those that /ail to complete due to
numerical0round-o// reasons( I/ there are many a6orted particles4
try to redo the calculation 5ith a modi/ied length scale and0or
di//erent initial conditions(
11
)
2ach in.ection is trac!ed repeatedly in order to generate a
statistically meaning/ul sampling(
)
Mass /lo5 rates and e3change source terms /or each in.ection are
di+ided e:ually among the multiple stochastic trac!s(
)
,ur6ulent /luctuations in the /lo5 /ield are represented 6y de/ining
an instantaneous /luid +elocity:
)
5here is deri+ed /rom the local tur6ulence parameters:
)
and is a normally distri6uted random num6er(
i i i
u u u 3 + =
i
u3
3
2
3
k
i
u =

## ,ur6ulence: discrete random 5al! trac!ing

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) *tochastic trac!ing turned on(
) Fi+e trac!s per in.ection point(
) Adds random tur6ulent dispersion to
each trac!(
) ,rac!s that start in the same point
are all di//erent(
) *tochastic trac!ing turned o//(
) ;ne trac! per in.ection point(
) ?ses steady state +elocities only
and ignores e//ect o/ tur6ulence(
*tochastic trac!ing e3ample - paper plane
1)
In.ection set-up
)
In.ections may 6e de/ined as:
1 *ingle: a particle stream is in.ected
/rom a single point(
1 @roup: particle streams are in.ected
along a line(
1 Cone: #A-D' particle streams are
in.ected in a conical pattern(
1 *ur/ace: particle streams are in.ected
/rom a sur/ace #one /rom each /ace'(
1 File: particle streams in.ection
locations and initial conditions are
read in /rom an e3ternal /ile(
1*
In.ection de/inition
)
2+ery in.ection de/inition includes:
1 Particle type #inert4 droplet4 or com6usting particle'(
1 Material #/rom data 6ase'(
1 Initial conditions #e3cept 5hen read /rom a /ile'(
)
Com6usting particles and droplets re:uire de/inition o/ destination
species(
)
Com6usting particles may include an e+aporating material(
)
,ur6ulent dispersion may 6e modeled 6y stochastic trac!ing(
1+
*olution strategy: particle trac!ing
)
Cell should 6e crossed in a minimum o/ t5o or three particle
steps( More is 6etter(
)
Ad.ust step length to either a small si-e4 or \$% or more steps per
cell(
)
)
,a!e care /or recirculation -ones(
)
<eat and mass trans/er: reduce the step length i/ particle
temperature 5ildly /luctuates at high +apori-ation heats(
12
)
2ach particle ad+anced in time along 5ith the /lo5(
)
For coupled /lo5s using implicit time stepping4 su6-iterations /or
the particle trac!ing are per/ormed 5ithin each time step(
)
For non-coupled /lo5s or coupled /lo5s 5ith e3plicit time
stepping4 particles are ad+anced at the end o/ each time step(
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*ample planes and particle histograms
) ,rac! mean particle tra.ectory as
particles pass through sample
planes #lines in \$D'4 properties
#position4 +elocity4 etc(' are
5ritten to /iles(
) ,hese /iles can then 6e read into
the histogram plotting tool to plot
histograms o/ residence time
and distri6utions o/ particle
properties(
) ,he particle property mean and
standard de+iation are also
reported(
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Poincar plots
) Poincar plots are made 6y
placing a dot on a gi+en sur/ace
e+ery time a particle tra.ectory
hits or crosses that sur/ace(
) <ere it is sho5n /or a /lo5 inside
a closed ca+ity 5ith tangentially
oscillating 5alls(
) ,he /igure on the le/t sho5s
streamlines(
) ,he /igure on the right sho5s a
Poincar plot /or the top sur/ace(
) ,his method can 6e used to
+isuali-e /lo5 structures(
Aref and Naschie. Chaos applied to fluid mixing. Page 187. 1995.
22
Leap/rogging +orte3 rings
) ,5o ideal coa3ial +orte3 rings
5ith the same sense o/ rotation
5ill leap/rog each other(
) ,he /or5ard +orte3 increases in
diameter and slo5s do5n( ,he
rear5ard +orte3 shrin!s and
speeds up(
) ;nce the +ortices traded places4
the process repeats(
) ,he photographs on the le/t are
e3perimental +isuali-ations using
smo!e rings4 and the /igures on
the right are Poincar plots /rom
a CFD simulation sho5ing the
same structures(
Aref and Naschie. Chaos applied to
fluid mixing. Page 33 187. 1995.
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Massi+e particle trac!ing
)
Massi+e particle trac!ing re/ers to analyses 5here tens o/
thousands to millions o/ particles are trac!ed to +isuali-e /lo5s or
to deri+e statistics o/ the /lo5 /ield(
)
,5o e3amples:
1 A mi3ing tan! 5ith three impellers(
1 A mi3ing tan! 5ith /our impellers(
1 oth animations sho5 the motion o/ more than \$B! particles(
1 It can 6e seen that one large /lo5 loop /orms in the three impeller
system4 and t5o /lo5 loops /orm in the /our impeller system(
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,hree impellers
Animation courtesy of ightnin !nc.
2)
Four impellers
Animation courtesy of ightnin !nc.
2*
Mi3ing +essel - +elocity +ectors
) *maller diameter impeller #&%7
o/ +essel diameter'(
) Impeller .et e3tends to the +essel
6ottom(
) Larger diameter impeller #5%7 o/
+essel diameter'(
) Impeller .et 6ends o// to the 5all
and the /lo5 direction at the
6ottom is re+ersed(
2+
Mi3ing +essel - trac!ing o/ sand particles
) *maller diameter impeller(
) ,he sand is dispersed
throughout the 5hole +essel 5ith
a small dead spot in the center
o/ the 6ottom(
) Larger diameter impeller(
) Due to the re+ersed /lo5 pattern
at the 6ottom4 sand does not get
suspended throughout the 5hole
+essel(
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Cenics static mi3er
)
A static mi3er is a de+ice in 5hich /luids are mi3ed4 6ut has no
mo+ing parts(
)
,he mi3ing elements induce a /lo5 pattern that results in the
material 6eing stretched and /olded to /orm e+er smaller
structures(
)
Mi3ing can 6e analy-ed 6y loo!ing at species concentration or 6y
loo!ing at particle paths(
)
CP? time:
1 1BB\$( 1%%4%%% cells( *un *parc II 5or!station( ;ne 5ee!(
1 1BBA( A5%4%%% cells( Cray CB% supercomputer( ;+ernight(
1 \$%%1( A5%4%%% cells( ,5o processor ?ni3 5or!station( A% minutes(
1 \$%%1( ,5o-million cells( ,5o processor ?ni3 5or!station( Fi+e hours(
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Lattice-olt-mann Method
)
Calculations 6y Dos Der!sen4 Del/t ?ni+ersity4 \$%%A(
)
?n6a//led stirred tan! e:uipped 5ith a Eushton tur6ine(
Cross *ection Fessel Gall
34
Lattice-olt-mann Method
)
Calculations 6y Dos Der!sen4
Del/t ?ni+ersity4 \$%%A(
)
?n6a//led stirred tan! e:uipped
5ith /our impellers(
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Mi3ing mechanism
) Laminar mi3ing(
) CFD simulation(
) *i3 elements(
) 2ach element splits4 stretches
and /olds the /luid parcels(
) 2+ery t5o elements the /luid is
mo+ed inside-out(
32
Particle trac!ing animations
33
*pecies mi3ing animation
34
Huestion: are particle tra.ectories closedI
)
9ot in tur6ulent /lo5s(
)
Fiscous4 periodic /lo5s may ha+e periodic points( ,hese are
points 5here the particle returns to its initial position a/ter a
certain amount o/ time(
)
rou5erJs /i3ed-point theorem:
Under a continuous mapping f : S S of an n- dimensional simplex into
itself there exists at least one point x S such that f (x)x!
)
Application to particle trac!s:
1 In +iscous periodic /lo5s in closed4 simply connected domains there
5ill al5ays 6e at least one periodic point 5here a particle returned to
its original location(
1 In other situations4 there is no guarantee that there is any closed
tra.ectory4 and there may 6e none at all(
3)
Huestion: ho5 /ast do particles separateI
)
I/ 5e place t5o particles in/initesimally close together4 5ill they
stay together4 or separateI
)
,he separation distance is go+erned 6y the Lyapuno+ e3ponent
o/ the /lo54 5hich states that the particles 5ill separate
e3ponentially as a /unction o/ time t:
)
,he higher the Lyapuno+ e3ponent4 the more chaotic the /lo5 and
the more stretching occurs(
)
Lyapuno+ e3ponents can ha+e any +alue4 most o/ the time
6et5een % and 1%4 and usually 6et5een %(5 and 1(
t
e t

) 4 ) =
3*
Particle trac!ing accuracy
)
,here are three types o/ errors: discreti-ation4 time integration4
and round-o//(
)
Eesearch has sho5n that in regular laminar /lo5s the error in the
particle location increases as t"4 and in chaotic /lo5s almost
e3ponentially(
)
2rrors tend to align 5ith the direction o/ the streamlines in most
/lo5s(
)
As a result4 e+en though errors multiply rapidly #e(g( %(17 error
/or \$%4%%% steps is 1(%%1
\$%4%%%
K &(L2L'4 :ualitati+e /eatures o/ the
/lo5 as sho5n 6y the de/ormation o/ material lines can 6e
properly reproduced( ut the length o/ the material lines may 6e
o/ 6y as much as 1%%7(
)
;+erall4 particle trac!ing4 5hen properly done4 is less di//usi+e
than sol+ing /or species transport4 6ut numerical di//usion does
e3ist(
3+
*ummary
)
2asy-to-use model(
)
Clear and simple physics(
)
Eestricted to +olume /ractions M 1% 7(
)
Particle trac!ing can 6e used /or a +ariety o/ purposes:
1 Fisuali-ation(
1 Eesidence time calculations(
1 Com6ustion(
1 Chemical reaction(
1 Drying(
1 Particle /ormation processes(