You are on page 1of 28

Introduction

The Central Dogma


of Molecular Biology

Cell

Transcription DNA

mRNA
Translation
Ribosome

Polypeptide
(protein)
Protein Synthesis
Flow of Information:
DNA RNA Proteins
Transcription Translation
Transcription is the process by which a
molecule of DNA is copied into a
complementary strand of RNA.
This is called messenger RNA (mRNA)
because it acts as a messenger between DNA
and the ribosomes where protein synthesis is
carried out.
Protein Synthesis Transcription
Transcription process
• RNA polymerase (an enzyme) attaches to
DNA at a special sequence that serves as a
“start signal”.
• The DNA strands are separated and one
strand serves as a template.
• The RNA bases attach to the complementary
DNA template, thus synthesizing mRNA.
Protein Synthesis: Transcription
Transcription process continued
• The RNA polymerase recognizes a
termination site on the DNA molecule and
releases the new mRNA molecule.
(mRNA leaves the nucleus and travels to the
ribosome in the cytoplasm.)
Protein Synthesis: Transcription
AAA
GAAA

Eukaryotic Transcription

Nuclear
Cytoplasm
pores
DNA

Transcription
RNA
RNA
Processing
mRNA
Export
Nucleus
Protein Synthesis: Translation
Translation is the process of decoding a
mRNA molecule into a polypeptide chain or
protein.
Each combination of 3 nucleotides on mRNA
is called a codon or three-letter code word.
Each codon specifies a particular amino acid
that is to be placed in the polypeptide chain
(protein).
Protein Synthesis: Translation
OH
A Codon
NH2
SUGAR-PHOS
HO P O

O
N
N Adenine

B A S E S
N N
CH2
O

O H
O
HO P O
N Guanine
PH

O NH
N N NH2
CH2
ATE BACKBO

O H
NH2
Arginine
HO P

O
O
N
N
Adenine
N N
CH2
O
NE

OH H
Protein Synthesis: Translation
• A three-letter code is used because there are
20 different amino acids that are used to
make proteins.
• If a two-letter codewere used there would
not be enough codons to select all 20 amino
acids.
• That is, there are 4 bases in RNA, so 42 (4x
4)=16; where as 43 (4x4x4)=64.
Protein Synthesis: Translation
Protein Synthesis: Translation
• Therefore, there is a total of 64 codons with
mRNA, 61specify a particular amino acid.
• This means there are more than one codonfor
each of the 20 amino acids.
• The remaining three codons (UAA, UAG, &
UGA) are stop codons, which signify the end
of a polypeptide chain (protein).
• Besides selecting the amino acid methionine,
the codon AUG also serves as the “initiator”
codon, which starts the synthesis of a protein
Protein Synthesis: Translation
Protein Synthesis: Translation
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
• Each tRNA molecule has 2 important sites
of attachment.
• One site, called the anticodon, binds to the
codon on the mRNA molecule.
• The other site attaches to a particular amino
acid.
• During protein synthesis, the anticodon of a
tRNA molecule base pairs with the
appropriate mRNA codon.
Protein Synthesis: Translation
Met-tRNA
Methionine
A
C
C
7
73
1
27
2
17
3
60
4
96
5
86
6 5
U 7 76 P A
6 6 6 6
1 1 P
1 * 6 Cy 9 *P
9 54 45 35 25
7 6
u A
7 1 1 P 1 u
G:1 GT C
32 22 y 0
P 2 P9 40
1 2 ψ
* 7 4
G2 2 2 A2 u 52 y: 7
3 1 :
0 0
0 : : 6 12 4 4 6 1
1 2 27 34 4 4 5

82 24 5 4
39 41 644
03 03 77
:
P
y1 9P
3 1
* 8u
U3
U 3A 3C*
4 5 6
Anticodon
Protein Synthesis: Translation
Ribosome:
• Are made up of 2 subunits, a large one and a
smaller one, each subunit contains
ribosomal RNA (rRNA) & proteins.
• Protein synthesis starts when the two
subunits bind to mRNA.
• The initiator codon AUG binds to the first
anticodon of tRNA, signaling the start of a
protein.
Protein Synthesis: Translation
Ribosome:
• The anticodon of another tRNA binds to the
next mRNA codon, bringing the 2nd amino
acid to be placed in the protein.
• As each anticodon & codon bind together a
peptide bond forms between the two
amino acids.
Protein Synthesis: Translation
Ribosome:
• The protein chain continues to grow until a
stop codon reaches the ribosome, which
results in the release of the new protein and
mRNA, completing the process of
translation.
Protein Synthesis: Translation
Translation - Initiation

f
M
e
t

Large P A
subunit E
UAC
5’GAG...CU-AUG--UUC--CUU--AGU--GGU--AGA--GCU--GUA--UGA-AT GCA...TAAAAAA 3’
Small mRNA
subunit
Translation - Elongation
M Polypeptide A
e r
t P L S g
he e e G
u r Aminoacyl tRNA
l
y

Ribosome P A UCU
E
CCA
5’GAG...CU-AUG--UUC--CUU--AGU--GGU--AGA--GCU--GUA--UGA-AT GCA...TAAAAAA 3’
mRNA
Translation - Elongation
M Polypeptide
e
t P L S
he e e G A
u r l r
y g
Aminoacyl tRNA

Ribosome P A
E
CCA UCU
5’GAG...CU-AUG--UUC--CUU--AGU--GGU--AGA--GCU--GUA--UGA-AT GCA...TAAAAAA 3’
mRNA
Protein Synthesis
AMINE H O ACID
Alanine Serine
H N C OH H O H O
C
H N C OH H N C OH
ANYTHING R H
H C H C
Amino Acid H H
C C
H H HO H

H2O H O H O
H N C N C OH
H C H C
C H C H
H H HO H
Translation - Elongation
M Polypeptide
e
t P L S
he e e G
u r l
y A
r
g

Ribosome P A
E
CCA UCU
5’GAG...CU-AUG--UUC--CUU--AGU--GGU--AGA--GCU--GUA--UGA-AT GCA...TAAAAAA 3’
mRNA
Translation - Elongation
M Polypeptide
e
P A
t L S
he l
e e G a
u r l
y A
r Aminoacyl tRNA
g

Ribosome P A CGA
E
CCA
UCU
5’GAG...CU-AUG--UUC--CUU--AGU--GGU--AGA--GCU--GUA--UGA-AT GCA...TAAAAAA 3’
mRNA
Translation - Elongation
M Polypeptide
e
t P L S
he e e G
u r l
A A
y
r l
g a

CCA
Ribosome P A
E
UCU CGA
5’GAG...CU-AUG--UUC--CUU--AGU--GGU--AGA--GCU--GUA--UGA-AT GCA...TAAAAAA 3’
mRNA
Transcription And Translation In
Prokaryotes
5’ 3’

3’ 5’
RN
A
Pol.

Ribosome

mRNA
Ribosome
5’