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Study Guide

History of Modern Art


Max Weber,
“Chinese
Restaurant, 1915

Weber has spent time studying


in Paris the concepts of


synthetic and analytical
cubism.

This is known as the


“Concept of Events”: events


are created with the forces
randomly coming together.

Almost unrecognizable, he

tries to combine all forces of


activity into a painting.
Marsden Hartley.
Portrait of a
German
Officer.1914

Hartley was influenced by


German Artists.

The colors of this work are


influenced by the Fauve Artists.

This was very different from


French cubism, for this was


German Cubism. Basically,
German Cubism brings
different elements together
and still be able to recognize
the form(s) in the painting.
John Martin, Lower
Manhattan,1922

He is known for using water


colors in his works.

He is a graphic artists who


specializes in linear designs


and colors. In this painting, one
can see his use of thick linear
strokes and use of color.

This is an American version of


Cubism.

This and a few other works


were influenced by Kandinsky.


John Marin. The
Fog Lifts.1949

Again, he uses watercolors.


His specialty in lines is shown


in his geometrical shapes.

The painting is abstract.


This was influenced by


Cézannes’ cubism.
Arthur G. Dove.
Fog Horns. 1929

Dove’s subject matter was on


music.

Here, you see colors that he


brings together harmoniously.


This is called Synchronism.
Arthur Dove.
Sunrise I. 1936

Dove’s works have no rational


forms and so a viewer looks at


nothing but abstraction.

He wants his audience to


experience feelings by making


colors that work harmoniously
together.

Synchronism: harmonious

colors, feelings, and sound


are put together.


Arthur G. Dove.
Goin Fishin. 1925

He creating a painting that


reflects his Child Hood.

He uses a lot of linear design


together.

He uses elements from the


scene and creates something


that is different.
Arthur G. Dove.
That Red One.
1944

This work is more abstract


than Kandinsky's works.

In this, you can see many


geometric forms and simple


colors.
Stanton
Macdonald-Wright.
Abstraction on
Spectrum. 1914

Bring different colors together


and make them melodic.


Stanton
Macdonald-Wright.
Synchrony No. 3.
1917


Morgan Russell.
Synchrony in
Orange to form.
1914

It is very cubical, colorful, and


abstract.

Synchrony: Color abstraction


This painting is not about form


or rationality. It is all about


sensation.


Georgia O’Keefe.
Cow’s Skull with
Calico Roses. 1913

Skull= death and White Roses


=life

This communicates the circle


of life.

The lines of the work indicate


the feeling of anxiety due to
the subject matter being about
life and death.

She was fascinated by the


American Nature and makes an
icon of it.


Thomas Hart
Benton. City
Building. 1930

It reveals an academic style.


Very Hellenistic because the


forms are large, tall, and


expressive.

He was influenced by baroque


art and Michelangelo.

Very thematic.

He glorifies the working class.



Grant Wood.
American Gothic.
1930

Show two miserable figures.


The woman is his sister and


the man is his dentist. He is
from Iowa.

It shows that he doesn’t like


European Art.

When he went to Germany, he


saw that he like the primitive


gothic art.

The building in American


Gothic background was
inspired by Gothic Structure.
Grant Wood. Young
Corn. 1931

This was from Wood’s


childhood memories.

He is a realist artist.

Edward Hopper.
Early Sunday
Morning. 1930

He uses light to communicate


feelings.
Edward Hopper.
The Waste Land.
1922


Edward Hopper.
Carolina
Edward Hopper.
Morning Sun. 1952

Hopper uses geometry to


connect with rationality.

He is communicating that

rationality brings loneliness.


Ben Shahn. The
Passion of Sacco of
Vanzetti. 1931-32

Show two dead figures. These


are martyrs.

One can see some Christian


symbolism, for example the


white lilies represent purity
and the two figures and judge
refers from Judaism and
Christianity.
Orozco, Maternity,
1926

It is a mural painting. This


form of art has origins tied to


ancient greek people. Mexican
people have revived it to
communicates about their
politics, national identity, and
national epics of Mexico.

Orozco makes such paintings


to communicate what kind of


events are going on.
Orozco, The
Trench, 1926

Here, Orozco uses greys and


limited amount of colors to
emphasize some points.

The subject matter is a war


scene, where you see the two


men creating the cross.

Orozco doesn’t show any faces


because he saying that war


happens to all races, it is a
universal action.

He is talking about the lives


that were lost in wars.


Orozco,
Prometheus, 1939

This was painted in


Pamonacity College.

Here, Orozco combines history


and mythology and changes


them to create a story.

He uses orange and red hues


to create the impression of fire.


Fire has these following traits:
destruction, purification, and
enlightenment.

He addresses that education


can be either good or bad.


Jose Clemente Orozco

Murals and their stories


Orozco, Migration

Orozco uses greens and blues


to convey that the people are
ignorant.

The forms of the humans are


primitive because man is an


ancient species. That even
today, we still hold on to some
primitive aspects of our human
nature.

Orozco, shows only but one


man that is colored, this means


that the man is enlightened.


Orozco, Ancient

He uses ancient mythology


and history of the Aztecs.

The subject matter is showing


a person being sacrificed.

It describes the concept of


killing.
Orozco, the coming
of Quetzalcoatl

In Aztec history, it talks of a


mighty figure known as


Serpent Feather King.

However, it was defeated by


the evil forces of humankind.

The Feather Serpent King was


a very strong entity, for he can


move in the skies, the earth
and around the people of the
earth.

He is ranked as high as Christ


and Prometheus, the one who
introduced fire to humankind
Orozco, The
Departure of
Quetzalcoatl

It show him leaving the earth


and leaving behind him was


darkness.

It also shows that he will


return.

The cross and broken column


shows the European world and


symbolizes democracy and
western cultures
Orozco, Cortez and
the Cross

The mural is composed of


destructive elements.

The big cross represents


Christianity had an influence in


this destruction.

One sees the hierarchy scale


between Cortez and cross.


Orozco, The
Machine

Show a lump of garbage.


There is chaos, destruction,


and death.

Such elements are caused by


the industrialization and


western civilization.


Orozco, Anglo
America

He uses blues and greys to


convey that America and its


people are ignorant.

These people are not of


Mexican origin.

It shows that western


civilization has too many rules


and orders.

The people look robotic and


controlled.


Orozco, Hispano-
America

Show war and destruction.



David Alfaro
Siqueiros, Scream,
1937

Siqueiros went to war and


would document the events by


sketiching them.

He is considered to be one of

the best muralists.

He had an interest in futurism.


He was influenced by another


muralist artist, Divera (Rita


Kohla’s husband).

The mural conveys about how



Siqueiros Life of
Conaltamec. 1936

In this mural, it shows two


rulers: Cortez and Conaltamec.


They both are battling each
other.

You see a horse that is ready


to strike Conaltamec and the


Aztec king.

The Aztec king is fighting the


myths of the feather serpent.

On the right, you see a mask,


this represents the serpent


king.
Siqueiros, New
Democracy. 1944

He used his wife as model.


The figure is coming out from


a volcano, bursting from her


chains.

She represents freedom.


You see a Nazi soldier (grey


and green) who is ignorant.

This new democracy is for


everyone in the world.


Diego Rivera,
Creation, 1923

He is influenced by cubism.

The style is influenced from


Byzantine and European style.

Deals with religion, the circular


object above represents


spirituality.

Shows Eve on the left (Female


spirit that represents music,


singing, faith, and charity)
Shows Adam on the right (that
represents poetry, creative
force, male spirit) the middle
figure that comes out from
Diego Rivera, Exist
from the Mine.
1923

In this mural, you see a


Mexican worker being checked


by the authorities. This is
exploitation.

The laborer was made to have


a posture that looks similar to


crucifixion of Christ.
Diego Rivera, Man
at the Cross-Roads.
1935

The figure in the middle


represents civilization. He is at
the cross roads.

On the left to the right, there


are the fascists, socialists, and


the capitolists.

The painting reveals confusion


of humankind.
Frida Kahlo, the
broken column.
1944

A mural painting that conveys


to the viewer about her injury


from the accident.

Her spine is a broken column.


This represents western


civilization. She is conveying to
her viewers that the system
that westerners have created
doesn’t work and is very
destructive to itself and to
others.
Kahlo. My Nurse
and I, 1936

Show make herself like Christ


in some of the renaissance
paintings. She puts her grown
up face on a baby’s body. This
is to show how she feels with
the condition that she live
with.

This also reveals that she is


mixed blood by “mixing” two


different aged body parts
together. Because of this, she
does not understand her
background.

She feels that she is a martyr.



Kahlo, The Two
Fridas, 1939

Whenever her husband, Diego


Rivera, cheats on her, she


would become a different Rita.

The Rita on the Left is the wife


of Diego Rivera, The Rita on


the right, is the free woman
Rita.


Kahlo, Wounded
Deer, 1946

When Rita found out that her


husband was cheating on her


with her sister, she was
devastated.

She painted herself as deer


that is wounded badly by


arrows, this was to say that
she was very hurt by her
husbands actions and with her
sister.
Kahlo, My Birth,
1932

After losing her child, Rita


became very depressed.

She feels dead to herself and


so shows herself as her dead


child coming out of her vagina.

She says that she is always in


constant pain due to her
injury.

She was known not to have


any children due to her


physical injury.
Surrealism

Terms of Freud
Freud: Ego, Super Ego and It
• When Freud Rose, he had a powerful impact on Surrealism. He was
studying about dreams and what symbolisms conveyed in
those dreams. He say, “We work through our dreams
symbolically.”

• Freud talks about 3 important types of symbols that play in our


dreams:
– “Ego”: This is the pleasant principal, the ego can be destructive because it
cannot be easily stopped.
– “Super Ego”: The super ego keeps the ego in check. It abides to the rules
from cultures, laws, and history
– “IT”: this is the pure drive for survival.
– Then there is the Unconscious, this belongs to the ego and with the ego,
the ego is aware of what it is doing.


Andre Breton
• He wrote the surrealist Manifesto in 1920. He talks that part
of surrealism is language. Breton talks of how rationality
comes from language, which is not absolute, therefore
despises rationality. Surrealism is based Romanticism, for
this does not rely on rationality but relies on feelings and
sensations. So, when one sees the works of surrealist
paintings, the art of the scenes are not rational and not
from this world. This made by going into your primitive
side and to nature.
Rousseau ,
Sleeping gypsy
with a lion. 1923

He was an emotional

symbolist.

He uses Freudian Ideals into


his paintings.

The moon and the musical


instrument represents romance
and sexuality.

The club the gypsy holds and


the lion represents masculinity.

This painting is of the dream



Rene Magrite, The
Menace of the
Assasins. 1927

The figure with a net represents


the female super ego. The


figure with a club represents the
male super ego.

The guy listening to music


represents romance and sexuality.
Listening to music is way of
seeing because it allows the
listener to tap into the inner
psyche.

The geometrical chair represents


culture and rationality.

The woman has on a red


bed( death, sin, guilt) with a white


towel (purity and virginity) over
her neck . Blood comes out of
mouth because she just had oral
Rene Magritte, The
Oasis. 1925-1927

The geometrical table


represents rationality.

The Clouds and Trees


represent dreams.

There is a hierarchy: Dreams


(Surrealists view) overcome


rationality.

The trees is rooted into the


table is saying that one cannot


sever them.


Rene Magritte, the
conqueror. 1926

The block of wood in the


tuxedo represents thought and


rationality.

The decoration on the wood


represents dreams, music,


numbers (absolute-rational).

The root of the tree suspended


in the sky:
Nature and dreams

Green means it is alive


Says to change your mind.


Its in the sky to change the


hierarchy.
Make more contact with your

Rene Magritte, The
False Mirror, 1928

The way we see the world if


the false mirror.

What the eyes see is not


important.

It is how we feel about the


world, this is tied to sexuality.


Rene Magritte, the
human Condition.
1933

We only know the world by


copying ti.

One sees a painting within a


painting, in other words a copy
in a copy.
Rene Magritte, the
lovers

This is a mystery because we


really don’t know who each are


really are.

The concept of this painting is


unknown.

The sheets represents


rationality because it talks of


our perceptions of things.
When things are covered, we
are concealing the meaning of
things.
Rene Magritte,
Time Transfixed,
1938

Time represents measurement;


a construct of language. It
doesn’t exist in nature or
reality.

The train is frozen in time. The


candle holders represent


religion. The mirror also
represent religion.

Bottom line, when one lives a


world with so many rules of


rationality that the train
became stuck.
Rene Magritte, The
Treachery of
Image, 1928

Ceci n’est pas unepipe: This


is not a pipe.

It communicates that this is a


fabrication, a lie.

This also communicates to the


viewers, knowledge. Saying
that language has lied about
what this is therefore language
is not real or true.

The truth is not absolute or


ambiguous.
Rene Magritte,
Theapeute, 1941

The white birds represent love,


emotions, romance which
leads to sexuality and that
leads to the subconscious.

The cloak is parted to reveal


the white birds in the cage of


an opened door. The birds
represent the inner emotions
and nature. The cage
represents rationality.

The painting is saying the


dreams are suppressed by


rationality.


Rene Magritte, The
Rape, 1934

The principals of Freud are


influenced here.

What the painting is saying is


that men are animals that are


only interested woman as sex
toys.

It is said by Freud, that men


who rape were not nourished


by their mothers and so they
have a love and hate
relationship.
Leonora
Carrington. Self
Portrait, 1936-
1937

The Room is geometric and


represents rationality.

The tiles on the floor and also


represents order and rationality.

The woman is trapped in a room


(world) and is being controlled.

The room is controlling the “IT”.


The Hyena represents sexuality.


The toy horse on wall represents


that our inner nature has been


tamed.
Max Ernst,
Surrealism and
Painting. 1942

The painting comes from his


consciousness.

The figure painting is


zoomorphic.

This communicates that the


dream world is working.

The box under the figure


represents rationality.
Max Ernst.
Elephant celebes.
1921

A zoomorphic figure.

The cylinder-like figure


represents industrialization.

Humankind is not in tune with


nature due to our


overexposure to technology.

It has a unhappy scene.


Rationality is destructive

because it makes the world


unhappy.
Max Ernst, children
afraid of
Nightengale. 1924

The nightingale represents


loneliness or romance.

The door is the opening to the


painting.

The box (Rationality) tries to


open the door to another


world, the world of dreams.
Max Ernst, the
horde, 1927

This is about a nightmare.


Subconsciously, mankind is

very violent.
Max Ernst. The
king Playing with
the Queen. 1954

The king in this case is the


bull.

In ancient times, bulls have


been associated with power


and fertility.

The bull symbolizes the male


figure.

Since bulls are aggressive,


men are an aggressive gender.

This also suggests that women



Max Ernst, This
man shall know
nothing.
Show baren landscape.

Surrealists say that we don’t


know this world at all.

Geometry forms are a sign of


civilization. It is the sign of


construct.

The hand represents order, the


crescent moon represents


along with the moon romance
and sexuality. This is talking
about ego. The painting is
explaining that deep down our
consciousness, we are nothing
more than animals that love
sex. We get to know ourselves
through sex.
Joan Miro, The
Poetess, 1940

There is no true rational


meaning. There is only free


association. Very subjective.
Joan Miro, Still Life
with old shoe. 1937


Joan Miro, Dog
Barking at the
moon, 1926

The moon represents romance,


sex, and music.

The latter represents


language, our culture, and
religion.

The dog represents nature.


The latter also represents the


thought of the only way to


reach the truth, one must go
through nature as oppose to
religion.


Joan Miro. Blue II,
1961

There is no rational meaning,


very subjective.
Salvador Dali (1904-1989)
• He is the most important surrealist. He said, “the difference
between me and a surrealist artist is that I am
surrealism.” He also wrote some books that talks about
his life, specifically about his experienced of being in his
mother’s womb. He said that language is total nonsense.
He was not really a surrealist until 1929. He was thrown
out of the movement because he was commercializing
his works and making money. He also started designing
buildings. His father was atheist and his mother was
catholic. He fears impotence and fears his father due to
bad relationship. Most of his works are associated with
sexuality because Freud’s laws of psychology.
Dali, the Great
Masturbator, 1929
He is preoccupied with sex.

You see a huge head with a


woman attached taking a snuff
to a male’s genitals. The
eyelashes of the big head
represent fury or furies, a god
in greekmythology that was in
charge of punishing sinners.
The hook represents order. The
Grasshopper represents a
fallacy. The genitals of the
male aren’t erected because of
impotence, which represents
the guilt over sex. The white
lily relates to the virgin but in
this painting, represents
something sexual. Curvilinear
lines show us his interest in Art
Nouveau. Looks organic,
making it look like it belongs to
nature. The little man
represents humaninty.
Dali Lugubrious
Beings, 1921

On the left side, there is a


sculpture. It is geometrically
shaped which represents
rationality and mathematics. Dali
communicates using jokes about
the enlightenment. He feels that
humankind is not enlightened but
really stupid. On the right corner,
one sees a figure that represents
sexuality, making man’s nature
on the right. The female figure
covers her face with
foreshortened hand, when we do
this, one feels shame and guilt.
The handkerchief with blood
represents her loss of virginity.
She has sinned. The enlarged
hand represents masturbation.
The man that is defecating has
pooped in his pants. It’s relevance
to children who can’t hold in their
poop and they have joy in letting
it go. The staircase is in dreams
(Freud) represents sexuality. The
worm represents impotence.
Dali, The
persistence of
memory, 1931

Watches associate to time


which associates eith


measurements and associates
with rationality. Time is a
construct. Time and space is a
theory. Time doesn’t mean
anything, for it is not real. The
dead tree represents
civilization and civilization
means death.
Dali, the enigma of
William Tell. 1933

It is about the relationship of


his father. The painting makes
no sense at all. He associates
his father with William Tell. The
head is of Lenon. This was
attacking the Marxist thoughts
of World War II and the Russian
RevThe figure is holding a child
and meat. This represents
sacrifice and this is a reference
biblical story of Abraham and
Issac.

Look at your notes :/



Dali, Soft
Construction with
Boiled Beans. 1936


Dali, Sleep, 1937
Dali, Christ of St.
John of the Cross.
1951
William de
Kooning. Woman I.
1950-1952
William de
Kooning. Painting,
1948
Arshile Gorky, The
Artist and His
Mother. 1926
Arshile Gorky, Liver
is the Cock’s Comb.
1944
Franz Kline,
Mahoning, 1956
Jackson Pollock,
Number 1 Lavender
Mist, 1950
Jackson Pollock,
Guardians of the
Secret, 1943
Jackson Pollock,
Portrait and a
Dream, 1953
Mark Rothko, No.
18. 1948
Rothko, Untitled,
1949
Barnett Newman,
Genesis, the break.
1946
Barnett Newman,
vir Heroicus
Sublimis, 1950-51
Adolph Gottlieb,
orb, 1964
Hans Hofman, The
Gates, 1959-1960
Hans Hofman,
Effecvercenza
1944
Joseph Beuys, How
to Explain Pictures
to Dead Hare, 1965
Joseph Beuys,
Talking to Coyote,
1974
Andy Warhol, 210
coca Cola Bottles,
1962
Allan Kaprow, Tires
Happening, 1961
Allan Kaprow,
Installation
John, Painted
Bronzes, 1960
D’arcangelo,
Fullmoon, 1963
Lichtenstein, I
know how you
must feel, 1960
Mel Ramos,
Chaquita, 1964
Kieholtz, The
Hospital, 1966
D’Archangelo,
Marilyn, 1962
Hamilton, What is it
that makes Today’s
heroes so different.
So Appealing, 1956
Joseph Beuys, fat
chair, 1984
Joseph Beuys,
Piano Covered with
Felt, 1966
Christo, Florida,
1976
Chirsto and Jean-
Claude, Running
Fence
Robert Smithson,
Spiral Jetty, 1970
Richard Smithson,
Nonsite, 1968
Jeff Koons, Michael
Jackson and
Bubbles. 1988
Barbara Kruger, I
shop therefore I
am, 1987