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Learn Software Testing &

Prepare for ISTQB Foundation Certification Exam


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Contents
Part - 1: Quality

Part - 2: Software Testing & Development Models

Part - 3: Different Stages of SDLC with STLC

Part - 4: Testing Techniques

Part - 5: Types of Testing

Part - 6: Testing Life Cycle

Part - 7: Defects Management

Part - 8: Test Automation
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Quality has two elements

QA - Quality Assurance

QC - Quality Control
Part 1: Quality
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Quality from the

Customers Viewpoint Fitness for use, or other customer needs

Producers Viewpoint Meeting requirements
What is Quality ?
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Software quality includes activities related to both

Process, and the
Product

Quality Assurance is about the work process

Quality Control is about the product
Quality Function
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Quality assurance activities are work process oriented.

They measure the process, identify deficiencies, and suggest improvements.

The direct results of these activities are changes to the process.

These changes can range from better compliance with the process to entirely
new processes.

The output of quality control activities is often the input to quality assurance
activities.

Audits are an example of a QA activity which looks at whether and how the
process is being followed. The end result may be suggested improvements or
better compliance with the process.
What is Quality Assurance?
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Quality control activities are work product oriented.

They measure the product, identify deficiencies, and suggest improvements.

The direct results of these activities are changes to the product.

These can range from single-line code changes to completely reworking a
product from design.

They evaluate the product, identify weaknesses and suggest improvements.

Testing and reviews are examples of QC activities since they usually result in
changes to the product, not the process.

QC activities are often the starting point for quality assurance (QA) activities.
What is Quality Control?
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Prevention is better than cure . . .

. . . but not everything can be prevented!
Cure
Detection
Prevention
Prevention and Detection
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QA
Assurance
Process
Preventive
Quality Audit
QC
Control
Product
Detective
Testing
QA and QC Broad Difference
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Does this software product work as advertised?
Functionality, Performance, System & User Acceptance ...
Testing



Will the users be able to do their jobs using this product?
Installability, Compatibility, Load/Stress ... Testing



Can they bet their business on this software product?
Reliability, Security, Scalability ... testing
Quality... its all about the End-User
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Real World Software Testing
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Testing

What is testing

Objectives of Testing
Part 2: Testing
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Definition:

Testing is process of trying to discover every conceivable fault or
weakness in a work product.

Testing is a process of executing a program with the intent of finding an
error.

A good test is one that has a high probability of finding an as yet
undiscovered error.

A successful test is one that uncovers an as yet undiscovered error

What is Testing?
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Testing is a process used to identify the correctness, completeness and
quality of developed computer software. Testing, apart from finding errors,
is also used to test performance, safety, fault-tolerance or security.

Software testing is a broad term that covers a variety of processes
designed to ensure that software applications function as intended, are
able to handle the volume required, and integrate correctly with other
software applications.
What is Testing?
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What are the right things to test?
Are you testing an entire product or some components?
Which functions are critical for a product?
Which functions are highly visible when they fail?
Which functions have been highly error-prone?
Which functions are most often used?
Which functions are changed most often / recently?
Which functions suffered turnover of employees?
Where is high geographic distribution of work?
Which functions require new skills / technology?

Looks Impossible to do it all!
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Objective of testing is to find all possible bugs (defects) in a work
product

Testing should intentionally attempt to make things go wrong to
determine if things happen when they shouldn't or things don't happen
when they should.
What is objective of Testing?
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Setting up criteria for testing
Criteria can be at phase level

Entry Criteria
Parallelism Vs Ready for use

Exit Criteria
Completeness Vs Risk of release

Suspension Criteria
Show stopper bugs
Crossing a threshold number of bugs
Developers producing a new version making the old one redundant

Resumption Criteria
Above hurdles being cleared

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General Testing Principles
Testing shows presence of Defect
Exhaustive Testing is Impossible
Early Testing
Defect Clustering
Pesticide Paradox
Testing is context dependent
Absence-of-error fallacy
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Identify defects
when the software doesnt work

Verify that it satisfies specified requirements
verify that the software works
Summary
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A mature view of software testing is to see it as a process of reducing
the risk of software failure in the field to an acceptable level [Bezier 90].
Mature view of software testing
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The Goal of a software tester is to find defects

And find them as early as possible.
What exactly Does a Software Tester Do?
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Testers hunt errors
Detected errors are celebrated - for the good of the work product

Testers are destructive - but creatively so
Testing is a positive and creative effort of destruction

Testers pursue errors, not people
Errors are in the work product, not in the person who made the mistake

Testers add value
by discovering errors as early as possible

What does testing mean to testers?
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By examining the users requirements, internal structure and design,
functional user interface etc

By executing the code, application software executable etc

How testers do it?
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Waterfall Model for Testing
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Simple and easy to use.

Easy to manage due to the rigidity of the model each phase has specific
deliverables and a review process.

Phases are processed and completed one at a time.

Works well for smaller projects where requirements are very well understood.
Advantages of Waterfall Model
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Adjusting scope during the life cycle can kill a project

No working software is produced until late during the life cycle.

High amounts of risk and uncertainty.

Poor model for complex and object-oriented projects.

Poor model where requirements are at a moderate to high risk of changing.

Disadvantages of Waterfall Model
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It is a process of establishing requirements, designing, building and testing
a system, done as a series of smaller development

Increment produced by Iteration is tested at several levels as part of its
development

Regression testing is important after all iterations

Verification and verification can be carried outs on each iteration
Disadvantages of Waterfall Model
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W-Model for Testing

Simple and easy to use.

Each phase has specific deliverables.

Higher chance of success over the waterfall model due to the development
of test plans early on during the life cycle.

Works well for small projects where requirements are easily understood.
Advantages of W - Model
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Very rigid, like the waterfall model.

Little flexibility and adjusting scope is difficult and expensive.

Software is developed during the implementation phase, so no early
prototypes of the software are produced.

Model doesnt provide a clear path for problems found during testing phases.
Disadvantages of W - Model
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Stages of SDLC with STLC
Part 3: Different stages of SDLC with STLC
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Different stages of SDLC with STLC
Stage-1 Requirement Gathering

DA: Defining requirements to establish specifications is the first
step in the development of software.

TA: Reviewing the requirements e.g the requirements should not
have ambiguous words like (may or may not). It should be clear
and concise.
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Stage-2 Functional Specification

DA: It describes the products behaviors as seen by an external
observer, and contains the technical information and data needed
for the design. The functional specification defines what the
functionality will be

TA: In order to make the functional specifications accurate we have
review our functional specifications.
Different stages of SDLC with STLC
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Stage-3 Design

DA: The software specifications are transformed in to design
models that describe the details of the data structures, system
architecture, interface and the components.

TA: Each design product is reviewed for quality before moving the
next phase of the software development.
Different stages of SDLC with STLC
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Stage-4 Code

DA: In this phase the designs are translated into code.

TA: Code review is a process of verifying the source code. Code
review is done the find and fix the defects that are overlooked in the
initial development phase, to improve overall quality of code.
Different stages of SDLC with STLC
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Stage-5 Building Software

DA: In this phase we build different software units and integrate
them one by one to build single software.

TA: Unit testing & Integration testing
Different stages of SDLC with STLC
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Stage-6 Building system

DA: After the software has been build we have the whole system
considering all the non-functional requirements like installation
procedure, configuration etc.

TA: System testing & Acceptance testing
Different stages of SDLC with STLC
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Stage-7 Release for use

After the whole product has been developed and the required level
of quality has been achieved and the software is release for the
actual use of the customers.
Different stages of SDLC with STLC
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Testing Techniques
Verification and Validation

Part 4: Testing Techniques
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Reviews

Walkthrough

Inspection
Verification
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Find all the missing information

Who
What
Where
When
Why
How
Verification What to Look For?
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Simply giving a document to a colleague and asking them to look at it
closely which will identify defects we might never find on our own.
Peer Review
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Informal meetings, where participants come to the meeting;and the author
gives the presentation.

Objective:
To detect defects and become familiar with the material
Elements:
A planned meeting where only the presenter must prepare
A team of 2-7 people, led by the author
Author usually the presenter.
Inputs:
Element under examination, objectives for the walkthroughs
applicable standards.
Output:
Defect report

Walkthrough
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Formal meeting, characterized by individual preparation by all participants
prior to the meeting.

Objectives:
To obtain defects and collect data.
To communicate important work product information .

Elements:
A planned, structured meeting requiring individual preparation by all
participants.
A team of people, led by an impartial moderator who assure that
rules are being followed and review is effective.
Presenter is reader other than the author.
Other participants are inspectors who review,
Recorder to record defects identified in work product

Inspection
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An important tool specially in formal meetings like inspections

They provide maximum leverage on on verification

There are generic checklists that can be applied at a high level and
maintained for each type of inspection

There are checklists for requirements,functional design specifications,
internal design specifications, for code
Checklists : the verification tool
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There are two main strategies for validating software

White Box testing

Black Box testing
Validation Strategies
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White Box Testing

Deals with the internal logic and structure of the code

The tests are written based on the white box testing strategy
incorporate coverage of the code written, branches, paths,
statements and internal logic of the code etc.

Normally done the developers
Validation Strategies
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White Box Testing can be done by:

Data Coverage

Code Coverage
White Box testing Methods
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Date Coverage
Data flow is monitored or examined through out the program. E.g.
watch window we use to monitor the values of the variables and
expressions.
White Box testing Methods
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Code Coverage

Its a process of finding areas of a program not exercised by a set
of test cases,

Creating additional test cases to increase coverage

Code coverage can be implemented using basic measure like,
statement coverage, decision coverage, condition coverage and
path coverage
White Box testing Methods
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Black Box Testing

Does not need any knowledge of internal design or code

Its totally based on the testing for the requirements and functionality
of the work product/software application.

Tester is needed to be thorough with the requirement specifications
of the system and as a user, should know how the system should
behave in response to the particular action.
Validation Strategies
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The following are commonly used Black Box methods :

Equivalence partitioning

Boundary-value analysis

Error guessing
Black Box testing Methods
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An equivalence class is a subset of data that is representative of a
larger class.

Equivalence partitioning is a technique for testing equivalence classes
rather than undertaking exhaustive testing of each value of the larger
class.
Equivalence Partitioning
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If we expect the same result from two tests, you consider them equivalent.
A group of tests from an equivalence class if,

They all test the same thing

If one test catches a bug, the others probably will too

If one test doesnt catch a bug, the others probably wont either
Equivalence Partitioning
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For example, a program which edits credit limits within a given range
($10,000-$15,000) would have three equivalence classes:

Less than $10,000 (invalid)

Between $10,000 and $15,000 (valid)

Greater than $15,000 (invalid)
Equivalence Partitioning
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Partitioning system inputs and outputs into equivalence sets

If input is a 5-digit integer between 10,000 and 99,999 equivalence
partitions are <10,000, 10,000-99,999 and >99,999

The aim is to minimize the number of test cases required to cover these
input conditions
Equivalence Partitioning
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Equivalence classes may be defined according to the following guidelines:

If an input condition specifies a range, one valid and two invalid
equivalence classes are defined.

If an input condition requires a specific value, then one valid and two
invalid equivalence classes are defined.

If an input condition is Boolean, then one valid and one invalid equivalence
class are defined.
Equivalence Partitioning
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Divide the input domain into classes of data for which test cases can be
generated.
Attempting to uncover classes of errors.
Based on equivalence classes for input conditions.
An equivalence class represents a set of valid or invalid states
An input condition is either a specific numeric value, range of values, a
set of related values, or a Boolean condition.
Equivalence classes can be defined by:
If an input condition specifies a range or a specific value, one valid and
two invalid equivalence classes defined.
If an input condition specifies a Boolean or a member of a set, one valid
and one invalid equivalence classes defined.
Test cases for each input domain data item developed and executed.
Equivalence Partitioning Summary
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Bugs lurk in corners and congregate at boundaries
Boris Beizer

Boundary value analysis
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A technique that consists of developing test cases and data that focus
on the input and output boundaries of a given function.

In same credit limit example, boundary analysis would test:

Low boundary plus or minus one ($9,999 and $10,001)

On the boundary ($10,000 and $15,000)

Upper boundary plus or minus one ($14,999 and $15,001)
Boundary value analysis
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Large number of errors tend to occur at boundaries of the input domain
BVA leads to selection of test cases that exercise boundary values
BVA complements equivalence partitioning. Rather than select any element in
an equivalence class, select those at the ''edge' of the class
Examples:
For a range of values bounded by a and b, test (a-1), a, (a+1), (b-1), b, (b+1)
If input conditions specify a number of values n, test with (n-1), n and (n+1)
input values
Apply 1 and 2 to output conditions (e.g., generate table of minimum and
maximum size)
Boundary value analysis
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Example: Loan application
Customer Name
Account number
Loan amount requested
Term of loan
Monthly repayment


Term:
Repayment:
Interest rate:
Total paid back:
6 digits, 1st
non-zero
500 to 9000
1 to 30 years
Minimum 10





2-64 chars.
Account number
5 6 7
invalid
valid
invalid
Number of digits:
First character:
invalid: zero
valid: non-zero
Conditions
Valid
Partitions
Invalid
Partitions
Valid
Boundaries
Invalid
Boundaries
Account
number
6 digits
1st non-zero
< 6 digits
> 6 digits
1st digit = 0
non-digit
100000
999999
5 digits
7 digits
0 digits
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Based on the theory that test cases can be developed based upon the
intuition and experience of the Test Engineer

For example, in an example where one of the inputs is the date, a test
engineer might try February 29,2000 or 9/9/99
Error Guessing
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Part 5: Various Types of Testing
Validation is done at two levels
Low Level
Unit testing
Integration Testing

High Level
Function Testing
System Testing
Acceptance Testing

Validation Activities
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Searches for defect and verifies the functionality of software, depending
upon the context of the development

It includes testing of functional and non-functional characteristics

It occurs with access to code being tested and with the support of
development environment

Defects are fixed as soon as they are found with out formally recording
incident

If test cases are prepared and automated before coding, it is termed as
test-first approach or test-driven development.
Unit Testing
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Integration Testing
Integration testing tests interface between components, interaction to
different parts of system.

Greater the scope of Integration, more it becomes to isolate failures to
specific component or system, which may leads to increased risk.

Integration testing should normally be integral rather than big bang, in
order to reduce the risk of late defect discovery

Non functional characteristics (e.g. performance) may be included in
Integration Testing

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Function Testing
It is used to detect discrepancies between a programs functional
specification and the actual behavior of an application.

The goal of function testing is to verify whether your product meets the
intended functional specifications laid out the development documentation.

When a discrepancy is detected, either the program or the specification is
incorrect.

All the black box methods are applicable to function based testing
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It is concerned with the behavior of whole system as defined by the scope
of development project

It includes both functional and non-functional requirement of system

System testing falls within the scope of black box testing.

On building the entire system, it needs to be tested against the system
specification.

An Independent testing team may carry out System Testing


System Testing
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Usability testing
Performance Testing
Load Testing
Stress Testing
Security Testing
Configuration Testing
Compatibility Testing
Installability Testing
Recovery Testing
Availability Testing
Volume Testing


System Testing Types
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Usability Testing
The typical aim of usability testing is to cause the application to fail to
meet its usability requirements so that the underlying defects can be
identified, analyzed, fixed, and prevented in the future.

Performance testing is testing to ensure that the application response
in the limit set by the user.

Performance Testing
Subject the system to extreme pressure in a short span.
E.g Simultaneous log-on of 500 users
Saturation load of transactions


Stress Testing
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Configuration Testing
Configuration testing is the process of checking the operation of the
software you are testing with all these various types of hardware.


Compatibility Testing
The purpose of compatibility testing is to evaluate how well software
performs in a particular hardware, software, operating system, browser
or network environment.


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Acceptance Testing
Acceptance testing may assess the system readiness for deployment
and use

The goal is to establish confidence in the system, parts of system or
non-functional characteristics of the system

Following are types of Acceptance Testing:

User Acceptance Testing
Operational Testing
Contract and Regulation Acceptance Testing
Alpha and Beta Testing
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In development Testing, main objective is to cause as many failures as
possible.

In Acceptance Testing, main objective is to confirm that system work
as expected.

In Maintenance Testing, main objective is to make sure that no new
errors have been introduced.

In Operational testing, main objective may be to access system
characteristics such as reliability and availability.

Objectives of Different Types of Testing
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Other Testing Types
Other than validation activities like unit, integration, system and
acceptance we have the following other types of testing

Mutation testing
Progressive testing
Regression testing
Retesting
Localization testing
Internationalization testing



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Mutation testing is a process of adding known faults intentionally, in a
computer program to monitor the rate of detection and removal, and
estimating the umber of faults remaining in the program. It is also called
Be-bugging or fault injection.
Mutation testing
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Most test cases, unless they are truly throw-away, begin as progressive
test cases and eventually become regression test cases for the life of
the product.
Progressive Testing and Regressive Testing
Regression testing is not another testing activity
It is a re-execution of some or all of the tests developed for a specific
testing activity for each build of the application
Verify that changes or fixes have not introduced new problems
It may be performed for each activity (e.g. unit test, function test,
system test etc)
Regression Testing
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Testing software that has been tested before.

Why?
Peripheral testing for bug fixes
Retesting the old version functionality with the new version
Regression Test
Why retest?
Because any software product that is actively used and supported
must be changed from time to time, and every new version of a
product should be retested

Retesting
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The process of adapting software to a specific locale, taking into account, its
language, dialect, local conventions and culture is called localization.

Localization Testing
The process of designing an application so that it can be adapted to various
languages and regions without engineering changes.
Internationalization Testing
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Test Types : The Target of Testing
Testing of functions (functional testing)

It is the testing of what the system does
Functional testing considers external behavior of the system
Functional testing may be performed at all test levels

Testing of software product characteristics (non-functional testing)

It is the testing of How the system works
Nonfunctional testing describes the test required to measure
characteristics of systems and s/w that can be quantified on varying
scale
Non-functional testing may be performed at all levels
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Testing of software structure/architecture (structural testing)

Structural testing is used in order to help measure the thoroughness of
testing through assessment of coverage of a type of structure
Structural testing may be performed at all levels.

Testing related to changes (confirmation and regression testing)

When a defect is detected and fixed then the software should be retested
to confirm that the original defects has been successfully removed. This is
called Confirmation testing
Regression Testing is the repeated testing of an already tested program,
after modification, to discover any defects as a result of changes.
Regression Testing may be performed at all levels.

Test Types : The Target of Testing
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Software Development and Software Testing Life Cycle
Part-6 : Software Development & STLC
It is the process of defining a testing project such that it can be properly
measured and controlled

It includes test plan, test strategy, test requirements and testing
resources
Test Planning
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Parts of Test Planning
Commn
Mgmt
Risk
Mgmt
Test Script
And
Scheduling
Identifying
Test
Deliverables Identifying
Env needs
Identifying
Skill sets /
Trng
Setting
Entry / Exit
Criteria

Deciding
Test
Strategy
Scope
Mgmt
Preparing
A Test
Plan
Test
Planning
Start
Here
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It is the process of defining test procedures and test cases that verify
that the test requirements are met

Specify the test procedures and test cases that are easy to implement,
easy to maintain and effectively verify the test requirements.
Test Design
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Test Design Techniques
During Test Design, the test basis documentation is analyzed in order to
determine what to test i.e test condition
A test condition is defined as an item that could be verified by one or more
test cases
Test case consist of a set of input values, execution preconditions,
expected results and expected post conditions; are developed and
described by using test design techniques
Expected results should ideally be defined prior to test execution
Test cases are put in an executable order, this is test procedure
specification
If tests are run using test execution tool, the sequence of actions is
specified in a test script
The test procedures and automated test scripts are subsequently formed
into a test execution schedule
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Specification (White-box) Based techniques
Models, either formal or informal; are used for the specification of problem
to be solved
From these models test cases can be derived systematically

Structure (Black-box) Based techniques
Information about how the software is constructed is used to derive the test
cases
The extent of coverage of the software can be measured for existing test
cases and further test cases can be derived systematically

Experienced Based techniques
The knowledge and experience of people are used to derive test cases
Knowledge about likely defects and their distribution
Categories of Test Design Techniques
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Specification based/White Box techniques
Equivalence Partitioning
Boundary value analysis
Decision Table (Cause and Effect) Testing
Use case Testing

Structure/Black Box based techniques
Code Coverage
Branch Coverage
Statement Coverage

100% decision coverage guarantees 100% statement coverage,
but not vice-versa
Categories of Test Design Techniques
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Test Planning is a continuous activity and is performed in all the life cycle
processes and activities

Test Planning activities includes:
Defining the overall approach
Integrating and coordinating the testing activities into software life cycle
activities
Assigning resources for different tasks defined
Defining the amount, level of detail, structure and templates for test
documentation
Selecting metrics for monitoring and controlling test preparation
Making decisions about what to test, what roles will perform the test
activities, when and how test activities should be done, how the test
results will be evaluated and when to stop the testing
Test Management
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Exit Criteria Defines when to stop testing

Exit criteria may consist of
Thoroughness measures, such as coverage of code, functionality
or risk
Estimates of defect density or reliability measures
Cost
Residual risk
Schedules such as those based on time to market


Test Management
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Risk is defined as combination of likelihood and its impact it would
have on the user.

Risk and Testing
The level of risk will be determined by the likelihood of an adverse
event happening and the impact

Risk associated with testing can be classified in two categories:

Project Risk: The risks that surround the projects capability to deliver
its objective

Product Risk: Potential failures in the software or system are known
as product risk, as they are a risk to the quality of the product
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Suppliers Issues
Failure of a third party
Contractual Issues
Organizational Factors
Skill and staff shortage
Personal and training issues
Potential issues, such as problem with testers communication, failure
to follow up the information found in Testing
Improper attitude towards testing
Technical Issues
Problem in defining the right requirement
The extent that requirements can be met given existing constraints
Quality of design, code and tests
Project Risk Objectives
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Product Risks Objective
Error prone software delivered
Potential that the software/hardware could cause harm to
company/individual
Poor software characteristics
Software that does not perform its intended functions

A risk based approach to testing provides proactive opportunities
to reduce the levels of product risks, starting in the initial stages of
project
Product Risk Objectives
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It is the process of creating test procedures and test cases
that verify the test requirements

Automated Testing using Tools

Manual Testing
Test Development
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The basis of test is the source material (of the product under test) that
provide the stimulus for the test. In other words, it is the area targeted
as the potential source of an error:

Requirements-based tests are based on the requirements document

Function-based tests are based on the functional design specification

Internal-based tests are based on the internal design specification or
code.

Function-based and internal-based tests will fail to detect situations
where requirements are not met. Internal-based tests will fail to detect
errors in functionality
Test Basis
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An activity in which a system or component is executed under specified
conditions, the result are observed or recorded, and an evaluation is
made of some aspect of the system or component.

A set of one or more test cases.
Test
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Definition of result
A necessary part of a test case is a definition of the expected output or
result.

Repeatability



Two basic requirements for all validation tests
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To arrive at use cases, review the requirement statements; extract
noun and verb pairs as use case "candidates".

Following are few use case candidates.

Organize photos into galleries
Review thumbnails
Expand thumbnail
Contact photographer
Upload photos
Include bio and contact info


Use Case
One use case is expanded into "actors" and "steps" to give you a
feel for the level of detail in a use case.
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Actor

Step

Photographer

Selects photo to be uploaded.

Photographer

Selects gallery that photo should be uploaded to or creates a new
gallery.

Photographer

Provides photo details such as camera, f-stop, shutter speed,
focal length and artistic comments.

Photographer

Reviews posting.

Photographer

Changes or approves the posting.

Photographer

Reviews posting on website.

Photographer

Changes or deletes posting, if necessary.

Use Case
Following matrix can be used to "trace" requirement statements to this
use case.



Requirement ID

Use Case

SRS0006

Upload Photos

Use Case
The above trace-ability matrix tells that the use case "Upload Photos" satisfies the
requirement SR0006 (Easy to upload photos, create galleries and enter info about
the photo).
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Actor

Step

Rqt ID

Photographer

Selects photo to be uploaded.

SRS0006

Photographer

Selects gallery that photo should be uploaded to or
creates new gallery.

SRS0006

Photographer

Provides photo details such as camera, f-stop, shutter
speed, focal length and artistic comments.

SRS0006

Photographer

Reviews posting.

SRS0006

Photographer

Changes or approves the posting.

SRS0006

Photographer

Reviews posting on website.

SRS0006

Photographer

Changes or deletes posting, if necessary.

SRS0006

Use Case
A set of test inputs, execution conditions, and expected results developed
for a particular objective

The smallest entity that is always executed as unit, from beginning to end

A test case is a document that describes an input, action, or event and an
expected response, to determine if a feature of an application is working
correctly

A test case should contain particulars such as test case identifier, test case
name, objective, test conditions/setup, input data requirements, steps, and
expected results

Test case may also include prerequisites
Test Case
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A "test case" is another name for "scenario". It is a particular situation
to be tested, the objective or goal of the test script. For example, in an
ATM banking application, a typical scenario would be: "Customer
deposits cheque for $1000 to an account that has a balance of $150,
and then attempts to withdraw $200".

Every Test Case has a goal; that is, the function to be tested. Quite
often the goal will begin with the words "To verify that ..." and the rest of
the goal is a straight copy of the functional test defined in the
Traceability Matrix. In the banking example above, the goal might be
worded as "To verify that error message 63 ('Insufficient cleared funds
available') is displayed when the customer deposits a cheque for $1000
to an account with a balance of $150, and then attempts to withdraw
$200".
Test Case
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The structure of test cases is one of the things that stays remarkably the
same regardless of the technology being tested. The conditions to be tested
may differ greatly from one technology to the next, but you still need to know
three basic things about what you plan to test:

ID #: This is a unique identifier for the test case. The identifier does not imply
a sequential order of test execution in most cases. The test case ID can also
be intelligent. For example, the test case ID of ORD001 could indicate a test
case for the ordering process on the first web page.

Condition: This is an event that should produce an observable result. For
example, in an e-commerce application, if the user selects an overnight
shipping option, the correct charge should be added to the total of the
transaction. A test designer would want to test all shipping options, with each
option giving a different amount added to the transaction total.
Test Case Components
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Procedure: This is the process a tester needs to perform to invoke the
condition and observe the results. A test case procedure should be limited to
the steps needed to perform a single test case.
Expected Result: This is the observable result from invoking a test
condition. If you cant observe a result, you cant determine if a test passes
or fails. In the previous example of an e-commerce shipping option, the
expected results would be specifically defined according to the type of
shipping the user selects.
Pass/Fail: This is where the tester indicates the outcome of the test case.
For the purpose of space, I typically use the same column to indicate both
"pass" (P) and "fail" (F). In some situations, such as the regulated
environment, simply indicating pass or fail is not enough information about
the outcome of a test case to provide adequate documentation. For this
reason, some people choose to also add a column for "Observed Results."
Test Case Components
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Defect Number Cross-reference: If you identify a defect in the
execution of a test case, this component of the test case gives you a
way to link the test case to a specific defect report.

A customer may select one of the following options for shipping when
ordering products. The shipping cost will be based on product price
before sales tax and the method of shipment according to the table
below.
If no shipping method is selected, the customer receives an error
message, "Please select a shipping option." The ordering process
cannot continue until the shipping option has been selected and
confirmed.


Sample Business rule
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An excellent test case satisfies the following criteria:

It has a reasonable probability of catching an error
It is not redundant
Its the best of its breed
It is neither too simple nor too complex
Characteristics of a Good Test
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It is the process of running a set of test procedures against
target software build of the application under test and logging
the results.

Automation
Test Execution
It is the process of reviewing the results of a test to determine
if the test criteria are being met.

Test Evaluation
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Requirements-based tests should employ the black-box strategy. User
requirements can be tested without knowledge of the internal design
specification or the code.

Function-based tests should employ the black-box strategy. Using the
functional-design specification to design function-based tests is both
necessary and sufficient.

Internal-based tests must necessarily employ the white-box strategy.
Tests can be formulated by using the functional design specification.

What should our overall validation
strategies be?
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Part 7: Defect Management
A flaw in a system or system component that causes the system or component to
fail to perform its required function. - SEI

A defect, if encountered during execution, may cause a failure of the system.
What is definition of defect?
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The purpose of finding defects is to get them fixed

The prime benefit of testing is that it results in improved quality. Bugs
get fixed

The purpose of finding defects
There are various reasons for the occurance of the faults; it may be due to

Poor documentation
Ambiguous or unclear requirements
Lack of programming skills
Due to increase in work pressure and assigned deadlines


Why do defects occurs
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New: When a bug is found/revealed for the first time, the software
tester communicates it to his/her team leader in order to confirm if that
is a valid bug. After getting confirmation from the test lead the software
tester logs the bug and the status of New is assigned to the bug.

Assigned: after the bug is reported as New it comes to the
development team. The development team verifies if the bug is valid. If
the bug is valid, development leader assigns it to a developer to fix it
and a status of assigned is assigned to it.

Open: Once the developer starts working on the bug, he/she changes
the status of the bug to Open to indicate that he/she is working on it to
find a solution.

Status associated with a defect
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Fixed: Once the developer makes necessary changes in the code, he/she
marks the bug as Fixed and passes it over to the development Lead in
order to pass it to the testing team.

Pending retest: After the bug is fixed, it is passed back to the testing
team to get retested and the status of Pending Retest is assigned to it.

Retest: The testing team leader changes the status of the bug, which is
previously marked with Pending Retest to Retest and assigns it to a
tester for retesting.

Closed: After the bug is assigned a status of Retest, it is again tested. If
the problem is solved, the tester closes it and mark it with closed status.

Reopen

Rejected

Status associated with a defect
Defect Discovery
Defect Discovery Process

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Defect Resolution
Defect Resolution Process

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Defect Life Cycle
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When a tester reports a Defect, it is tracked through the following stages:
New, Open, Fixed, and Closed. A defect may also be Rejected, or
Reopened after it is fixed. A defect may be Deferred for a look at a later
point of time.

By default a defect is assigned the status New.

A quality assurance or project manager reviews the defect, and
determines whether or not to consider the defect for repair. If the defect is
refused, it is assigned the status Rejected.

If the defect is accepted, the quality assurance or project manager
determines a repair priority, changes its status to Open, and assigns it to
a member of the development team.

Defect Life Cycle
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A developer repairs the defect and assigns it the status Fixed.

Tester retests the application, making sure that the defect does not
recur. If the defect recurs, the quality assurance or project manager
assigns it the status Reopened.

If the defect is actually repaired, it is assigned the status Closed.
Defect Life Cycle
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Defect Life Cycle Paths
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Defect Life Cycle Paths
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Defect Classification
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Defect Classification
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How many testers do we need to
change a light bulb?
None. Testers just noticed that the room was dark.

Testers don't fix the problems, they just find them
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Report a defect

The point of writing Problem Reports is to get bugs fixed.
What Do You Do When You Find a defect?
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Summary
Date reported
Detailed description
Assigned to
Severity
Detected in Version
Priority
System Info
Status
Reproducible
Detected by
Screen prints, logs, etc.


Some typical defect report fields
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Project Manager
Executives
Development
Customer Support
Marketing
Quality Assurance
Any member of the Project Team
Who reads the defect reports?
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Part 8: Test Automation
Automate tests that absolutely cannot be done manually (e.g., stress test)

Automate those tests that are part of the regression bed / smoke test

Automate tests that are run repeatedly (e.g., tests that are run at least 20
times over the next quarter)

Automate tests with no manual intervention

Automate tests for standards (e.g., JDBC compliance)

Automate tests that are covering areas static but important areas

Automate tests that are covering areas static but important areas

Principles of Test Automation 1: Choose carefully what to automate
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Automate tests for highly visible areas

Minimize automating change-prone areas

Between GUI and non-GUI portion automation, go for automating non-
GUI portions first

Automate tests for dependencies to catch ripple effects early

Automate areas where multiple combos are possible (pros and cons)

Automate areas that are re-usable

Automate easy areas to show low hanging fruits
Part 8: Test Automation
Principles of Test Automation
# 1: Choose carefully what to automate
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Principles of Test Automation
# 2: Ensure Automation Covers Full Circle
Plan
Do Check
Act
Automatic Analysis
Fish Bone Diagrams
Problem Identification
Test Capture
Test Execution
Results Comparison
Test Planning
Automation Planning

Corrective Action
Implementation
Automatic Rollover
to next runs
Incorporation into
Regression
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Compatibility to Platform
Portability across platforms
Integration with TCDB, DR and SCM
2-way mapping to source code (may not be possible in services)
Scripting Language
Compatible to Multiple Programming Environments
Configurability
Test Case Reusability
Selective Execution
Smart Comparison
Reliable Support
Current documentation

Principles of Test Automation
# 3: Choose Proper Automation Tool
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Resources for Installation
Resources for ongoing execution
People Resources
Principles of Test Automation
# 4: Plan for Infrastructure
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Training
Development
Testing the Tests
Sync-ing with product version changes
Principles of Test Automation
# 5: Account for Gestation Period
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Start small
Dont try to automate everything at the same time
Allow time for evolving standards

Principles of Test Automation
# 6: Run a Trial & Calibrate the Tool
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Config File Scenarios
Tools
Results
Reports/
Metrics
Test Framework
Test cases
Report Generator
Execute Read
Read
Execute
Modify
Write
Read
Write
Test Automation Components
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Planning
Reqmts
Design
Test Design
Test planning
Test reqmts
Coding
The V - Model of Software Development
Test
Execution
Process of Test Automation
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The W - Model
of Test Automation
Process of Test
Automation
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The work on automation should go in parallel with product
development
The requirements for automation spans over to multiple phases for
multiple releases like the product requirements
The automation can be carried out in parallel with test design
Sometimes the test cases need to be modified to suit the automation
requirements; where automation exist the test cases need not be
elaborate
Where a dedicated team exist for automation, the schedule for
automation can be independent of product releases, with some (tested)
deliverables marked for each product release
Process of Test Automation
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There are plenty of tools available and rarely does one tool meet all the
requirements
The test tools are expensive (both in upfront costs and running costs)
Test tools also require good amount of training and only few vendors
available for training
Training may not always keep pace with new versions of the tools
Test tools expect the users to learn new language/scripts and may not use
standard languages/scripts
Deploying a test tool requires equal amount of effort as deploying a new
product in a company never underestimate the effort and pain involved!

Common Experiences in Test Automation
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Migrating from one test tool to another may be difficult and requires good
amount of effort
Test tools are one generation behind and may not provide backward /
forward compatibility (eg. JAVA SDK support)
Good number of test tools requires their libraries linked with product
binaries Causes portions of the testing to be repeated after those libraries
are removed (eg. Performance)
Test tools are not 100% cross platform They are supported only on some
platforms and the sources generated from these tools may not be
compatible on other
Developing sharewares/public domain test tools may not get same
amount of participation/involvement/support as of standards/products (eg.
As against Linux)
Common Experiences in Test Automation
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The experiences
Test tools may not go through same amount of evaluation for new
requirements (eg Year 2000, 508)
The test tools increases the system requirements and requires the H/W
and S/W to be upgraded at compile/run-time
The test tools are capable of testing only the product, not the impact
because of the product/test tool to the system or network
Good number of test tools cant differentiate between a product failure and
the test suite failure Causing increased analysis time and manual testing

Common Experiences in Test Automation
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The experiences
The test tools may not provide good degree of trouble shooting /
debug/error messages to help in analysis Resulting in increased
printf/log messages in the test suite
The test tools determine the results based on messages and screen co-
ordinates at run-time Intelligence needed to proactively find out the
changes
Common Experiences in Test Automation
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Automation shouldnt be considered as stop-gap arrangement to engage test
engineers (when no test execution, do automation!). Test Automation, like any
other project, should start with the end in mind
A separate team in the organization looking at automation requirements, tool
evaluation and developing generic test suites would add more value (may not
always apply to testing services organization)
Automation doesnt stop with automating the test cases alone. The test suite
needs to be linked with other tools for increased effectiveness (e.g., Test case
database, Defect filing, auto mails, preparing automatic reports, etc)
Automation doesnt stop with recording & playing back the user commands;
Automated tool should be intelligent enough to say what was expected, why a
test case failed and give manual steps to reproduce the problem
Common Pitfalls in Test Automation
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Thank You
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