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# EAL Level 2 Diploma

Unit QETI/003
Electrical Engineering Principles
Session
Star & Delta connections in a
three-phase system

Aims of session
Describe and calculate the basic principle of operation of
polyphase systems.
Objectives of session

## Understand what a star connected system is.

Understand what a delta connected system is.
Understand how to carry out simple calculations

## Understanding the Labelling Used in

Star and Delta Connections.

UL

## It is important to understand and use the correct labelling to avoid mistakes.

Here we have a star connection attached to a delta connection.
UL = Voltage between any two line conductors

## IL = Current in any line conductor

UP = Voltage between any line conductor and neutral
IP = Current in any phase conductor.

## Star Connected System

The phase current and the line current are the same.
We have three line currents, three line voltages, three phase currents and three
phase voltages.

The phase current and the line current are the same; IP = IL
The phase voltage is related to the line voltage by;

## Voltages in a Star System

With voltages in the star system, the earth gives us a base from which to measure other
voltages from. The potential differences between each of the phases and neutral are
shown in the diagram. We have assumed the potential difference is 230V.
The voltages are shown as being 1200 apart as they would be in a generator.

## Calculating the Phase Differences.

We are dealing here with a balanced
system such as the windings in a three
phase motor.
The equation for a balanced load states;

UP =

UL

or UL = 3.Up

## If the phasor diagram was drawn to scale

and the resultant was measured, the
addition of the two phase would be
approximately 400V.

UL = 3.UP
UL = 3 230 = 398V
In balanced star connected system you will always find;
UL = 3.Up
IL = IP

## balanced star connected systems

400
3

= 230.9

So in our general balanced star connected systems we will always find these two
relationships.

## Fill in the table

= 3

2598

1039
31.75

127

13.85

6.9

Phasor Diagrams
We use phasor diagrams to add
the phase voltages together.
To add the phases together we
reverse one of the lines to get the
base angle and then draw the
lines together as in the diagram
opposite.
The voltage has increased
substantially because the two
voltages are not in line with each
other so the resultant voltage is
larger and the angle it forms splits
evenly between the two phases.

Recap

system

## Understanding the Labelling Used in

Star and Delta Connections.

UL

## It is important to understand and use the correct labelling to avoid mistakes.

Here we have a star connection attached to a delta connection.
UL = Voltage between any two line conductors
IL = Current in any line conductor
UP = Voltage between any line conductor and neutral
IP = Current in any phase conductor.

## This time it is the line and phase voltages

that are the same and the line and phase
currents that differ.

## Therefore, for a 400V line voltage, there

will be a 400V phase voltage, which is the
opposite to a star connected system.
UL = UP

## Currents in Delta Connected System

= 3
=

=
In a delta system we are dealing with the currents.
The voltage remains the same whilst the current varies.
The overall line current is found by vector addition of one phase current to another.
However, because each of the phase currents are 120 apart we end up increasing the line
current.

= 3

## Here we have 10A flowing in each phase.

The overall line current is, similar to the voltage in the star connected system, not quite
double each of the phase currents.

## A typical supply is a three-phase four-wire supply.

Splitting up of single-phase loads across a three-phase supply is going to lead to an element of imbalance.
In a three-phase four-wire supply. The wires are grey, black and brown (they are usually labelled for supply
as L1, L2, L3) the fourth is the neutral.
Between each of the three phases to the neutral there is a 230V supply. This is most common in domestic
installations, and is called a single-phase supply.

Aims of session
Describe and calculate the basic principle of operation of
polyphase systems.
Objectives of session

## Understand what a star connected system is.

Understand what a delta connected system is.
Understand how to carry out simple calculations

## This is the end of the Session

not so bad after all was it!!