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MO IVA ION

MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS


THEORY

Propounded the theory in 1943 in ‘A Theory


of Human Motivation’

Put down the concept of prioritization of


human needs in hierarchical order.

Illustrated in the form of a pyramid, with


needs bifurcated in 5 levels
NEED BASED PYRAMID
CRITICISM OF MASLOW’S THEORY

Many thinkers feel that needs can’t be ranked

Hierarchy cannot exist

Needs can arise anytime, and they can be of


any nature

People do not wait for one level of need to get


satisfied before moving on to a higher level

Different levels of needs tackled simultaneously


McGREGOR’S THEORY X AND THEORY Y

Douglas McGregor, from the MIT Sloan School


of Management developed concept in the
1960’s book 'The Human Side Of Enterprise'

Improvement over Maslow’s Needs Theory

Two fundamental approaches to managing


people
MCGREGOR’S THEORY X & THEORY Y

Theory X Theory Y
Dislike Work Like to Work
Need control and force to Can be self disciplined for
make them work objectives they are
committed to
Like to be directed Will accept responsibility
Lack ambition Will come forward with new
ideas
CRITICISM OF McGREGOR’S
THEORY
Seem to represent unrealistic extremes

Most employees and managers fall


somewhere in between these poles

A mix of both styles seemed far more realistic


and pratical

Too rigid
HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION-HYGIENE THEORY

The Pittsburgh Experiment

The opposite of satisfaction is No satisfaction.


HERZBERG’S MOTIVATION-HYGIENE THEORY
CRITICISMS OF THE TWO FACTOR
THEORY

Does not recognize


individual differences.

Failure/ Discontent allows


transfer of blame.

Job satisfaction does not


imply a high level of
motivation or productivity.
MCCLLELAND’S THEORY OF LEARNED
NEEDS

• Need for achievement


(nAch)
• The drive to excel and
succeed.

• Need of affiliation (nAff)


• The desire for
interpersonal
relationships.

• Need for power (nPow)


• The need to influence the
behavior of others.
HIGH N-ACH PEOPLE…

Strong risk appetite.

Work in isolation or with


other high achievers.

Status and recognition


desired.

The Fast and the Furious.


HIGH N-AFFIL PEOPLE…

Image Oriented.

Tendency to conform to
group(s).

Low conflict threshold.

Co-operation over
competition
HIGH N-POW PEOPLE…

Status Oriented.

Desire to exert control


on surrounding entities
and environment.

Two types of power:-


– Personal power.
– Institutional power.
power
EXPECTANCY THEORY

An individual is motivated if he/she believes


that:
A positive correlation exits between effort &
performance
Favourable performance will result in a desired
reward
The reward will satisfy an important need
The desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to
make the effort worthwhile
MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS

E I

Effort Performance Rewards

V
Expectancy (Effort ⇒
Performance)
Instrumentality (Performance ⇒ Personal Goals
Rewards)
Valence (Rewards ⇒ Personal goals)
MOTIVATION A PRODUCT OF PERCEPTIONS

Expectancy Χ Instrumentality Χ Valence

MOTIVATION

JOB
SATISFACTION
ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS

Advantages Limitations

Mental processes Further Testing


Individual
Reliable
differences
Measures
Goal Setting Theory

Goal setting is the process of


motivating employees and clarifying
their role perceptions by establishing
performance objectives.

Goals are targets and objectives


to be achieved in the future
Motivational Source

Indicates what has to be done and how much


effort should be exerted.
Focuses attention on items of organizational
importance.
Encourages better planning and utilization of
resources
Creates a sense of excitement and encourages
employees to prepare a plan of action.
Characteristics of
Motivating Goals

Specificity / Specific Goals

Challenging Goals

Relevant Goals

Feedback
Feedback
Clarifies role perceptions & improves ability
by frequently providing information

Corrects performance problems

Gives information that identifies a gap


between actual and ideal performance
Goal Setting & Feedback

Effects on Person
Goals Directs attention
Specific Energises Performance
Difficult Encourages persistency
Accepted New strategies developed

Feedback
Limitations to Goal Setting
Theory

When workers lack the skills and abilities


needed to perform at a high level.

When workers are given complicated &


difficult tasks that require all of their
attention and require a considerable amount
of learning.

Negotiation of Goals
Guidelines for “SMART”
Goals

Specific
Measurable
Attainable
Results oriented
Time bound
Adam’s Equity Theory

Outcomes Inputs

Salary & Bonus Time worked


Fringe Benefits Effort involved
Social Prestige Units produced
An Equitable Situation

Self Others

$2 $4
= $2 per hour = $2 per hour
1 2
hour hours
Over rated Inequity

Self Others

$2
$3 = $1 per hour
= $3 per hour
1
1
hours
hour
Under rated Inequity

Self Other

$2 $3
= $2 per hour = $3 per hour
1 1 hour
hour
Some Learning….

Pay attention to what employees’


perceive to be fair and equitable
Allow employees to have a “voice”
Employees should have opportunity to
appeal
Organizational changes, promoting
cooperation, etc. can come easier with
equitable outcomes
Failure to achieve equity could be costly
Motivation at Work….

Many a times you lead a team


UP
Competition is and turnover is
LOW
Perhaps you’d like to see more productivity
More Energy
You wish your team was ......
……..Well more of a team
In that case learn to
Fish!
Play
Be There
Make their Day
Choose Your Attitude
CORPORATE SPEAK

“To see a delighted customer & a delighted team at the end of the day is
MOTIVATION for me. However to achieve this, one has to go through the
grind personally and along with the team. It is important that every Team
Leader is self motivated and believes in himself and his abilities; else the
negative vibes very effectively rub off on your team and are visible in the
end results. …..Finally Smile and enjoy your work”
Mr. Kevin Fernandes
Head-Program Mgmt - Tata Tele Services

“Motivation means engaging an employee such that he or she puts their


heart into their work and this comes shining through in his or her
actions…..Organizations that practice sincere motivation are happy places to
work in. Those that manipulate employees and motivate them cannot sustain
a good working atmosphere for long and decline rapidly...”
Mr. Rudolf D’Souza
Sr. General Manager - Eureka Forbes Ltd
Thank You!
This presentation was brought to you by

Sneha Dedhia, Sharon Aranha, Elaine


D’Souza, Christopher D’Souza, Christine
Paul &
Alphonso D’Souza