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# CHE154 (B.

Tech Biotech)

## CHE154: Physical Chemistry for Honors

B. Sc. Biotech. Chemistry Course, Term: II, Session: February 2008 – May 2008

Sr. Lecturer
Department of Chemistry
Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India

Thermodynamics

## Venue: 5-308, LPU

SS Lecture - 1 1
Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics

## Thermodynamics and Energy

Definition of Thermodynamics

## Engineering thermodynamic deals with the principles of energy

and energy conversion in engineering and the thermal properties
of substances as well.

approach

## Statistical Thermodynamics--------microscopic approach

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Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics

## Thermodynamics and Energy

Contents of Thermodynamics

## The Basic Laws of Thermodynamics :

(1) The First Law of Thermodynamics:

## an expression of the quantity relationship

during energy change

## an expression of the quality relationship during

energy change
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Thermodynamics System

## The definition of Thermodynamics System

System : A quantity of matter or a region in
space for study
The real or imaginary surface that separates the
system from its surroundings is called boundary
Anything outside the boundary is called
surrounding

## The boundary can be real or

imaginary; fixed or
changeable, has no thickness
and volume , and does not
contain any substance.

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The Classification of Thermodynamics system

Closed system :
A system that only energy can cross the
boundary but no mass can enter or leave
( also known as control mass )

Opened system :
A system that not only energy but also mass
can cross the boundary (also known as
control volume )

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Isolated system :

## A system that neither energy nor mass can

cross the boundary
(a special closed system)

The Universe

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State and Equilibrium

## Definition: All macroscopic characteristics of a system at one time point

Classification:
Equilibrium state:
any part of the system have the same
characteristics
any characteristics don’t change with
time
Nonequilibrium state:
Conditions of Equilibrium
•Thermal equilibrium
•Mechanical equilibrium
•Chemical equilibrium
•Phase equilibrium

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Properties of System

Definition
Any characteristic of a system is called a
property
Characteristic of property
Related with States but have nothing to do with the
path from one state to another

According to ∮dx = 0
mathematics ：
Classification of property

Intensive property ：
Properties independent of the size of
system, such as ：
temperature, pressure, specific volume

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Extensive property ：

## Properties whose values depend on the size or extent

of system, such as ：
volume, entropy, enthalpy

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The state postulate

## The state of system is described by its properties,But

obviously we don’t need to specify all the properties to fix
a state,Then how many properties are enough to fix a
state?

State postulate

## The state of a simple compressible system is completely

specified by two independent, intensive properties

## A system is called simple compressible

system in the absence of electrical,
gravitational, motion, and surface tension
effects.

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Process and Cycle

Process:
any change that a system undergoes from one equilibrium state to another

Quasi-static process:

## a process proceeds in such manner that the system remains

infinitesimally close to an equilibrium state at all time
Initial state
p
Quasi-static process

final state
nonequilibrium
process

v
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Cycle:

A path-closed process

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Forms of energy

Total energy
The total energy E of a system is the sum of thermal, mechanical, kinetic,
potential, electric,chemical and nuclear energy.

## On a unit mass basis,

e = E/m
1-8-2 Classification of energy
1.Macroscopic form : kinetic energy KE and potential energy PE

mV 2 PE = mgz
KE = and
2
On a unit mass basis

ke =
V2 and pe = gz
2
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Forms of energy

Microscopic form:
relate to the molecular structure of a system and the degree of the
molecular activity. The sum of all the microscopic forms of energy is called
the internal energy, denoted by U or u on a unit mass basis.

## 1-8-3 Expression of total energy

mV 2
E = U + KE + PE = U + + mgz
2
On a unit mass basis

V2
e = u + ke + pe = u + + gz
2
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Pressure
definition
The force exerted by a fluid per unit area
Calculation:
F
P=
A
Unit:
SI: Pa--------N/m2

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1bar=105 Pa
= 0.1 Mpa
=100 kPa

1atm=101,325 Pa
= 101.325 kPa
=1.01325 bar
=14.696 psi

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Gage pressure and vacuum Pressure

## Absolute pressure: the actual pressure at a given position is called the

absolute pressure

manometer

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Gage pressure:The pressure over atmospheric pressure while gas
pressure is larger than that of atmosphere ， expressed by Pg

Pg = Pabs − Patm
Vacuum pressure:The pressure below atmospheric pressure
while gas pressure is smaller than that of
atmosphere ， expressed by Pv

Pv = Patm − Pabs

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I think it is the measure of Temperature
hotness or coldness
Am I right?

What is
temperature?

## If two bodies are in thermal equilibrium with a third

body , they are also in thermal equilibrium each other .

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Thermodynamics definition of temperature

## It’s the property to describe if systems are in thermal equilibrium

Temperature scale
Three factors of Temperature scale ：
• zero point
• two states point ( easily reproducible states )
• Scale

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Formerly called the centigrade scale, in
1948 it was renamed after the Swedish
astronomer A.Celsuis (1701-1744)

## Temperature scale in history named after the German

instrument maker G.Fahrenheit
(1686-1736)
SI: Celsius scale

## English: Fahrenheit scale

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Thermodynamics temperature scale:

## English: Rankine scale

Relations of scales:

T (K ) = T (。C) + 273.15
T (R ) = T (。F) + 459.67

## T (。F) = 1.8T (。C) + 32

T (R ) = 1.8T (K )
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