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# MAGNETIC PROPERTIES OF

MATERIALS

Jesus Romo
1649886

Early days
MAXWELL EQUATIONS
Maxwell Equations
The magnetic parameters
Force exerted by the magnetic field, H, is:
F = V

= Susceptibility, how responsive a material is to and applied magnetic field.

Magnetic field in a selenoid:

H =

The magnetic field strength within a material is known as magnetic induction or magnetic flux density

B=

H
Energy in a magnetized system

E = MB
Permeability of the free space

## = 1.257 x10-6 H/m

= 1 + , permeability

Magnetization Magnetic dipole Moment
M= /V = AI

Quantum Numbers
N Energy Level
L Angular Momentum
M Magnetic Momentum
S Spin Magnetic Number
Bohrs magneton

The moving electron is equivalent to a current loop. A current
loop with area A and current I has a magnetic dipole moment:
= AI
so for the electron above,

=
2

To find the current associated with the electron, notice that the
time for one orbit is,

T =
2

so the current associated with the electron,

Bohrs magneton
The magnetic moment is then,

We can express in terms of the angular momentum L of the
electron.

For electrons in atoms, angular momentum is quantized. It's
component in a particular direction is an integral multiple of:
If

then, = eh/4m is called the Bohr magneton and denoted It's
numerical value is

Magnetic momentum
quantified!
Diamagnetism
All elements with filled shellsCu, Ag, Au.
Small and negative susceptibility.
Paramagnetism

Small and positive susceptibility to magnetic fields. Slightly attracted by a
magnetic field and the material does not retain the magnetic properties when
the external field is removed.
Paramagnetic materialsmagnesium, molybdenum, lithium, and tantalum
Ferromagnetism

High Coercivity and remanensce!
The susceptibility is large; the magnetization
increases massively with H. Above a critical
temperature, the Curie temperature,
paramagnetic behavior is
observed.
Antiferromagnetism
No applyes yet.
Ferrimagnetism
Residual magnetization
Superparamagnetism
No coercivity neither remanensce!

Single domain
and multiple domain

Applications
At present
Spintronics!

In the absence of a magnetic field, spin up and spin down
have the same energy for a free electron. The state
variables for a switch then requires the presence of a
magnetic field.
Spintronics
IMPROVED MAGNETIC RECORDING MEDIA!

Nobel Prize 2007Albert Fert, Giant magnetoresistance
(GMR) was discovered with layered systems of
ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic materials of
nanometer size by Fert and Grnberg in 1988.
Spintronics
Magnetoresistance; the change in the resistance of a
material in the presence of a magnetic field:

Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) was discovered with
layered systems of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic
materials of nanometer size by Fert and Grnberg in
1988, for which they won the 2007 Nobel prize in physics.
The physical origin is due to the diference in the electron
scattering (i.e., the resistance) for electron spins oriented
diferently with respect to the magnetization.
Spintronics
The physical origin is due to the diference in the electron
scattering (i.e., the resistance) for electron spins oriented
differently with respect to the magnetization, the
resistance is smaller when the spin is aligned with the
magnetic field in the nonmagnetic layer, one can assume
there is little resistance. Finally, if the magnetization of the
third layer is the same as for the rest, the current can
easily pass.
Spintronics (GMR Apps)
Hard disk storage has grown by a factor of 107 (surface
density) from 1957 to 2007. Current hard disk drives use
magnetic technology, thereby a read head scans the magnetic
data and changes/reads the magnetic field in between two
ferromagnetic domains.
The domain size is governed by the existence of
ferromagnetism, leading to a domain density of the order of
100 Gb/in2.
However, the practical limit is governed by the size of the read
head. They are currently about 100 nm in length and 0:3 to 1
m in width. The width of the region between adjacent bits,
where the localized magnetic field is present, is between 10
and 100 nm. The magnetic sensor is a sandwich of magnetic
and nonmagnetic metals. A copper spacer layer is only 15
atoms thick.
Magnetic Nanowires
Applications (biological): magnetic separation, biosensing,
drug delivery, cellular probes.
Structural impact: spherical geometry constrain property
engineering. Instead use multisegmented nanoparticles.
Chemical properties: composition, surface
functionalization.
Physical properties: size, shape, composition.
Large, tunable magnetic moments.
Magnetic Recording Process

Discussion & Questions