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What are the 8 main functions of endocrine glands?

1. Metabolism and tissue maturation
2. Ion regulation
3. Water Balance
4. Immune System Regulation
5. Heart Rate / Blood Pressure
6. Blood glucose levels / nutrients
7. Reproductive functions
8. Uterine contractions and lactation
Where is the pituitary gland located and how many
major hormones does it manage?
In the sella turcica of the sphenoid bonej
9 hormones
What is the main connection between the nervous
system and the endocrine system?
Hypothalamus (it regulates the pituitary gland)
Describe the structure of the pituitary?
Posterior= neurohypophysis
continuous with the brain
secretes neurohormones because posterior pituitary is
really an extension of nervous system

Anterior = adenohypophysis
pars tuberalis
pars distalis
pars intermedia
Anterior pituitary secretes hormones
What is a portal system?

What portal system are we interested in with regard
to the endocrine system?
blood vessels that begin in a primary capillary network,
extend some distance and end in a secondary capillary
network.

hypothalamohypophysial portal system
Where does the hypothalamohypophysial portal
system go?
From the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary
It is supplied by arteries that supply the hypothalamus
Describe what happens when utilizing the
hypothalamohypophysial portal system.

1. hypothalamus sends out neurohormones through the primary capillary
network of the hypothalamohypophysial portal system which prompts the
Anterior pituitary to either:
release hormones or
inhibit hormones.
If the anterior pituitary is prompted to release hormones, it does so into the
secondary capillary network where it goes into circulation to reach target
tissue
HORMONE : GHRH
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE
Growth hormone-releasing hormone
peptide
Anterior pituitary
Tells Ant. pit. to secrete more GH
HORMONE : GHIH
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE
Growth hormone-inhibitating hormone (somatostatin)
small peptide
ant. pit.
tells ant. pit. to decrease secretion of GH
HORMONE : TRH
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE
Thyrotropine-releasing hormone
small peptide
ant. pit.
tells ant. pit. to secrete more TSH
HORMONE : CRH
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE
Corticotropin-releasing hormone
peptide
ant. pit.
tells ant. pit. to increase secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone
HORMONE : PIH
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE
Prolactin-inhibiting hormone
unknown
ant. pit
tells ant. pit. to decrease secretion of prolactin
HORMONE: GnRH
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone
small peptide
ant. pit.
tells ant. pit. to increase secretion of LH and FSH

HORMONE : PRH
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE
Prolactin releasing hormone
unknown
ant. pit.
tells ant. pit. to increase the secretion of prolactin
How do neurohormones from the
hypothalamus get to the posterior pituitary?
neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus extend their axons thru
the hypothalamohypophysial tract.
HORMONE : ADH
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE
Antidiuretic hormone
posterior pituitary--small peptide
kidney
increased water reabsorption (less water in urine)
HORMONE : Oxytocin
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE
posterior pituitary=small peptide
Uterus; mammory glands
increased uterine contractions; increased milk expulsion in females
HORMONE: GH
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE
Growth Hormone
Ant. Pit = Protein
Most tissues
Increased growth in tissues
increased amino acid uptake and protein synthesis
increased breakdown of lipids and release of fatty acids from cells
increased glycogen sythesis and increased blood glucose levels
increased somatomedin production

HORMONE : TSH
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone
ant. pit. = glycoprotein
Thyroid gland
Increased thyroid hormone secretion

HORMONE : ACTH
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
ant. pit = peptide
Adrenal cortex
increased glucocorticoid hormone secretion
HORMONE :
Lipotropins
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE
ant. pit. = peptides
fat tissues
Increaed fat breakdown
HORMONE : B
Endorphins
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE
ant. pit. = peptides
Brain plus ?others?
Analgesia in the brain
inhibition of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion
HORMONE : MSH
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE
Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone
ant. pit. = peptide
Melanocytes in the skin
Increased melanin production in melanocytes to make the skin darker in color
HORMONE: LH
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE
Luteinizing hormone
ant. pit. = glycoprotein
ovaries in females
testes in males
Ovulation and progesterone production in ovaries
testosterone synthesis and sperm cell support in testes
HORMONE : FSH
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE


Follicle Stimulating hormone
ant. pit. = glycoprotein
Follicles in ovaries of females
seminiferous tubes in males
follicle maturation and estrogen secretion in ovaries
sperm cell production in testes
HORMONE: Prolactin
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE
ant. pit = protein
ovaries and mammary glands in females
milk production
increased response of follicle to LH and FSH
not too sure about what it does in men?
Describe what happens when levels
of ADH increase.

What regulates ADH?
Urine volume decreases (vasopresin)j
Blood osmolality decreases
Blood volume increases
ADH is regulated by osmoreceptors which monitor blood osmolality and blood
volume
Describe how oxytocin works
sensory neurons detect:
stretch in the uterus
stimulation of cervix
nipple stimulation
and send a.p.'s to hypothalamus which then releases oxytocin from axons in
posterior pituitary
What is a somatomedin?
Peptide synthesized in the liver capable of stimulating certain anabolic processes in
bone and cartilage, such as synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein
What regulates GH?
hypothalamus releases GHRH or GHIH in response to stress, blood glucose levels,
and amino acids in the blood:
stress = GH go
low blood suger= GH go
high blood sugar = GH stop
More amino acids in blood= GH go
is TSH regulated and what does it
do in the Thyroid?

Regulated by TRH from hypothalamus which binds to membrane of ant. pit.
activating a G protein and releasing TSH.

In Thyroid it makes and secretes thyroid hormones.

What other hormones are
associated with ACTH ?

How does ACTH work on it's target
tissues?
ACTH is derived from precursor protein proopiomelanocortin and is related to:
--lipotropins
--B endorphins
--MSH

ACTH is secreted from ant. pit and binds to membrane bound receptors, activates G protein,
increases cAMP and therefore increases secretion of hormones (CORTISOL) from the adrenal
cortex and works with MSH on skin for pigmentation
What are the 3 gonadotropins?
LH
FSH
Prolactin
How are gonadotropins regulated? hypothalamic hormones GnRH or LHRH
What is th isthmus? connection between two lobes of thyroid
Describe the thyroid gland
1. just below larynxj
2. highly vascular and large for an endocrine gland
3. follicles filled with thyroglobulin
4. parafollicular cells secrete calcitonin
What does calcitonin do?

Where is it secreted from?
Regulates Ca levels in body fluid

Parafollicular cells in Thyroid
Describe the 6 step process of T3
and T4 synthesis
1. Iodide transported into follicle cells
2. thyroglobulin is made in follicle cells
3. thyroglobulin gets together with Tyrosine amino acids (iodinated)
4. T3 & T4 made
5. endocytosis of T3 &T4
6. Thyroglobulin stays and T3 and T4 go to circulatory system
What mineral is very important
for the production of T3 & T4?

Iodine

Is the half life short or long for
T3 & T4?

Why?
Long half life because T3 & T4 bind to Thyroixne binding globulin and create
large resevoirs of Thryroid hormones in blood.
Level of these hormones is fairly consistant.
What do T3 and T4 do?
Similar to steroids on its target tissues.
Diffuses into cell to make DNA and synthesize proteins.
Effects ALOT of tissues for:
metabolism / growth / maturation
Body temperature
How does T3 & T4 help with
metabolism?
Seeds up the metabolization of glucose, protein and fat
Gives off heat as a byproduct of this increased metabolism for body
temperature
Helps K+ and Na+ pumps
Alters the # of mitochondria for increased ATP production
What are some effects of
hypothyroidism?
1. decreased metabolic rate (low body temp and intolerance to cold)
2. Weight gain but reduced appetite
3. dry and cold skin, coarse hair (reduced activity of sweat and sebaceous
glands)
4. Reduced heart rate, low blood pressure, dialated and enlarged heart
5. Weak, flabby skeletal muscles, sluggish movements
6. Constipation
7. Myxedeme (facial and body swelling)
8. Apathy
9. Decreased iodide uptake
10. possible goiter
What are some effects of
hyperthyroidism?

1. Increased metabolic rate, high body temp, heat intolerance
2. Weight loss but increased appetite
3. Copious sweating, warm and flushed skin
4. Rapid heart rate, high blood pressure, abnormal electrocardiogram
5. Weak skeletal muscles that exhibit tremors, exaggerated reflexes
6. Diarrhea
7. Exophthalmos (protruding of the eyes)
8. Hyperactivity, insomnia, restlessness, irratability, short attention span
9. Increased iodide uptake
10. Almost always a goiter
What is a goiter? abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland
What does cretinism arise
from?
very low T3 & T4 during development
What regulates T3 & T4?
TRH goes from hypothalamus via hypothalamohypophysial portal system
to ant. pit.
Ant. pit. secretes TSH which acts on Thyroid to secrete T3 & T4
T3 & T4 act on target tissues and also inhibit TRH from Hypothalamus
Iodine Deficiency
Causes Hypothyroidism
Not enough T3 & T4 are made so there is elevated TSH secretion which
causes a goiter
Goiterogenic substances
hypothyroidism
found in some drugs and plants like cabbage
inhibits T3 & T4 synthesis
Lack of Thyroid gland
hypothyroidism
partial or complete surgical removal as treatment for Grave's Disease
Pituitary insufficiency

hypothyroidism
lack of TSH secretion and associated with inadequate secretions of other ant.
pit. hormones

Hashimoto Disease
hypothyroidism
autoimmune
normal or depressed thyroid hormone secretion
Graves Disease
Hyperthyroidism
goiter and exophthalamos
autoimmune
patients have TSH like immunoglobulin in their plasma
Tumors
hyperthyroidism
result in either normal or hyper secretion of thyroid hormones
Thyroiditis
hyperthyroidism
painful swelling of the thyroid gland with normal or slightly increased T3 & T4
production
Elevated TSH levels
hyperthyroidism
result from a pituitary tumor
Thyroid storm
hyperthyroidism
sudden release of a large amount of T3 &T4, caused by surgery, stress,
infections and unknown reasons
Calcitonin
increased Ca levels in blood stimulates parafollicular cells to secrete calcitonin
acts on bones to decrease osteoclast activity and lengthens lives of osteoblasts
so more Ca goes in Bone deposition
calcitonin may also decrease appetite to slow food intake
What does the parathyroid
secrete and what are the
target tissues?
PTH
bone, kidneys, intestines
What does PTH do to
bone?
Binds to membrane bound receptor on osteoblast and stromal cells , activates
G protein, increases cAMP
Increases osteoclast activity, makes more osteoclasts to breakdown bone
which releases more calcium and phosphate
What does PTH do in the
kidneys?
induces Ca reabsorption in kidneys so that less Ca leaves body in urine
increases production of Vit D
increases the excretion of Phosphate
What does PTH do in the
intestines?
It makes more Vit D (in kidneys) which in turn makes the gut absorb more Ca.
What is PTH regulated by?
low Ca blood levels kick PTH in motion
low Ca can open Na channels and you have tetany (constant depolarization)
What are the physical
characteristics of the
Adrenal Glands?
located on superior poles of kidneys
surrounded by adipose, retroperitoneal and connective tissue capsule
well vascularized
medulla and cortex
What are the 3 specialized
layers of the Adrenal
Cortex?
zona glomerulosa
zona fasciculata (thickest)
zona reticularis
What are the hormones of
the Adrenal Medulla?
Epi
Norepi
neurohormones that interact with adrenergic receptors on target tissues
Describe an a adrenergic receptor
Ca gates open
Release ca from endoplasmic reticulum
Open K channels
Decrease camp synthesis
Stimulate protaglandins
Describe a B andrenergic receptor Increases camp synthesis
Describe how Epinephrine
increases blood glucose levels
1. Binds to membrane bound receptors in liver
2. Camp activates enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of
glycogen to glucose and prompts liver cells to release
glucose into blood.
What are the metabolic functions
of epinephrine?
Converts glycogen to glucose in liver
Breaks down glycogen in muscles
Increases fat breakdown in adipose tissue which releases
fatty acids into the blood
How does Epi prepare the body for
activity?
Increases metabolic break down of glycogen
Increases heart rate and force of contraction
Constricts blood vessels in skin, kidneys and gastro tract
Dilates blood vessels in skeletal muscles and cardiac muscles
What regulates epinephrine?
Released in response to stimulation of sympathetic neurons
because adrenal medulla is a specialized part of ANS
What are the hormones of the
Adrenal Cortex?
Mineralocorticoids
Glucocorticoids
Androgens
What type of hormone are
mineralcorticoids,
glucocorticoids and
androgens?
Steroids--lipids derived from cholesterol
Lipid soluable (bind to intracellular receptors)
Released upon synthesis
What is the main
Mineralcorticoid and what
does it do?
Aldesterone; from the zona glomerulosa
Increases rate of Na reabsorption in kidneys, thereby Increasing blood Na levels (more
Na causes H2O reabsorption by kidneys and increase in blood volume)
Increased K excretion into urine by kidneys
Increased H excretion
What is the main
glucocorticoid and what does
it do?
Cortisol; from zona fasciculata
Metabolic
--increase fat catabolism
--decrease glucose and amino acid uptake in skeletal muscles
--increase gluconeogenesis in liver
--degrades more protein and fats for energy for cells
Development
--maturation of tissues (fetal lungs)
--developes receptor cells for epi and norepi on its target tissues
Anti-Inflammatory
--suppresses immune system
What regulates the adrenal
cortex?
ACTH is vital
CRH is released from hypothalamus which prompts the ant. pit. to secrete ACTH
Zona fasciculata is very sensitive to ACTH and responds by increasing cortisol secretion.
ACTH, in higher concentrations, also acts on zona glomerulosa to increase the secretion
of aldosterone.
ACTH also tells hypothalamus to stop sending CRH
What happens with stress or
hypoglycemia with regards to
adrenal cortex?
Hypothalamus secretes CRH to ant. pit.
Ant. pit. secretes ACTH
Zona fasciculata secretes cortisol
Zona glomerulosa secretes aldosterone
What do the adrenal androgens do?

from zona reticularis
cause secondary sex characteristics in male
cause axillary and pubic hair growth in females
What does hyposecretion of
aldosterone cause?
1. hyponatremia (low blood levels Na)
2. hyperkalemia (high blood levels K)
3. Acidosis (pH value of body fluids below 7.35)
4. low blood pressure
5. tremors and tetany of skeletal muscles
6. Polyuria (excessive passage of urine)
What does hyposecretion of cortisol
cause?
1. Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose levels
2. Depressed immune system
3. Protein and fats from diet unused (weight loss)
4. Loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting
5. Increased skin pigmentation (if ACTH levels are high)
What does hyposecretion of
androgens cause?
reduction of axillary and pubic hair
What does hypersecretion of
aldosterone cause?
1. slight hypernatremia
2. Hypokalemia
3. alkalosis (blood pH levels of 7.45 or higher)
4. High blood pressure
5. Weakness of skeletal muscles
6. Acidic urine
What does Hypersecretion of
cortisol cause?
1. Hyperglycemia--leads to diabetes mellitus)
2. depressed immune system
3. destruction of tissue prteins, causing muscle atrophy and weakness
osteoporosis, easy bruising (weak capillaries), thin skin, impaired wound
healing, fat redistribution to face, neck and abdomen
4. euphoria and depression
What is Addison's disease?

low levels of aldosterone and cortisol
decreased blood pressure due to Na and H2O loss in kidneys
What is Aldosteronism?
1. excess aldosterone production
2. adrenal cortex tumor reduces blood K levels, increases
blood pH and increases blood pressure due to retention of Na
and H2O in kidneys
What is Cushing Syndrome?
Hypersecretion of cortisol and androgens
or excess secretion of ACTH from non-pituitary tumor
> causess muscle wasting and fat redeposition
> increased blood glucose levels
> early secondary sex characteristics or masculination of
young females
Describe how the pancreas is both an
exo and endo crine gland?
Exo--
acini produce pancreatic juice and have a duct system which
carries the juice to small intestine
Endo--
pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) release hormones into
circulatory system
Describe the cells of the pancreatic islets
alpha cells secrete glucagon
beta cells secrete insulin
delta cells secrete somatostatin
HORMONE : Insulin
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE
protein
liver, skeletal muscles, fat tissue
Increased uptake and use of glucose and amino acids
HORMONE : Glucagon
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE



polypeptide
liver
increased breakdown of glycogen
release of glucose into the circulatory system
HORMONE : Somatostatin
STRUCTURE
TARGET TISSUE
RESPONSE

peptide
alpha and beta cells
inhibition of insulin and glucagon
What effect does insulin have on
skeletal muscles?
increased glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis
increased uptake of certain amino acids
What effect does insulin have on
the liver?
Increased glycogen synthesis
increased use of glucose for energy
What effect does insulin have on
adipose cells?
Increased glucose uptake
increased glycogen synthesis
increased fatty acid uptake
increased glycolysis
What effect does insulin have on
nervous system?
increases glucose uptake in satiety center
What effect does glucagon have on
skeletal muscles?
little effect
What effect does glucagon have
the liver?

>Rapid increase in the
breakdown of glycogen to
glucose and release of glucose
into the blood

>increased formation of glucose
from amino acids and fats

>increased metabolism of fatty
acids which causes increased
ketones in the blood
What effect does glucagon have
on adipose cells?
>high concentrations cause
breakdown of fats
>not too important
What effect does glucagon have
the nervous system?
no effect
Describe how insulin works

1. binds to membrane bound receptors, phosphorylate proteins
2. taken into cell via endocytosis
3. insulin is broken down and cell responds by increasing it's abiity to take
up glucose and amino acids.
What happens with low
insulin levels?
1. glucose and amino acids can't move into cells
2. satiety center needs insulin to detect glucose in extracellular fluid, so it
won't be able turn off the hunger bell--polyphagia.
3. Polyuria occurs and loss of water (osmosis due to glucose in kidney
tubules)
4. Tienes sed
What happens with too
much isulin?
1. blood glucose levels fall dramatically
2. All the glucose is in cell so there is a deficit for the CNS and it can
malfunction
What are the main
hormones that make sure
that the brain and the
muscles have adequate
energy sources?
Insulin
GH
Glucagon
Epinephrine
Cortisol
Describe how glucagon
works on the liver
1. binds to membrane bound receptor, activates a G protein, increases
cAMP
2. causes breakdown of glycogen and increases synthesis of glucose
3. increases the breakdown of fats
4. liver spills glucose into blood upon secretion of glucagon
What 3 mechanisms
regulate the pancreatic
hormones?
1. nutrient levels in the blood
2. neural stimulation
3. hormones
what do nutrient levels in blood
regulate pancreatic hormones?

1. hyperglycemia (elevated blood sugar levels)
--stimulates B cells and release of insulin
*after a meal insulin released
2. hypoglycemia (low blood sugar)
--inhibits insulin release
*fasting inhibits insulin
How does the ANS regulate
pancreatic hormones?
>Parasympathetic branch increases insulin as a result of eating
>Sympathetic branch inhibits insulin to prevent large drop in blood glucose
levels
--also monitors levels during activity
How do hormones regulate
pancreatic hormones?
>gastrointestinal hormones increase insulin secretion
>somatostatin inhibits insulin--keeps it from over secreting
Describe what happens after a
meal...
1. decreased secretion of glucagon, cortisol, GH and epi
2. increase insulin via para symp. and blood nutrient levels
3. Increased uptake of glucose / amino acids / fats by target cells (tissues
store excess)
4. Glucose changed into glycogen in liver / skeletal muscles to make fat in
adipose tissues
Later...
5. blood glucose levels decrease
6. Increased glucagon, cortisol, GH, epi
7. insulin decreases as glucose goes into target tissues
Describe what happens during
exercise?
1. epi secretion and glucagon secretion increase
2. liver changes more glycogen to glucose and blood glucose levels increase
3. insulin secretion decreases to allow for more energy in the blood for the
activity
4. fat metabolism increases because of increased epi, GH, cortisol and
glucagon
Describe how FSH and LH effect
the female ovaries

FSH and LH are secreted from ant. pit. prompting the ovaries to
secrete estrogen and progesterone
(menses, pregnancy, lactation and female sex organs)
What is relaxin?
Secreted by the ovaries, it relaxes the connective tissues in
preparation for childbirth
What are the hormones of the
pineal body and what do they
do?
>melatonin and arginine vasotocin
>inhibit hypothalamus or gonads
>melatonin decreases GnRH from hypothalamus inhibiting
reproductive processes and making a sleep cycle
>arginine vasotocin regulates reproductive stuff
What is the importance of the
photoperiod?
>increased light sends messages to brain to lower secretions
from the pineal body
>decreased light tells the brain to increase secretions from the
pineal body
What are the effects of aging on
the endocrine glands?
>It's not the same for all glands...
>GH decreases (more severely for sedintary folks) so you lose
lean body mass
>melatonin decreases to cause age related sleep changes
>Thyroid hormones decrease has implications for immune
system
>kidneys have less renin and it's harder for them to regulate
blood pressue
>Thymosin decreases and immune system function decreases
making one more susceptible to cancer or infection