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Main Concept Of The Project:-

 The project is the application of multiplexer and
demultiplexer. This projects works on the base
that it uses a 8 bit input multiplexer and its
output is then given to the 1 bit input multiplexer
which gives the output in 8 bits. The 8 inputs of
the multiplexer act as the doors of any house or
office. LEDs are used at the end of the
demultiplexer as outputs. Initially all the LEDs
are at high. Whenever any door is opened the
circuit is cut off and the corresponding LED of
that door is switched off.
Devices used in the project:

 1 of 8 data Multiplexer
 3 to 8 Demultiplexer
 Resistors
 Mod 8 counter
 3 input AND Gate
 Light Emitting Diodes
 Connecting Wires
 A multiplexer is a circuit through which a number
of inputs can be taken as a one output depending
on the
 configuration of the switches. In the project the
multiplexer has an important significance. It takes
the input of all the doors and according the switch
configuration gives the output. As in this case the
number of users or doors etc are 8 so three
switches are used. The number of switches are
according to 2n
 method. As the number of doors are 8. As 8
becomes 23 so three switches are taken. We
have used 74HC151 multiplexer and its diagram
is given below.
 Unlike multiplexer demultiplexer works in
the reverse phenomenon as the
multiplexer. It takes the one input and
gives the output in more than 1 e.g. in this
case it gives the output in 8 bits. It also
works as the configuration of the switches
changes. We have used 74HC138
demultiplexer and the diagram is given
 MOD-8 Counter is basically the
combination of three J-K flip flops. This
counter is only used in the circuit to reset
and repeat all the conditions of three
switches i.e.-e from (000) to (111). As the
counter is synchronous so a common clock
is given to all the flip flops which make the
 The eight door switches are the data inputs to the MUX;
they produce a HIGH when a door is open and a LOW
when it is closed. The MOD 8 counter provides the
select inputs to the MUX and also to the demus on the
remote monitoring panel. Each DEMUX output is
connected to an indicative LED that will be on when the
output is low. Clock pulses applied to the counter will
cause the select inputs to sequence through all of the
possible states 000 through 111. At each number of the
counter the switch status for the door of the same
number will be inverted by the MUX and passed to
output Z`. from there it is transmitted to the DEMUX input
which passes it through to the output corresponding to
the same number.
 For example, let’s say that the counter is
at the count (110) 6. while the counter is at
this state, let’s say that the door 6 is
closed. The low at I6 will pass through the
MUX and be inverted to produce high at
Z`. this high will be passed through the
DEMUX to output
 O6`so that the LED 6 will be off, indicating
that door 6 is closed. Now let’s say that
door 6 is open. A low will appear at Z` and
O6` so that the LED 6 will be on to the
signal that door 6 is open. Of course all
other LEDs will be off during this time
since O6` is the only active output.
 As the counter is clocked through its eight states
000 to 111, the LEDs will sequentially indicate the
status of the eight doors. If all the doors are closed,
none of the LEDs will be on even when the
corresponding DEMUX output is selected. If a door
is open its LED will turn on only during the time
interval that the counter is at the appropriate count;
it will be off at all other counts. Thus, the LED will
be flashing on and off if door is open. The flashing
rate can be changed by changing the frequency of
the clock.