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Principles of Flight
Principles of Flight
Learning Outcome 2:

Understand how the stability of an aeroplane is
maintained in flight and how manoeuvrability
is controlled

Part 3
Principles of Flight
Revision
Questions
What happens to Lift when a Wing is Stalled?
a. Lift Increases as Angle of Attack Decreases.
b. Lift Decreases as Angle of Attack Increases.
c. Lift is Greatly Reduced.
d. Lift Remains unchanged.
Questions
The Critical Angle of Attack is Generally about?
a. 5
o
.
b. 15
o
.
c. 25
o
.
d. 35
o
.
Questions
Which of the following will NOT REDUCE the Stalling Speed?
a. Extra Weight.
b. Larger Wing Area.
c. Flaps Lowered.
d. Flaps Raised.
Questions
Where would you find the information regarding
the Aircrafts various Stalling Speeds?
a. Pilots Notes.
b. Air Traffic Control.
c. Ground Crew.
d. McDonalds.
High Lift Devices (Flaps)

or

Lift Augmentation
High Lift Devices
Objectives:
1. Describe the principle operation of Trailing Edge Flaps.
2. State the following for Trailing Edge Flaps:
Location, Effects on Lift, Effects on Drag, Types,
Advantages, and uses.
3. Describe the principle operation of Leading Edge Slats.
4. State the Advantages of Slats with reference to:
Stalling Speed, Stalling Angle, and Drag.
High Lift Devices
Why do we need High Lift Devices?
High Lift Devices come in many shapes and forms.
They are mounted on the Leading and Trailing edges
of wings.
They create more Lift at lower speeds to allow lower
take-off and landing speeds.
The Aircraft nose will be lower, allowing a better view
for the Pilot.

But how do they work?
LIFT AUGMENTATION
Weight (Constant) = Lift (Constant)
= C
L
V
2
S

At Minimum Speed
= C
LMAX
V
2
MIN
S


To further reduce the Minimum Speed?
Raise the Value of C
LMAX
THIS IS THE PURPOSE OF LIFT AUGMENTATION
METHODS OF LIFT
AUGMENTATION
FLAPS (Trailing Edge & Leading Edge)

SLATS & SLOTS


LIFT AUGMENTATION DEVICES
PLAIN FLAP
50% Increase C
LMAX
Critical Angle 12
o
LIFT AUGMENTATION DEVICES
60% Increase C
LMAX
Critical Angle 14
o
SPLIT FLAP
NIMROD
Split Flap
LIFT AUGMENTATION DEVICES
65% Increase C
LMAX
Critical Angle 16
o
SLOTTED FLAP
LIFT AUGMENTATION DEVICES
THE BLOWN FLAP
80% Increase C
LMAX
Critical Angle 16
o
LIFT AUGMENTATION DEVICES
FOWLER FLAP
90% Increase C
LMAX
Critical Angle 15
o
LIFT AUGMENTATION DEVICES
AUTOMATIC SLAT
70% Increase C
LMAX
Critical Angle 25
o
LIFT AUGMENTATION DEVICES
FIXED SLAT
50% Increase C
LMAX
Critical Angle 20
o
LIFT AUGMENTATION DEVICES
40% Increase C
LMAX
Critical Angle 20
o
SLOT
LIFT AUGMENTATION DEVICES
KRUGER FLAP
50% ? Increase C
LMAX
Critical Angle 25
o
LIFT AUGMENTATION DEVICES
DROOP SNOOT
FLAP
50% ? Increase C
LMAX
Critical Angle 20
o
LIFT AUGMENTATION - EFFECTS ON C
L
LIFT AUGMENTATION - EFFECTS ON C
L

C
L
BASIC AEROFOIL SECTION
LIFT AUGMENTATION - EFFECTS ON C
L

C
L
BASIC AEROFOIL SECTION
TRAILING EDGE FLAP
LIFT AUGMENTATION - EFFECTS ON C
L

C
L
BASIC AEROFOIL SECTION

LEADING EDGE FLAP
LIFT AUGMENTATION - EFFECTS ON C
L

C
L
BASIC AEROFOIL SECTION


SLAT OR SLOT
LIFT AUGMENTATION - EFFECTS ON C
L

C
L
BASIC AEROFOIL SECTION
TRAILING EDGE FLAP
LEADING EDGE FLAP
SLAT OR SLOT
Flaps
But, what about Drag?
Flaps 30
o
Flaps 90
o
Flaps 60
o

Flap
30
o
60
o
90
o

Drag
Small Inc

Large Inc

V Large Inc
Lift
Large Inc

Small Inc

No Sig Inc
Any
Questions?
High Lift Devices
Objectives:
1. Describe the principle operation of Trailing Edge Flaps.
2. State the following for Trailing Edge Flaps:
Location, Effects on Lift, Effects on Drag, Types,
Advantages, and uses.
3. Describe the principle operation of Leading Edge Slats.
4. State the Advantages of Slats with reference to:
Stalling Speed, Stalling Angle, and Drag.
Questions
What effect does a Trailing Edge Flap have on the Stalling
Speed?
a. Higher.

b. Lower.

c. The same.

d. No difference.
Questions
One type of Leading Edge Flap is:

a. Plain.

b. Slot.

c. Split.

d. Kruger.
Questions
What are some of the High Lift Devices on the Leading
Edge called?
a. Plain Flaps.

b. Ailerons.

c. Slats.

d. Split Flaps.