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Spectrum Occupancy Evaluations at

2.35-2.50 GHz ISM Band in a

Hospital Environment
Muhammad Hasnain Virk, Risto Vuohtoniemi, Matti Hmlinen,
Juha-Pekka Mkel and Jari Iinatti
Centre for Wireless Communications
University of Oulu, Finland
Spectrum Ocupancy Evaluations (SOE)
Measurement Equipment & Parameters
- Dynamic Noise Thresholds
- Spatial Sample Clustering (SSC)
- Occupancy Calculations
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Spectrum Occupancy Evaluations
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Spectrum occupancy measurements or evaluations are statistical
evaluations which represent the utilization of a frequency channel, band or
spectrum resource over a period of time.
Radio frequency spectrum is a scarce resource. A problem.
Coexistence studies and interference analysis have become important more
than ever.
Modern concepts to cope with this frequency resource scarcity problem
involve DSA/CR solutions.
DSA/CR or any wireless spectrum reutilization policies rely heavily upon
spectrum utilization statistics obtained from SOE campaigns.
SOE campaigns also provide a quantitative insight over potential interferers
for a certain system working in its band of operation i.e., coexistence.
SOE campaign at Oulu University
Hospital, Oulu, Finland
Main Goal
To characterize RF usage from 2.35-2.50 GHz ISM band.
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Current spectrum occupancy evaluation techniques are either
underestimate or overestimate the true occupancy.
There is a need for a robust, overhauled SOE technique so as to
obtain a better occupancy analysis with sufficiently low degree of false
alarm. This was acheived by establishing Dynamic Noise Thresholds
per sweep and by processing the measured data with a novel
algorithm named Spatial Sample Clustering (SSC).

Stochastic Parameters Calculated for Duty Cycles:
I. Channel Occupancies (CO) for identified systems
II. Frequency Band Occupancy (FBO)
III. Spectrum Resource Ocupancy (SRO)

SOE, Measurement Equipment &
Parameters [1]
Spectrum occupancy measurements usually involve following steps:
a. Spectrum sensing, utilizing an antenna coupled with a band pass filter and a spectrum
b. Sample collection and saving the records in some disk drive.
c. Processing and analysis of saved data in order to calculate occupancies.
Measurement Equipment:
- High performance Agilent E4446A Spectrum Analyzer
- ARA CMA-118/A omnidirectional wideband antenna.
- Control PC
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SOE, Measurement Equipment &
Parameters [2]
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Param. Name Value
Frequency Band 2.35 2.50 GHz
Bandwidth 150 MHz
Frequency Bins 1601
Resolution BW 300 kHz
Bin-width 93.7 kHz
No. Of Sweeps 10000
Sweep Time 2 ms approx.
Processing Time 22 ms
Integration Time 4 minutes
Measurement Duration 1 day (24 hrs)
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Dynamic Noise Thresholds
In order to dig legitimate signals very close to noise levels, especially in case of low
SNR or spread spectrum scenarios, one cannot rely upon static noise thresholds.
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Spatial Sample Clustering (SSC)
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Occupancy calculations
Channel Occupancy (CO)
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Occupancy calculations [2]
Frequency Band Occupancy (FBO)
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Occupancy calculations [3]
Spectrum Resource Occupancy (SRO)
Results [1]
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Results [2]
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Results [3]
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Results [4]
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Results [5]
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Results [6]
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Results [7]
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As a result of this day long campaign, following stochastic
parameters were evaluated for 2.35-2.50 GHz ISM band
- Channel Occupancy
- Frequency Band Occupancy
- Spectrum Resource Occupancy
Peak occupancy level was 11 %. Still at that time FBO was
approximately 2 %. Which implies 98% of the band resources
were still free.
Plenty of white spaces available between bursty traffic for
aggressive resource reutilization.

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Thanks a lot for your patience.

Any Question ?
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