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POWER FACTOR

CONTROLLER
What one will learn
What is power Factor ?
Why it is necessary to control Power factor?
Who gets benefited by improving power factor ?
How capacitor value is decided
Why do we need different stages in the controller ?
What are the different sequences of switching capacitor
bank ?
Single phase correction or 3 Phase correction ?


Power Factor

The power factor of an AC electric power system is defined as the ratio of
the real Power flowing to the load over the apparent power in the
circuit, and is a dimensionless number between 0 and 1 .

Power Factor Definition : Power factor is the ratio between the KW and
the KVA drawn by an electrical load where the KW is the actual load
power and the KVA is the apparent load power.
It is a measure of how effectively the current is being converted into
useful work output and more particularly is a good indicator of the
effect of the load current on the efficiency of the supply system.

Real Power is the capacity of the circuit for performing work in a particular
time.
Apparent power is the product of the current and voltage of the circuit.
Due to energy stored in the load and returned to the source, or due to a
non-linear load that distorts the wave shape of the current drawn from the
source, the apparent power will be greater than the real power.
What causes Power Factor to
change ?

Inductive loads cause the AMPS to lag behind the
VOLTS. The wave forms of VOLTS and AMPS are then
"out of phase" with each other. The more out of phase
they become then the lower the Power Factor. Power
Factor is usually expressed as Cos Phi. ()

Effect of poor Power factor
In an electric power system, a load with a low power factor draws
more current than a load with a high power factor for the same
amount of useful power transferred.
The higher currents increase the energy lost in the distribution
system, and require larger size of wires and other equipment.
Because of the costs of larger equipment and wasted energy,
electrical utilities will usually charge a higher cost to industrial or
commercial customers where there is a low power factor.
Linear loads with low power factor (such as induction motors) can be
corrected with a passive network of capacitors or Inductors . Non-
linear loads, such as rectifiers , distort the current drawn from the
system. In such cases, active or passive power factor correction
may be used to counter the distortion and raise the power factor.
The devices for correction of the power factor may be at a central
substation, spread out over a distribution system, or built into power-
consuming loads.
PF Correction panels
http://www.celec.in/capacitorbanks.html

Importance of power factor in distribution
systems


The significance of power factor lies in the fact that utility companies supply
customers with volt-amperes, but bill them for watts. Power factors below 1.0 require
a utility to generate more than the minimum volt-amperes necessary to supply the
real power (watts). This increases generation and transmission costs.

For example, if the load power factor were as low as 0.7, the apparent power would
be 1.4 times the real power used by the load. Line current in the circuit would also be
1.4 times the current required at 1.0 power factor, so the losses in the circuit would
be doubled (since they are proportional to the square of the current). Alternatively all
components of the system such as generators, conductors, transformers, and
switchgear would be increased in size (and cost) to carry the extra current.

Utilities typically charge additional costs to customers who have a power factor below
some limit, which is typically 0.9 to 0.95. Engineers are often interested in the power
factor of a load as one of the factors that affect the efficiency of power transmission.
With the rising cost of energy and concerns over the efficient delivery of power, active
PFC has become more common in consumer electronics

How to reduce bill ?
If large industrial customers place inductive loads on the power grid,
the utility company installs special electric meters to measure this.
The electric company then charges them a fee. The industrial
customer must pay for the energy losses they cause in the warm
power lines.

There is a way for industrial customers to fix the problem. There is a
way to correct the power factor and bring it to 100%. If the customer
is using an inductive load, they can place just the right value of
capacitor across that load. The energy then stops reflecting back to
the electric company generators. No longer do the power lines suffer
excess heating. The electric company measures this, then stops
charging the extra fee. (Actually the energy still reflects back and
forth between the inductive load and the added capacitor. The
excess heating in those short local wires is insignificant.)

Power Factor Correction Depending upon the rate structure of your electric utility,
you may be able to save a substantial amount of money on your electric bill. Pay-
back period for an equipment purchase including installation cost may be less than
six months to a year. Utility rate structures that account for reactive power
consumption, by either a KVA or var demand usage, or a power factor penalty are the
ones that can provide this pay-back. Other ancillary benefits to be gained by
correcting power factor are, lower energy losses, better voltage regulation and
released system capacity. This page explains the fundamentals of power factor and
how NEPSI's shunt capacitor banks can benefit you.All electric equipment requires
"vars" - a term used by electric power engineers to describe the reactive or
magnetizing power required by the inductive characteristics of electrical equipment.
These inductive characteristics are more pronounced in motors and transformers,
and therefore, can be quite significant in industrial facilities. The flow of vars, or
reactive power, through a watt-hour meter will not effect the meter reading, but the
flow of vars through the power system will result in energy losses on both the utility
and the industrial facility. Some utilities charge for these vars in the form of a penalty,
or KVA demand charge, to justify the cost for lost energy and the additional conductor
and transformer capacity required to carry the vars. In addition to energy losses, var
flow can also cause excessive voltage drop, which may have to be corrected by
either the application of shunt capacitors, or other more expensive equipment, such
as load-tap changing transformers, synchronous motors, and synchronous
condensers.
Power Triangle
Power triangle Real power ,Reactive
power and Total or apparent power
Power
When the current and voltage waveforms
are in phase, the power factor is 1 (cos
(0) = 1). The whole purpose of making
the power factor equal to one is to make
the circuit look purely resistive (apparent
power equal to real power).
Real power (watts) produces real work
The denition of power factor related to phase angle is
valid when considering ideal sinusoidal waveforms for
both current and voltage; however, most power supplies
draw a non-sinusoidal current.
When the current is not sinusoidal and the voltage is
sinusoidal, the power factor consists of two factors:
1) the displacement factor related to phase angle and
2) the distortion factor related to waveshape.

Equation 1 represents the relationship of the displacement
and distortion factor as it pertains to power factor

How significant is power factor
correction in industrial settings?

Power factor is low in industrial settings where most of the
plant energy is used to power electric motors. It is lowest
when the induction motors tend to be oversized and
under-loaded. A lagging (less than 1.0) power factor
causes some additional energy loss because more
current is required compared to an in-phase sinusoidal
current to deliver a certain amount of power.
Correcting power factor can be an appropriate and cost-
effective measure, but not because of energy savings.
How much energy can be saved by
installing correction Capacitors
Power factor correction does not save much energy usually less
than 1 percent of load requirements but even that benefit depends
upon how low the power factor is to begin with and how heavily
loaded are in-plant distribution system conductors. Note that power
supplied to your motor driven-equipment is proportional to Volts
Amps. Energy losses in your in-plant distribution system coincide
with your voltage drop. If your transformer supplies power at 480
volts and the voltage at your motor terminals is 470 volts, you have
a voltage drop of 10 volts, or approximately 2 percent of 480 volts.
The total power loss in the in-plant distribution system upstream of
connected load equipment seldom exceeds 2 percent of the load
requirement.
The loss fraction saved through the installation of capacitors at the
motor is: (1-pf original/pffinal)/100

Where power capacitors should be
located ?
If your original power factor was 80 percent, and the
system power factor is raised to 95 percent following the
installation of capacitors, then the resistance or I2R
losses in your in-plant distribution wiring will drop by 29.1
percent. Multiplying (29.1%/100) 2% yields an
expected energy savings of 0.58 percent of the load
requirement.
If you correct power factor at the switchyard or plant
service entrance instead of very near the inductive loads
(e.g. motors), you do not reduce in-plant distribution
system losses at all because the correction only
happens on the line side (the upstream, utility side) of
where the capacitors are tapped in.

Power factor improvement
Table Table , which contains kilowatt
multipliers, can be used to
calculate the amount of kvar
required to raise your "original
power factor" to your "desired
power factor". For example, a
facility has a peak kilowatt
demand of 500 kW with a power
factor of 0.80. The facilities
engineer wants to raise its power
factor from 0.80 to 0.95. The kW
multiplier obtained from table 1 is
0.421. Multiplying this value times
the facilities kilowatt demand
yields 2105 kvar (0.421 X 500 =
210.5). Therefore, a 210.5 kvar
capacitor bank would raise the
facility's power factor from 0.80 to
0.95.
(Calculation of Required kvar to Raise
Power Factor).
http://www.nepsi.com/kvar_calculation.htm
What does power factor do to my
electricity bill?

In a 3 phase supply, kW consumed is (VOLTS x AMPS x
1.73 x Power Factor) / 1000. The Electricity Company
supply you VOLTS x AMPS and they have to supply
extra to make up for the loss caused by poor Power
Factor. When the power factor falls below a set figure,
the electricity supply companies charge a premium on
the kW being consumed, or, charge for the whole supply
as kVA.
Small & Medium Enterprises









Small Enterprises (Companies) :
<100 staff
Medium Enterprises (Companies) :
100<<200 staff












Globally SMEs
account for:
99% of business
and
40% - 50% of GDP.

Small & Medium Enterprises










Major Limits for development

Lack of access to finance : not supply of funds but
reluctance of private banks to lend to SMEs

Lack of access to technology & skills : many are not
knowledgeable on technology & most employ low level of
technology; lack of common support facilities like testing
centers

Availability of inputs & supply chain problems : high cost
to access raw materials and inputs due to the general
problem of sourcing and transporting raw materials
(general infrastructure and communication problem)
Small & Medium Enterprises










Electrical problems
play a great role
in those
companies
Small & Medium Enterprises










Majority
of the
loads are
UNBALANCED !
Small & Medium Enterprises










Unbalanced Load
A load which does not draw
balanced current from a balanced
three-phase supply.
Typical unbalanced loads are loads
which are connected phase-to-
neutral and also loads which are
connected phase-to-phase.
Such loads are not capable of
drawing balanced three-phase
currents. They are usually named
single-phase loads.

Small & Medium Enterprises










Unbalanced Load (contd)
An unbalanced supply may have a
disturbing or even damaging effect on
motors, generators, poly-phase
converters, and other equipment.
The most important concern with
unbalanced voltage is overheating
in 3-phase induction motors.
The percent current imbalance drawn
by a motor may be 6 to 10 times the
voltage imbalance, creating an
increase in losses and in turn an
increase in motor temperature. This
condition may lead to motor failure.
Small & Medium Enterprises

POWER QUALITY
has to be improved !
Small & Medium Enterprises










We will discuss about 2 major power issues
in SMEs :

- Reactive Power Management (unbalanced load)
Related : Harmonic Effects
Power Quality










3-phase / 3CT
V, A, Hz, cos-phi
W, VAr, VA, Total
kWh, kVArh
THD %I, %V
19th Harmonic (I,V)
Temperature Control
Harmonic Alarm
RS-485 MODBUS
Password for setup
Easy Troubleshooting
Reactive Power Management










Reactive Power Management










SMART SWITCHING :

During initial set-up, switches on/off ALL the
steps by order and SAVES capacitor value in
memory :

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Reactive Power Management










SMART SWITCHING :

So, in case of capacitor power requirement,
required steps are switched on immediately (in
switch on delay)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
12

Reactive Power Management










3-phase
V, A, cos-phi
W, VAr, VA, Total
kWh, kVArh (4 quadrant)
THD %I, %V
19th Harmonic (I,V)
RG3-12CS
measures:
Reactive Power Management










Easy Troubleshooting :

Alarm Codes enable
operators to
troubleshoot the
failures in minimum
time with minimum
effort.
Reactive Power Management










Easy Troubleshooting :
Reactive Power Management










- Phase Failure/ Ph.Sequence Failure



- Over Harmonic Alarm





- Over Voltage Alarm
- Alarm Contact activated


- Cos phi below target



- Capacitor Power problem


- Capacitor Step defected


RG3-12CS
3-phase Power Factor Controller
Easy Troubleshooting :
Reactive Power Management










RS-485
Communication:

MODBUS interface of
RG3-12CS enables :

- Monitoring
Reactive Power Management










RS-485
Communication:

MODBUS interface of
RG3-12CS enables :

- Control
Reactive Power Management










RS-485
Communication:

MODBUS interface of
RG3-12CS enables :

- Reporting
Reactive Power Management
WHY RG3-12CS ?
1.000
1.000
1.000
FAN MOTOR
(3 PHASE)
0.750
0.750
0.750
REACTIVE POWER
R S T
TriPhase capacitor for balanced
loas
0.990
0.990
0.560
0.990
0.990
0.990
Monophase capacitors for unbalanced loads









Thanks!
Electronics Division
REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION
with RT
BEFORE COMPENSATION









Apparent Power
kW
1. Active power (kW) for
mechanical work
kvar
2. Reactive power (kVAr) for
magnetic field
kVA
- apparent power (kVA)
total power consumed
Reactive Power ?










The reactive power doesnt
produce mechanical work and it
is an additional load for the
energy supplier.




Reactive power is the power
required to produce the
magnetic fields (lost power) to
enable the real work to be done.
Beer Mug Analogy
Power Factor = Active power/Apparent power = kW/kVA
= Active power/(Active Power +Reactive Power)
= kW/(kW+kVAr)
= Beer/(Beer +Foam)
Higher kVA values indicate low power factor and vice versa. It can be
compared to the foam amount in a glass of beer: It is not the part you paid
for but there is no way to avoid it and the glass must be oversized in order to
not have overflow.
Power Factor









Power Factor









1) High power losses in the electrical lines
2) High voltage variation in the electrical lines
3) (Oversize of investment) ,oversizing generators, circuit breakers,
electric lines and transformers
4) Low performances






Low cos means poor electrical efficiency.
From this, we understand the importance to improve (increase) the
power factor. Capacitors are needed to obtain this result.


Low cos has the following disadvantages:
How To Improve Power Factor









The capacitors connected in parallel to the load
generate reverse-phase reactive power.
kW


kVA
kvar1
Capacitors
Capacitors are used to
compensate the Reactive
Power.


The resulting capacitive
current is leading current and
is used to cancel the lagging
inductive current flowing from
the supply.
Motor
Load
Capacitors
How to improve Cosj
j
kW
kVAr
kVA
1

kVAr
2

Inductive
Capacitive
How to improve Cosj
kW
j
kVAr
kVA
1

j
kVA
2

kVAr
2

kVAr
1

Capacitive
Inductive
AFTER COMPENSATION









Example









kW=410
k
V
A
r
1
=
4
1
9

j j
k
V
A
r
2
=
1
3
5

2
8
4

Reactive power: 410kW
Power factor: cos j1 = 0.7
Apparent power
kVA1= 410/0.7 = 586 kVA
Power factor kvar1 =
kVA1* sin j 1=586*0.714 = 419 kvar
Target power factor: cos j 2 = 0.95
Necessary kvar :
= 410 ( tan j 1-tan j 2)
= 410 (1.020-0.329) = 284 kvar
New reactive kvar2
= kVA2* sin j 2 = 432*0.3122 = 135 kvar
New apparent kVA2
= 410/0.95 = 432 kVA
kVA reduction
= 586-432 = 154 kVA
Voltage & Current Quality









System
Consumers
Quality
Voltage
Quality
Current
Power
Quality
REACTIVE POWER FACTOR









COMPENSATION BENEFIT
Capacitors can therefore be utilised to reduce
kVA and electrical costs. Improved power
factor results in:

Reduced kVA charges
Improved plant efficiency
Additional loads can be added to the system
Reduced overloading of cables, transformers,
switchgear, etc.
Improved starting torque of motors
Reduce fuel requirements to due to lower losses.
RPF Compensation









ISSUES THAT NEED ATTENTION
TO ACHIEVE CORRECT
COMPENSATION RT
ACCUARCY CALCULATION FOR COMPENSATION









1. Correct calculation of the capacitor power.
2. Correct determination of step numbers.
3. Correct determination of the current
transformer value.
4. Be sure that the connections have been
made correctly.
5. Correct calculation of the C/k value.











6. Be sure that the settings of the relays have
been made correctly.
7. Measuring the voltage and current values
from the same phase.(P-N )
8. Connecting the compensation supply after
the current transformer connection point.
9. Connecting the current transformer to the
phase with the value nearest to the mean
value.
ACCUARCY CALCULATION FOR COMPENSATION









EXAMPLE:
For a facility with a capacitor need of 230 kVAr the
sequencing may be as shown below.
If the loads are small and variable;
10 20 40 40..........40 step selection is suited.
If the loads are large and variable;
25 50 50..........50 step selection is more suited.
ACCUARCY CALCULATION FOR COMPENSATION
POWER FACTOR CONTROLLER RT









1 Phase Cos, P.F., V, A, W, VAr, VA
Target Cos settings
Delay time (10-1800 sec.)
Step Number Selection
Switching Program Selection
Selection of C/k Value by the User
Selection of Current Transformer Primary Value
Over Voltage Warning
Low Power Factor Warning
Over Compensation Warning
Power Factor Controller switches capacitor steps
ON and OFF automatically.









RT Compensation Problems
and Solutions
POWER FACTOR CONTROLLER RT









1. Primary Value of Current
Transformer



C.T=100/5=20 wrong


C.T=100 right

POWER FACTOR CONTROLLER RT
R S T
POWER FACTOR CONTROLLER RT









2. Load unbalance
C.T


mean value


POWER FACTOR CONTROLLER RT
3. Proper selection program
PS1 selection ===> 1: 1: 1: 1
PS2 selection ===> 1: 1: 2: 2
PS3 selection ===> 1: 2: 2: 2
PS4 selection ===> 1: 2: 3: 3
PS5 selection ===> 1: 2: 4: 4
PS6 selection ===> 1: 1: 2: 4
PS7 selection ===> 1: 2: 3: 4
PS8 selection ===> 1: 2: 4: 8
PS9 selection ===> 1: 1: 2: 3
PSA selection ===> 1: 2: 3: 6
PSb selection ===> linear
(The switching program begins always from the first step to the last
one in both switching on and off mode.)
POWER FACTOR CONTROLLER RT
4. Loses of capacitor by time
POWER FACTOR CONTROLLER RT









5.The location of the current transformer
Connecting the compensation supply
after the current transformer
connection point.




POWER FACTOR CONTROLLER RT











LOAD
6. Relay connections
POWER FACTOR CONTROLLER RT
7. Fuse and contactor failures
POWER FACTOR CONTROLLER RT
8. Appropriate selection of the setup
POWER FACTOR CONTROLLER RT
9. Capacitive effects of underground
cables