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Chapter 12
Motivation and Emotion
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Defining Motivation, and a Model
Dynamics of behavior that initiate, sustain,
direct, and terminate actions
Model of how motivated activities work
Need: Internal deficiency; causes drive
Drive: Energized motivational state (e.g., hunger,
thirst; activates a response)
Response: Action or series of actions designed to
attain a goal
Goal: Target of motivated behavior
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Types of Motives
Incentive Value: Goals appeal beyond its
ability to fill a need
Primary Motive: Innate (inborn) motives
based on biological needs that must be met
to survive
Stimulus Motive: Needs for stimulation and
information; appear to be innate, but not
necessary for survival
Secondary Motive: Based on learned needs,
drives, and goals
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Homeostasis: Body equilibrium; balance
Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar
Hypothalamus: Brain structure; regulates
many aspects of motivation and emotion,
including hunger, thirst, and sexual behavior
Feeding System: Area in the hypothalamus
that, when stimulated, initiates eating
Satiety System: Area in the hypothalamus
that terminates eating
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Fig. 12.1 Needs and incentives interact to determine drive strength (above). (a) Moderate need combined
with a high-incentive goal produces a strong drive. (b) Even when a strong need exists, drive strength may
be moderate if a goals incentive value is low. It is important to remember, however, that incentive value lies
in the eye of the beholder.
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Fig. 12.2 In Cannons early study of hunger, a simple apparatus was used to simultaneously record
hunger pangs and stomach contractions. (After Cannon, 1934.)
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Fig. 12.3 Location of the hypothalamus in the human brain.
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More on Eating Behavior (Hungry Yet?)
Neuropeptide Y (NPY): Substance in the
brain that initiates eating
Glucagon-like Peptide 1 (GLP-1): Substance
in brain that terminates eating
Set Point: Proportion of body fat that is
maintained by changes in hunger and eating;
point where weight stays the same when you
make no effort to gain or lose weight
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Fig. 12.4 This is a cross
section through the middle of
the brain (viewed from the
front of the brain). Indicated
areas of the hypothalamus are
associated with hunger and
the regulation of body weight.
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The Final Word on Eating
Leptin: Substance released by fat cells that
inhibits eating; presently being studied for
possible importance in controlling and losing
External Eating Cues: External stimuli that
tend to encourage hunger or elicit eating;
these cues may cause you to eat even if you
are stuffed (like Homer Simpson, who eats
whatever he sees!)
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Behavioral Dieting
Weight reduction based on changing
exercise and eating habits and not on
temporary self-starvation
Some keys
Start with a complete physical
Be committed to weight loss
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Behavioral Dieting (cont.)
Observe yourself, keep an eating diary,
and keep a chart of daily progress
Eat based on hunger, not on taste or
learned habits that tell you to always
clean your plate
Avoid snacks
Learn to weaken personal eating cues
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Taste Aversion: Active dislike for a
particular food
VERY difficult to overcome
Bait Shyness: Unwillingness or
hesitation by animals to eat a particular
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Eating Disorders: Anorexia
Active self-starvation or sustained loss
of appetite that seems to have
psychological origins
Control issues seem to be involved
Very difficult to effectively treat
Affects adolescent females overwhelmingly
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Fig. 12.6 Women with abnormal eating habits were asked to rate their body shape on a scale similar to
the one you see here. As a group, they chose ideal figures much thinner than what they thought their
current weights were. (Most women say they want to be thinner than they currently are, but to a lesser
degree than women with eating problems.) Notice that the women with eating problems chose an ideal
weight that was even thinner than what they thought men prefer. This is not typical of most women. In
this study, only women with eating problems wanted to be thinner than what they thought men find
attractive (Zellner, Harner, & Adler, 1989).
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Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa
(Binge-Purge Syndrome)
Excessive eating usually followed by
self-induced vomiting and/or taking
Difficult to treat
Prozac approved by FDA to treat bulimia
Affects females overwhelmingly
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Causes of Anorexia Nervosa and
Bulimia Nervosa
Anorectics and bulimics have
exaggerated fears of becoming fat; they
think they are fat when the opposite is
Bulimics are obsessed with food and
weight; anorectics with perfect control
Anorectics will often be put on a
weight-gain diet to restore weight
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CNN Enjoying Anorexia
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Thirst and Pain
Extracellular Thirst: When water is lost from
fluids surrounding the cells of the body
Intracellular Thirst: When fluid is drawn out of
cells because of increased concentration of
salts and minerals outside the cell
Best satisfied by drinking water
Pain Avoidance: An episodic drive
Occurs in distinct episodes when bodily damage
takes place or is about to occur
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Sex Drive
Estrus: Changes in animals that create
a desire for sex; females in heat
Estrogen: A female sex hormone
Androgens: Male hormones
Non-homeostatic: Independent of bodily
need states
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Stimulus Drives
Reflect needs for information, exploration,
manipulation, and sensory input
Yerkes-Dodson Law: If a task is simple, it is best for
arousal to be high; if it is complex, lower levels of
arousal provide for the best performance
Arousal Theory: Ideal levels of activation occur for various
Arousal: Activation of the body and nervous system
Sensation Seeking: Trait of people who prefer high
levels of stimulation (e.g., the contestants on Eco-
Challenge and Fear Factor)
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Fig. 12.7 Monkeys happily open locks that are placed in their cage. Since no reward is given for this
activity, it provides evidence for the existence of stimulus needs. (Photo courtesy of Harry F. Harlow.)
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Fig. 12.8 (a) The general relationship between arousal and efficiency can be described by an inverted U
curve. The optimal level of arousal or motivation is higher for a simple task (b) than for a complex task (c).
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How to Cope With Test Anxiety
Restructuring thoughts
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Circadian Rhythms
Cyclical changes in bodily functions and
arousal levels that vary on a 24 hour schedule
Preadaptation: Gradual matching of sleep-
waking cycles to a new time schedule before
an anticipated circadian rhythm change
E.g. trying to adjust to new time zone to avoid jet
Melatonin: Hormone produced by pineal gland
in response to light (production suppressed)
and dark (production increased)
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Fig. 12.9 Core body temperature is a good indicator of a persons circadian rhythm. Most people reach a
low point 2 to 3 hours before their normal waking time. Its no wonder that both the Chernobyl and three-
Mile Island nuclear power plant accidents occurred around 4 am. Rapid travel to a different time zone,
shift work, depression, and illness can throw sleep and waking patterns out of synchronization with the
bodys core rhythm. Mismatches of this kind are very disruptive (Hauri & Linde, 1990).
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Jet Lag
Disturbed body rhythms caused by rapid
travel east or west
Major time shifts (5 hours or more) can cause
very slow adaptation
Direction of travel affects adaptation, and
thus, severity of jet lag
MUCH easier to go east to west than west to east
Preadaptation: Gradual matching of sleep-waking
cycles to a new time schedule
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Fig. 12.10 Time required to adjust to
air travel across six time zones. The
average time to resynchronize was
shorter for westbound travel than for
eastbound flights. (Data from Beljan et
al., 1972; cited by Moore-Ede et al.,
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Learned Motives
Opponent Process Theory: Strong emotions
tend to be followed by an opposite state;
strength of both emotional states over time
Social Motives: Acquired by growing up in a
particular society or culture
Need for Achievement: Desire to meet some
internal standard of excellence
Need for Power: Desire to have social impact
or control over others
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Abraham Maslow and Needs
Hierarchy of Human Needs: Maslows ordering of
needs based on presumed strength or potency; some
needs are more powerful than others and thus will
influence your behavior to a greater degree
Basic Needs: First four levels of needs in Maslows
Lower needs tend to be more potent (prepotent) than
higher needs
Growth Needs: Higher-level needs associated with
Meta-Needs: Needs associated with impulses for
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Fig. 12.12 Maslow believed that lower needs in the hierarchy are dominant. Basic needs must be satisfied
before growth motives are fully expressed. Desires for self-actualization are reflected in various meta-
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Types of Motivation
Intrinsic Motivation: Motivation coming
from within, not from external rewards;
based on personal enjoyment of a task
Extrinsic Motivation: Based on obvious
external rewards, obligations, or similar
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State characterized by physiological arousal
and changes in facial expressions, gestures,
posture, and subjective feelings
Adaptive Behaviors: Aid our attempts to
survive and adjust to changing conditions
Physiological Changes: Include heart rate,
blood pressure, perspiration, and other bodily
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More Emotions
Adrenaline: Hormone produced by
adrenal glands that arouses the body
Emotional Expression: Outward signs of
what a person is feeling
Emotional Feelings: Private emotional

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Primary Emotions and Mood
Eight primary emotions (Plutchik, 2001)

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Primary Emotions and Mood (cont.)
Mood: Low-intensity, long-lasting
emotional state
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Fig. 12.13 Primary and mixed emotions. In
Robert Plutchiks model there are eight
primary emotions, as listed in the inner areas.
Adjacent emotions may combine to give the
emotions listed around the perimeter.
Mixtures involving more widely separated
emotions are also possible. For example, fear
plus anticipation produces anxiety. (Adapted
from Plutchik, 2001.)
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Brain and Emotion
Amygdala: Part of limbic system that produces
fear responses
Autonomic Nervous System (ANS): Neural
system that connects brain with internal
organs and glands
Sympathetic Branch: Part of ANS that
activates body for emergency action
Parasympathetic Branch: Part of ANS that
quiets body and conserves energy
Parasympathetic Rebound: Overreaction to intense
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Fig. 12.15 An amygdala can be found buried within the temporal lobes on each side of the brain. The
amygdala appears to provide quick and dirty processing of emotional stimuli that allows us to act
involuntarily to danger.
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CNN Mood Chemicals
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Lie Detectors
Polygraph: Device that records heart rate, blood
pressure, respiration, and galvanic skin response
(GSR); lie detector
GSR: Measures sweating
Irrelevant Questions: Neutral, nonthreatening, non-
emotional questions in a polygraph test
Relevant Questions: Questions to which only
someone guilty should react
Control Questions: Questions that almost always
provoke anxiety in a polygraph (e.g. Have you ever
taken any office supplies?)
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Fig. 12.17 A typical polygraph includes devices for measuring heart rate, blood pressure, respiration, and
galvanic skin response. Pens mounted on the top of the machine make a record of bodily responses on a
moving strip of paper. (right) Changes in the area marked by the arrow indicate emotional arousal. If such
responses appear when a person answers a question, he or she may be lying, but other causes of arousal
are also possible.
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Body Language (Kinesics)
Study of communication through body
movement, posture, gestures, and facial
Emotional Tone: Underlying emotional
Facial Blends: Mix of two or more basic
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Three Types of Facial
Pleasantness-Unpleasantness: Degree
to which a person is experiencing
pleasure or displeasure
Attention-Rejection: Degree of attention
given to a person or object
Activation: Degree of arousal a person
is experiencing
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Fig. 12.18 When shown groups of simplified faces (without labels) the angry and scheming faces jumped
out at people faster than sad, happy, or neutral faces. An ability to rapidly detect threatening expressions
probably helped our ancestors survive (adapted from Tipples, Atkinson & Young, 2002).
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Detecting Lies
Illustrators: Gestures people use to
illustrate what they are saying
Emblems: Gestures that have widely
understood meanings within a particular
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Theories of Emotion
James-Lange Theory: Emotional feelings follow
bodily arousal and come from awareness of such
Cannon-Bard Theory: The thalamus (in brain) causes
emotional feelings and bodily arousal at the same
Schachters Cognitive Theory: Emotions occur when
a label is applied to general physical arousal
Attribution: Mental process of assigning causes to
events; attributing arousal to a certain source
Facial Feedback Hypothesis: Sensations from facial
expressions and becoming aware of them is what
leads to the emotion someone feels
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Fig. 12.21 Theories of emotion.
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A Modern View of Emotion
Emotional Appraisal: Evaluating personal
meaning of a stimulus
Emotional Intelligence: Combination of skills,
including empathy, self-control, and self-
awareness; includes:
Managing, understanding, and using emotions

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Fig. 12.23 A contemporary model of emotion.
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Nature of Love
Sternbergs Triangular Theory of Love: Love is
made up of intimacy, passion, and commitment
Intimacy: Affection, sharing, support, and
communication in a relationship
Passion: High levels of physical arousal in a
relationship, especially sexual
Commitment: Decision to love and stay with
another person
Infatuation: Passion without commitment or
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Fig. 12.24 Sternbergs triangular theory of love.
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Types of Love
Liking: Intimacy without passion or
Romantic Love: Intimacy plus passion
Fatuous Love: Passion with
commitment, but lacking intimacy
Infatuation: Passion without
commitment or intimacy
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More Types of Love
Companionate Love: Intimacy and
commitment without passion
Empty Love: Commitment without
intimacy or passion
Consummate Love: Passion, intimacy,
and commitment