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ENGINEERING GRAPHICS

1E9

Lecture 3: Isometric

Projections

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 2

What is ISOMETRIC?

It is a method of producing pictorial view

of an object showing all three faces of the

object simultaneously.

It is a type of parallel projection

It is a type of axonometric projection

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 3

Axonometric Projections

Observer at infinity

Projectors parallel to each other and perpendicular

to projection plane

Object is inclined with respect to projection plane

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 4

Types of Axonometric

Projections

Isometric Projection

Dimetric Projection

Trimetric Projection

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 5

Isometric Projections

All angles between axonometric axes are

equal

The three coordinate axes of the object

appear equally foreshortened (about 3/4

th

of true length)

The angles between any two of the

three coordinate axes is 120

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 6

Isometric Terminology

The three coordinate axes are called

isometric axes

Any line parallel to isometric axes is called

isometric line

A non-isometric line is a line not

parallel to any one of the three

isometric axis

In isometric projection of cube, the faces of

the cube and any plane parallel to them is

called isometric planes

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 7

Isometric Scale

True lengths of the edges of the object are

equally foreshortened

Correct isometric projection can be drawn

using an isometric scale (always smaller

than ordinary scale)

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 8

Isometric Drawing

Isometric Projection:

Drawing prepared

with isometric scale on

isometric axes

Isometric Drawing:

Drawing prepared

with ordinary scale

on isometric axes

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 9

Steps:

Step 1

Isometric sketches begin with defining

isometric axes, three lines, one vertical

and two drawn at 30 from the horizontal.

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 10

Steps:

Step 2

Three lines of the isometric axes represent

the three primary dimensions of the

object: width, height, and depth

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 11

Steps:

Step 3

Draw the font face of the isometric block.

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 12

Steps:

Step 4

Draw the rest of the isometric block.

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 13

Steps:

Step 5

Add details to the block starting from the

front face. Then add details to the other

faces.

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 14

Steps:

Step 6

Darken all visible lines to complete the

isometric sketch. (make sure that

construction lines are light)

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 15

Axonometric projection shows all 3 dimensions,

length, width and height.

The isometric lines are only drawn to scale. Objects

composed entirely of isometric lines can be drawn

by taking all measurements parallel to main edges

of the enclosing box.

Non-isometric lines are drawn by transferring the

ordinates (which are on isometric lines) of the end

of the lines

Inclined and oblique surfaces are drawn using end

coordinates. Box construction and offset

measurements are common methods

In an isometric drawing, an angle never appears

in its true size. Angles, irregular curves require

special techniques

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 16

Objects with Normal Surfaces

Make an Isometric Drawing with corner A

at the bottom

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 17

Objects with Normal Surfaces

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 18

Objects with Oblique Surfaces

Make an Isometric Drawing with corner A

at the bottom

NON-ISOMETRIC LINE

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 19

Objects with Oblique Surfaces

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 20

Objects with Non-isometric

Lines

Make an Isometric Drawing with apex A

facing front

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 21

Objects with Non-isometric Lines

Non-isometric lines are drawn with box construction

and offset measurements

Non-isometric lines are not drawn in true length in

isometric drawing (BA is shorter than CA in this

drawing)

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 22

Irregular Objects

Make an Isometric Drawing of the following

irregular object (pyramid)

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 23

Irregular Objects

OA and OB offsets help to locate apex O

Complete box construction may not be

needed in each case

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 24

Objects with Circular Geometry

A circle in a orthographic projection will appear as

an ellipse in an isometric drawing.

Instead of actual ellipses often approximate ellipses

are drawn for isometric drawing.

Four-centre ellipses are used to approximate ellipses

on isometric planes.

How to draw four-centre ellipse???

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 25

Approximate Ellipse

Draw the isometric centre lines of the circle.

Using the centre lines, draw an isometric square with sides

equal to the diameter of the circle.

From the near corners of the box, draw two large arcs with

radius R, using the two red points as centres.

Draw the two smaller arcs with radius r, using two green points

as centres.

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 26

Cylinder

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 27

Objects with Circular Geometry

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 28

Objects with Non-Circular Curved

Surfaces

Make an Isometric Drawing of the following

curved object

Lecture 3 Tuesday, 14 October 2014 29

Objects with Non-Circular Curved Surfaces

A line that appears as a noncircular curve in a normal

orthographic view of an object appears as a non-isometric line in

an isometric drawing.

Curves may be drawn using a series of points by measuring

along the normal lines in the orthographic view (offset

measurements) and transferring these points on isometric

drawing. Accuracy increases with number of points.

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