Basics of Geographical Information System

The session will cover the following topics:
 Concept of GIS
– What is GIS, its components – Functions of GIS software – Representation of objects in GIS

 Probable fields of GIS applications
– Contributing disciplines and technologies

 Data organization in GIS
– Types of Geographic data representation

 Desktop GIS  Introduction to ArcView GIS software
– Component or modules in ArcView – Brief functionalities of different modules etc.

What is GIS?
GIS = Geographic Information System
 Information about places on the Earth's surface e.g population of a country, educational infrastructure  Knowledge about where something is e.g. locations of school or college  Knowledge about what is at a given location e.g. Number of students or teachers and other status GIS is a computer-based tool for solving real-world problems. A GIS integrates information in such a way that it helps us to understand and find solutions to problems. The objects are stored in a database and dynamically linked to an onscreen map, which displays graphics representing realworld objects.

What is GIS?
Functions of GIS • • • • Storing Manipulating Displaying Analyze, query and produce outputs

 GIS is the Information System, whether automated or manual management of Geographic data (spatial data and associated attribute data) for planning purposes.  GIS is a very powerful Planning Tools used to efficiently analyze and manage (input, store, retrieve, manipulate, analyze and output) geographic information.  GIS solves a problem, supports a decision and helps to plan  The ability to incorporate spatial data, manage it, analyze it, and answer spatial questions is the distinctive characteristic of geographic information systems.

Components of a GIS
 Trained manpower  Data
 Maps, images, attribute data

 Hardware
 Like any other hardware  with some extra component  (big printer, digitizer…)

 Software
 Storing data, analysis tools

 Procedures
 Database development and analysis

 Presentation
 On paper map, digital

Functions of GIS
The GIS is capable of finding solutions to real-world problems. A GIS has the following capabilities:  Data Capture  Store Data  Data Manipulation and Editing  Database Management  Data Integration and Modeling  Database Query and Analysis  Customization and Tools Development  Output Preparation

GIS concepts

Modeling the space in layers

GIS concepts (contd.)
• Integrate graphics of a feature with its attribute using identifier

Representation of objects in GIS
902031 id polygon



Person name

Address H-49, R-27, Banani registration Date 1/1/1990

Presenting Geographic Data
GIS data can be represented as:

– real world objects with graphics and geographic features – attributes (tabular format) and relate them with identifiers
9001274902031 id


Tabular format

Plot Boundary (Polygon) House location (Point) Road 27 (Line)

Id Owner name Adres s Regis tration Date Latitu 22, 25, 9001274902031 Mr. Karim House - 49. Road - 27, Banani 1/1/1990 22, 27, 9001274902032 Mr. Rahim House - 50. Road - 27, Banani 1/2/1990

Geographic features

GIS Application Areas
• Urban Planning, Management and Policy - Zoning, subdivision planning - Tax assessment - Education system Environmental Science - Monitoring environmental risk - EIA Utility and Civil Engineering - Locating underground facilities - Designing alignment for freeways, transit - Coordination of infrastructure maintenance Business - Market analysis - Demographic analysis - Site selection

GIS Application Areas (contd.)
• Health Care - Epidemiological analysis - Service inventory - Needs analysis Real Estate - Neighborhood land price - Traffic impact analysis - determination of highest and best use of land Hydrology - Watershed management, floodplain management - Floodplain zonation - Flood risk and damage assessment - Storm water and groundwater modeling Political Science - Analysis of election results - Predictive modeling

Presenting Geographic Data
The real world objects can be represented by different features are:

 Line – river, road, embankment etc.  Point – health center, district headquarters,
wells, educational institute etc.

 Polygon – Upazila boundary,
boundary etc.


GIS Data Format
 ArcView GIS has the compatibility of all the ESRI data formats:
Coverages, Shapefiles, Grids,images etc.

 ArcView GIS also supports variety of common image format.

Coverage Coverage Shapefile Shapefile Internet Map Services Internet Map Services

Raster Raster

Tables Tables

ArcView GIS ArcView GIS

GIS Data Format
• • • • Shapefiles is compatible file format of ArcView GIS and It is also compatible with ArcGIS. Each shapefile stores features belonging to a single feature class. Attributes stored in a dBASE table. Shapes are represented by different features are: - Points - Line, polylines - Polygons


Line / Polyline


Data Analysis
• • A GIS is able to analyze the spatial relationships among multiple datasets to answer questions and solve problems. There are many types of geographic analysis :
- Proximity Analysis - Overlay Analysis etc. Proximity analysis Proximity analysis uses the distance between features to answer questions like: • How many schools are there within 1000 meters of the road? • What is the total number of customers within 10 kilometers of Agora? • What proportion of the wheat crop is within 500 meters of the well?
Which Schools are within Which Schools are within 1000 meter of the road 1000 meter of the road

A 1000-meter buffer is created on either side of the road to find the schools within the 1000-meter distance.

ArcView: GIS Software
ArcView, a product of Environment System Research Institute (ESRI), is a software that provides the basic GIS functionality with an easy-to-use graphic user interface(GUI) which can be customised for specific applications. Desktop GIS refer to a GIS that can be installed on a desktop computer. It aims to provide the user the GIS analysis, query with mapping facilities.

Capacity • captures spatial data • provides a set of tools for spatial data manipulation • retrieves data from existing or newly created databases • produces thematic maps • supports add-on new modules with extensions.1

Presenting Geographic Data (cont.)

Presenting Geographic Data (cont.)
LGED Projects BWDB Projects

Examples of GIS Application

Mapping Arsenic concentration

Examples of GIS Application

Soil Salinity Distribution 1973

Examples of GIS Application

AG location Bangladesh

Adarsha Gram Location mapping

Introduction Slid

Dec 18, 2009


1.Geographical Information Systems : David J Maguire, Michael F Goodchild & David W Rhind: Great Britain, 1994, Vol. 1 & 2 2.Concepts & Techniques of Geographic Information Systems: C.P. LO & Albert K W Yeung: India, 2005 3.Introductory reading in Geographic Information Systems: D J Peuquet & D F Marble: London, 1993

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