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Individual

Individuals react differently in same


situations
Differences are affected by biological
or individual factors and the
environment theyve brought up
Biological or Individual
Factors
Age
Gender
Religion
Marital Status
Tenure
Ability

Emotional Intelligence
Form of social intelligence that
involves the ability to monitor ones
own and others feelings and
emotions, to discriminate among
them, and to use this information to
guide ones thinking and action

Learned Characteristics
Personality
Attitude
Perception
Values
Group
Two or more individuals interacting
and
interdependent, who have come
together to achieve particular
objectives.


Types of Groups
Formal Group
Designated work group defined by the
organizations structure
Distinctive stature of formal groups is that
a hierarchy of authority exists with
specified member, rules & regulations

Types of Groups
Informal Group
Group that is neither formally structured
nor organizationally determined
Relates to natural formations in the work
environment which appear in response to
the need for social contract
Group dynamics
Concerned with interaction and forces
between group members in a social
situation

Norms
Acceptable standards shared and
adopted by the members of a group
Influence the group's behavior with a
minimum of external controls
Exert pressure upon members to bring
their behavior into conformity with the
standards of the group
Types of Norms
Performance Norms
Appearance Norms
Behavior Norms
Status
Refers to the official position enjoyed
by an individual in an organization
Standing of a person in a group
depends on various factors such as
personal attributes, charismatic
disposition, demographic
characteristics, educational level,
experience, length of service in the
organization, expertise, and proven
track record in accomplishing group
task
Cohesiveness
Degree to which group members are
attracted to each other and are
motivated to stay in the group

Conformity
Members in the organization want to
belong to a group

Groupthink
Phenomenon in which the norms for
consensus overrides the realistic
appraisal of alternative course of
action Groupthink is a situation
Societal Values
Values
Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-
state of existence is personally or socially preferable to
an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of
existence
Societal Values
Individualism
The degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather
than a member of groups.
Collectivism
A tight social framework in which people expect others in groups
of which they are a part to look after them and protect them.
Societal Values
Power Distance
Extent to which individuals in a society accepts
status and power inequalities as a normal and
functional aspect of life
Uncertainty Avoidance
Extent to which individuals rely on procedures
and organizations to avoid ambiguity,
unpredictability, and risk.
Gender role orientation
Extent to which a society reinforces, or does not
reinforce, traditional motions of masculinity
versus femininity