ADVANCED PHYSIOLOGY

LYMPHATICS & BLOOD VESSELS
MR. REY P. SO-ONG MSciEd Biology

LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
♥Functions ♠1) Maintenance of fluid balance in
the internal environment ♦Drain interstitial fluid ♠2) Transport lipids ♠3) Carries out immune responses

2

3

♥Plasma filters into the interstitial

Maintaining Fluid Balance

spaces from blood flowing through the capillaries ♥Much of this interstitial fluid is absorbed by tissue cells or reabsorbed by the blood before it flows out of the tissue ♥A small amount of interstitial fluid is left behind

4

5

♥If this would continue over even a brief
period of time, the increased interstitial fluid would cause massive edema ♥This edema would causes tissue destruction or death

Maintaining Fluid Balance

6

7

♥This problem is avoided by the

Maintaining Fluid Balance

presence of lymphatic vessels that act as "drains" to collect the excess fluid and return it to the venous blood just before it reaches the heart

8

9

Lymphatic System
♥Consists of: ♠1) lymphatic vessels ♠2) lymph ♠3) lymph nodes ♠4) organs which

contain lymph tissue ♠5) red bone marrow

10

11

Lymphatic Vessels
♥The lymphatic
system is a specialized component of the circulatory system ♥Lymphatic vessels parallel veins

12

13

Lymphatic Vessels
♥The lymphatic system differs from the
circulatory system in that the lymphatics do not form a closed ring or circuit ♠Instead, begin blindly in the intercellular spaces of the soft tissues of the body

14

15

Lymphatic Vessels
♥Lymphatic capillaries flow to larger
lymphatic vessels ♥Drain lymph to right subclavian vein and thoracic duct

16

17

Lymphatic Vessels
♥Lymph flows through lymph nodes
scattered along lymphatic vessels ♥Lacateals in villi of small intestine absorbs and transports lipids to lymphatic vessels

18

19

♥Lymphatic vessels resemble veins in

Structure of Lymphatic Vessels

structure with these exceptions: ♠have thinner walls ♠contain more valves ♠contain lymph nodes located at certain intervals along their course

20

21

♥The high degree of capillary

Functions of Lymphatic Vessels

permeability permits large molecular weight substances which cannot be absorbed by the blood capillary to be removed from the interstitial spaces ♠Proteins that accumulate in the interstitial spaces can return to the blood only via lymphatics

22

23

♥Each day about 50% of the total blood

Functions of Lymphatic Vessels

proteins leak out of the capillaries into the tissue fluid and return to the blood via the lymphatic vessels

24

25

Lymphatic Pump
♥no muscular pumping organ connected
with the lymphatic vessels to force lymph onward ♥Lymph flows through the thoracic duct and reenters the general circulation at the rate of 125 mL/hour

26

27

Lymphatic Pump
♥Occurs despite the fact that most of
the flow is against gravity or "uphill" ♥Lymph moves through the system in the right direction because of the large number of valves that permit fluid flow only in one direction

28

Lymphatic Pump
♥The movement is due to breathing
movements and skeletal muscle contractions

29

30

Lymph
♥a moving fluid (lymph) derived from
the blood and tissue fluid ♥Fluid formed from excess plasma fluid ♠App. 3L/day

31

32

♥Essentially the same

Lymph and Interstitial Fluid

fluid ♠Lymph ♦clear, watery fluid found in the lymphatic vessels ♠Interstitial fluid ♦fluid that fills the spaces around cells

33

34

Lymph Nodes
♥Lymph nodes located along
the paths of collecting vessels ♥Isolated nodules of lymphatic patches in the intestinal wall

35

36

♥Lymph nodes are oval-shaped of beanshaped structures ♠Some are as small as a pinhead and others as large as a lima bean

Structure of Lymph Nodes

37

38

Structure of Lymph is enclosed ♥Each lymph node Nodes by a

fibrous capsule ♥Think of a lymph node as a biological filter placed in the channel of several afferent lymph vessels ♠Reticular fibers trap foreign substances ♠Macrophages and lymphocytes destroy trapped material

39

40

♥Once lymph enters the node, it

Structure of Lymph Nodes

"percolates" slowly through the spaces known as sinuses before draining into a single efferent draining vessel ♠One-way valves in both the afferent and efferent vessels keep lymph flowing in one direction
41

42

Immune Functions
♥filtration and
phagocytosis ♠The structure of the sinus channels within the lymph nodes slows the lymph flow through them

43

44

♥Allows the phagocytic cells that line the

Immune Functions

channels time to remove microorganisms and other injurious particles (soot) from the lymph ♥Sometimes such large numbers of microorganisms enter the node that the phagocytes cannot destroy enough of them to prevent their injuring the node

Swollen lymph

45

46

Immune Functions
♥An infection of the node ♥cancer cells often
break away from a malignant tumor and enter the lymphatics ♠they travel to the node, where they may set up new growths

47

48

♥Cancer may metastasize or spread

Structure of Lymph Nodes

through the lymph system, lodging in lymph nodes ♥Tumors in nodes are predictable in location because of direction of lymph flow cancerou norm ♠Cancerous lymph nodessenlarged, al firm and non-tender ♠Infectious lymph nodes are tender, not firm
49

Cancerou s

Norma l

Lymph Node Cancer

50

Lymphocytes
♥When an infection is present the node
begins to release lymphocytes ♠Lymphocytes mature in the lymph nodes ♠Lymph nodes are lined with fixed macrophages, capable of phagocytosis

51

Lymphocytes
♥T-cells and macrophages contained on
the rim of the follicles ♥B-cells proliferate in the central germinal centers

52

53

54

55

Lymphocytes
♥The lymphatic tissue of lymph nodes
serve as the sites of the final stages of maturation for some types of lymphocytes and monocytes that have migrated from the bone marrow

T-cell attacking cancer cells

56

Lymph Organs
♥Primary lymphatic organs produce Bcells and T-cells and include: ♠Red bone marrow ♠Thymus gland ♥Secondary lymphatic organs are: ♠Tonsils ♠Spleen

57

Red bone marrow
♥B-cells and pre-T-cells originate in the
bone marrow

58

59

Thymus gland
♥Located behind sternum
and between lungs ♥Thymus performs two important functions: ♠Lymphocyte development ♠Secrete thymosin

60

61

Thymus gland
♥Pre-T-cells migrate from red bone
marrow to thymus ♥Proliferate and mature due to thymic hormone ♥Thymus reaches maximum size at puberty (10-12 months) ♥As an individual matures the thymus gland atrophies
62

63

Tonsils
♥Masses of lymphoid tissue located in a
protective ring under mucous membranes in the mouth and back of the throat ♥Help protect against bacteria that may invade tissues in the area around the openings between the oral and nasal cavities

64

65

Tonsils
♥The tonsils serve as the first line of
defense from the exterior and as such are subject to chronic infection ♠tonsillitis

66

67

Spleen
♥Roughly ovoid in shape ♥Largest mass of lymphatic tissue ♥Does not filter lymph

68

69

♥Phagocytosis of RBC and bacteria ♥Complete maturation of monocytes
and lymphocytes ♥Blood reservoir

Functions of the Spleen

70

71

Phagocytosis
♥As blood passes
through the spleen, macrophages lining these venous spaces remove microorganisms from the blood and destroy them by phagocytosis

72

73

Phagocytosis
♥Macrophages lining the spleen remove
worn-out red blood cells and imperfect platelets from the blood and destroy them by phagocytosis

74

75

Phagocytosis
♥Break apart the
hemoglobin molecules from the destroyed red blood cells and salvage their iron and globin content by returning them to the blood stream for storage in bone marrow and liver

76

77

Blood reservoir
♥Pulp of the spleen
and its venous sinuses store considerable blood which can be released during hemorrhage
Trabecula e White pulp Red pulp

78

lood reservoir

Trabeculae White pulp Red pulp

79

Splenectomy
♥Removal of the
spleen ♥Red bone marrow and liver perform functions of the spleen

80

Disorders of the Lymphatic System
♥Tonsilitis ♥Lymphangitis ♥Elephantiasis ♥Lymphedema ♥Lymphomas ♥Lymph node
cancer

81

TONSILITIS
♥bacterial or viral infection of the
lymphoid tissue of tonsils ♥soreness of the throat, high fever, difficulty swallowing

82

83

LYMPHANGITIS
♥bacterial infection that has spread from
its initial site (skin cut, etc.) to nearby lymph glands ♥chills, fever, swelling of the lymph glands ♠if the lymphatics become inflamed, red lines may appear on the arms or legs indicating concentration of inflammation along the lymph channels
84

85

ELEPHANTIASIS
♥filarial (worm) infestation that blocks
the lymphatics ♥swelling of the area, skin discoloration, difficulty urinating, etc.

86

LYMPHEDEMA
♥blockage or dysfunction of lymph
vessels or nodes ♠often associated with lymphatic disorders following surgery for breast cancer, prostate cancer, etc. ♥swelling of arms ♠breast cancer surgery, radiation ♥swelling of legs ♠prostate cancer and gynecologic cancer surgery, with or without radiation
87

♥Hodgkin’s Disease ♥loss of energy,

LYMPHOMAS / LYMPHOSARCOMAS

appetite, and weight; swelling in glands ♥radiation therapy, chemotherapy ♠Lymphomas can be cured with early diagnosis and treatment
88

89

♥Symptoms include: ♠loss of energy, appetite, and weight ♠swelling and hardening of glands ♥surgical removal, radiation therapy,
chemotherapy
Cancerou s tissue

CANCER OF LYMPH GLANDS

90

Blood Vessels
Arteries Arterioles Capillaries Venules Veins

91

Arteries
♥Three coats (tunics) line the vessels ♠Intima (tunica interna) ♠Media (tunica media) ♠Adventia (tunica externa)

92

93

Intima
♥Inner layer ♠Endothelium lining ♠Basal layer ♠Elastic layer

94

95

Intima
♥Inner layer ♠Endothelium lining ♠Basal layer ♠Elastic layer

96

97

Tunica media
♥Middle layer ♠Elastic fibers ♠Smooth muscle fibers

98

99

Tunica media
♥Middle layer ♠Elastic fibers ♠Smooth muscle fibers

100

101

Adventia
♥Outer layer ♠Elastic fibers ♠Collagen fibers

102

103

Adventia
♥Outer layer ♠Elastic fibers ♠Collagen fibers

104

105

A - adventia M - tunica media I - intima A M I

Artery

106

Vasoconstriction
♥Smooth muscle contracts ♠Arterial lumen size decreases
Click mouse to see animation

107

Vasodilation
♥Smooth muscle relaxes ♠Arterial lumen size increases
Click mouse to see animation

108

Elastic Arteries
♥Large ♠Tunica media contains more elastic
fibers, less smooth muscle

109

Elastic Arteries
♥Walls stretch and
momentarily store some of the energy of surging blood ♥During relaxation of the heart they recoil converting stored (potential) energy into kinetic energy

110

Muscular Arteries
♥Tunica media
contains more smooth muscle and fewer elastic fibers

111

Muscular Arteries
♥Capable of greater vasoconstriction

112

Anastomoses
♥Union of branches of two or more
arteries supplying the same body region ♥Provide alternate routes for blood to reach a tissue

113

Arterioles
♥Fewer elastic fibers than arteries

114

Arterioles
♥Function in
regulating blood flow from arteries into capillaries

115

Arterioles

116

Capillaries
♥Microscopic single cell layer (endothelium)
thick ♥Function in exchange of substances between blood and interstitial fluids

117

Capillaries
♥Three types of capillaries ♠Continuous ♠Fenestrated ♠Sinusoid

118

Continuous capillaries
♥Small gaps between endothelial cells ♥Muscle, lungs

119

♥More openings (pores) than continuous
capillaries ♥Kidneys, small intestine, brain

Fenestrated capillaries

120

Sinusoid capillaries
♥Large openings ♥Basement membrane is incomplete ♥Liver, spleen, bone marrow

121

Venules
♥Collect blood from capillaries

122

Venules

123

♥Tunics same as arteries ♠Intima is thinner in veins ♠Tunic externa (adventia) is thicker in
veins

Veins

124

Veins
♥Blood pressure lower in veins, thus
thinner walls

V A

Vein

Artery
125

Veins

126

Veins
♥Lumens contain flap like cusps (valves)

127

128

129

Veins
♥Valves prevent back flow of blood ♥Muscular contraction forces blood
through veins

130

♥Atherosclerosis ♥Aneurysm ♥Varicose veins

Disorders of Blood Vessels

131

Atherosclerosis
♥Cholesterol plaque builds up on the
arterial wall ♥Constricts flow of blood

132

Atherosclerosis

133

Atherosclerosis

134

Atherosclerosis

135

Atherosclerosis
♥Treatments ♠Arthrectomy ♠Angioplasty

136

Aneurysm
♥A weakening of the arteriole wall
causes an out pouching of the artery

137

Aneurysm
♥A weakening of the arteriole wall
causes an out pouching of the artery

138

♥Bulging of veins caused by a pooling of
blood behind the venous valves ♥Out pouching of the walls brings veins closer to the surface of the skin

Varicose Veins

139

End Lymphatics and Blood Vessels

Living with Anemia
Click here
140

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful