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3.

2 Linear momentum and its


conservation
3.3 Elastic and non-elastic collision
A moving object has mass and velocity.

Momentum of an object is defined as the
product of its mass and velocity.

Momentum = mass x velocity
p = m v
The SI unit of momentum = kg ms
-1

Momentum is a vector quantity.
The direction of the momentum is the
same with as the direction of the velocity.

The principle of Conservation of Momentum states that
The total momentum in a closed system is
constant, if no external force acts on the system.
That is
The total momentum
before a collision
The total momentum
after a collision
=
In the golf game, the golf club is swung at a high
speed to hit the ball so that a large momentum is
transferred to the ball.
In rocket, hot gases are ejected downwards with
high speed, so a large momentum is produced
too. By conservation of momentum, an equal
and opposite momentum is acted on rocket,
propelling the rocket upwards.
The principle of Conservation of Momentum is
true for

Collision

Explosion
Inelastic collision
Elastic collision
Impulse = Momentum
Consider Newtons 2
nd
Law
and the definition of
acceleration




Units of Impulse:
Units of Momentum:
Momentum is defined as Inertia in Motion
Ns
Kg x m/s
Impulse Momentum Theorem
v m Ft
IMPULSE CHANGE IN MOMENTUM
This theorem reveals some
interesting relationships such as
the INVERSE relationship between
FORCE and TIME
t
v m
F

Impulse Momentum Relationships


Impulse Momentum Relationships
V m fT
Constant
Since TIME is directly related to the
VELOCITY when the force and mass are
constant, the LONGER the cannonball is
in the barrel the greater the velocity.

Also, you could say that the force acts
over a larger displacement, thus there is
more WORK. The work done on the
cannonball turns into kinetic energy.
How about a collision?
Consider 2 objects speeding
toward each other. When they
collide......

Due to Newtons 3
rd
Law the
FORCE they exert on each
other are EQUAL and
OPPOSITE.

The TIMES of impact are also
equal.

Therefore, the IMPULSES of the 2
objects colliding are also
EQUAL

2 1
2 1
2 1 2 1
) ( ) (
J J
Ft Ft
t t F F



How about a collision?
If the Impulses are equal
then the MOMENTUMS
are also equal!
2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1
2 2 2 1 1 1
2 2 1 1
2 1
2 1
) ( ) (
o o
o o
v m v m v m v m
v v m v v m
v m v m
p p
J J





2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
v m v m v m v m
p p
o o
after before



Momentum is conserved!
The Law of Conservation of Momentum: In the
absence of an external force (gravity, friction), the
total momentum before the collision is equal to
the total momentum after the collision.
s m kg p
s m kg p
s m kg p
s m kg p
s m kg p
s m kg mv p
total
car
truck
total o
car o
o truck o
/ * 3300
/ * 1800 5 . 4 * 400
/ * 1500 3 * 500
/ * 3300
/ * 800 ) 2 )( 400 (
/ * 2500 ) 5 )( 500 (
) (
) (
) (



Types of Collisions
A situation where the objects DO NOT STICK is
one type of collision
Notice that in EACH case, you have TWO objects BEFORE and AFTER the collision.

The two objects move independently with their
respective velocities after the collision.
Total momentum before collision = total momentum after
collision
m
1
u
1
+ m
2
u
2
= m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2

Kinetic energy is conserved.
m
2
m
1

u
1
u
2

m
1

v
1

m
2

v
2

A no stick type collision
Sp
before =
Sp
after




1
1
1
2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1
1000 10000
) 10 )( 3000 ( ) )( 1000 ( 0 ) 20 )( 1000 (
v
v
v
v m v m v m v m
o o
-10 m/s
Types of Collisions
Another type of collision is one where the
objects STICK together. Notice you have
TWO objects before the collision and ONE
object after the collision.

The two objects combine and move together with a
common velocity after the collision.
Total momentum before collision = total momentum after collision
m
1
u
1
+ m
2
u
2
= (m
1
+ m
2
)v
Kinetic energy is not conserved.
m
2
m
1

u
1
u
2

m
1

v
m
2

A stick type of collision
Sp
before =
Sp
after




T
T
T
T T o o
v
v
v
v m v m v m
4000 20000
) 4000 ( 0 ) 20 )( 1000 (
2 2 1 1
5 m/s
The explosion type
This type is often referred to as
backwards inelastic. Notice you have
ONE object ( we treat this as a
SYSTEM) before the explosion and
TWO objects after the explosion.

Explosion means the separation of objects
which are initially rest.
m
1

u
1
= u
2
= 0
m
2
m
2

v
2

m
1

v
1

Total momentum before collision = total momentum after collision
m
1
u
1
+ m
2
u
2
= m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2

0 = m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2

Backwards Inelastic - Explosions
Suppose we have a 4-kg rifle
loaded with a 0.010 kg bullet.
When the rifle is fired the
bullet exits the barrel with a
velocity of 300 m/s. How fast
does the gun RECOIL
backwards?
Sp
before =
Sp
after




2
2
2
2 2 1 1
4 3 0
) )( 4 ( ) 300 )( 010 . 0 ( ) 0 )( 010 . 4 (
v
v
v
v m v m v m
T T
-0.75 m/s
Collision Summary
Sometimes objects stick together or blow apart.
In this case, momentum is ALWAYS conserved.
2 2 1 1 ) (
02 2 01 1
2 2 1 1 02 2 01 1
v m v m v m
v m v m v m
v m v m v m v m
p p
total o total
total total
after before





When 2 objects collide and DONT stick
When 2 objects collide and stick together
When 1 object breaks into 2 objects
Elastic Collision = Kinetic Energy is Conserved
Inelastic Collision = Kinetic Energy is NOT Conserved
Elastic Collision
J Af ter KE
J Af ter KE
J mv Bef ore KE
car
truck
car
000 , 50 ) 10 )( 1000 ( 5 . 0 ) (
000 , 150 ) 10 )( 3000 ( 5 . 0 ) (
000 , 200 ) 20 )( 1000 ( 5 . 0
2
1
) (
2
2
2 2



Since KINETIC ENERGY is conserved during the collision we call this an ELASTIC
COLLISION.
Inelastic Collision
J After KE
J mv Before KE
car truck
car
000 , 50 ) 5 )( 4000 ( 5 . 0 ) (
000 , 200 ) 20 )( 1000 ( 5 . 0
2
1
) (
2
/
2 2


Since KINETIC ENERGY was NOT conserved during the collision we call this an
INELASTIC COLLISION.
Example
Granny (m=80 kg) whizzes around
the rink with a velocity of 6 m/s.
She suddenly collides with Ali
(m=40 kg) who is at rest directly
in her path. Rather than knock
him over, she picks him up and
continues in motion without
"braking." Determine the velocity
of Granny and Ali.
How many objects do I have before the collision?



How many objects do I have after the collision?
2
1


T
T
T T o o
a b
v
v
v m v m v m
p p
120 ) 0 )( 40 ( ) 6 )( 80 (
2 2 1 1
4 m/s