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3.2 Linear momentum and its conservation
3.3 Elastic and non-elastic collision

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conservation

3.3 Elastic and non-elastic collision

A moving object has mass and velocity.

Momentum of an object is defined as the

product of its mass and velocity.

Momentum = mass x velocity

p = m v

The SI unit of momentum = kg ms

-1

Momentum is a vector quantity.

The direction of the momentum is the

same with as the direction of the velocity.

The principle of Conservation of Momentum states that

The total momentum in a closed system is

constant, if no external force acts on the system.

That is

The total momentum

before a collision

The total momentum

after a collision

=

In the golf game, the golf club is swung at a high

speed to hit the ball so that a large momentum is

transferred to the ball.

In rocket, hot gases are ejected downwards with

high speed, so a large momentum is produced

too. By conservation of momentum, an equal

and opposite momentum is acted on rocket,

propelling the rocket upwards.

The principle of Conservation of Momentum is

true for

Collision

Explosion

Inelastic collision

Elastic collision

Impulse = Momentum

Consider Newtons 2

nd

Law

and the definition of

acceleration

Units of Impulse:

Units of Momentum:

Momentum is defined as Inertia in Motion

Ns

Kg x m/s

Impulse Momentum Theorem

v m Ft

IMPULSE CHANGE IN MOMENTUM

This theorem reveals some

interesting relationships such as

the INVERSE relationship between

FORCE and TIME

t

v m

F

Impulse Momentum Relationships

V m fT

Constant

Since TIME is directly related to the

VELOCITY when the force and mass are

constant, the LONGER the cannonball is

in the barrel the greater the velocity.

Also, you could say that the force acts

over a larger displacement, thus there is

more WORK. The work done on the

cannonball turns into kinetic energy.

How about a collision?

Consider 2 objects speeding

toward each other. When they

collide......

Due to Newtons 3

rd

Law the

FORCE they exert on each

other are EQUAL and

OPPOSITE.

The TIMES of impact are also

equal.

Therefore, the IMPULSES of the 2

objects colliding are also

EQUAL

2 1

2 1

2 1 2 1

) ( ) (

J J

Ft Ft

t t F F

How about a collision?

If the Impulses are equal

then the MOMENTUMS

are also equal!

2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 1 1 1

2 2 1 1

2 1

2 1

) ( ) (

o o

o o

v m v m v m v m

v v m v v m

v m v m

p p

J J

2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1

v m v m v m v m

p p

o o

after before

Momentum is conserved!

The Law of Conservation of Momentum: In the

absence of an external force (gravity, friction), the

total momentum before the collision is equal to

the total momentum after the collision.

s m kg p

s m kg p

s m kg p

s m kg p

s m kg p

s m kg mv p

total

car

truck

total o

car o

o truck o

/ * 3300

/ * 1800 5 . 4 * 400

/ * 1500 3 * 500

/ * 3300

/ * 800 ) 2 )( 400 (

/ * 2500 ) 5 )( 500 (

) (

) (

) (

Types of Collisions

A situation where the objects DO NOT STICK is

one type of collision

Notice that in EACH case, you have TWO objects BEFORE and AFTER the collision.

The two objects move independently with their

respective velocities after the collision.

Total momentum before collision = total momentum after

collision

m

1

u

1

+ m

2

u

2

= m

1

v

1

+ m

2

v

2

Kinetic energy is conserved.

m

2

m

1

u

1

u

2

m

1

v

1

m

2

v

2

A no stick type collision

Sp

before =

Sp

after

1

1

1

2 2 1 1 2 2 1 1

1000 10000

) 10 )( 3000 ( ) )( 1000 ( 0 ) 20 )( 1000 (

v

v

v

v m v m v m v m

o o

-10 m/s

Types of Collisions

Another type of collision is one where the

objects STICK together. Notice you have

TWO objects before the collision and ONE

object after the collision.

The two objects combine and move together with a

common velocity after the collision.

Total momentum before collision = total momentum after collision

m

1

u

1

+ m

2

u

2

= (m

1

+ m

2

)v

Kinetic energy is not conserved.

m

2

m

1

u

1

u

2

m

1

v

m

2

A stick type of collision

Sp

before =

Sp

after

T

T

T

T T o o

v

v

v

v m v m v m

4000 20000

) 4000 ( 0 ) 20 )( 1000 (

2 2 1 1

5 m/s

The explosion type

This type is often referred to as

backwards inelastic. Notice you have

ONE object ( we treat this as a

SYSTEM) before the explosion and

TWO objects after the explosion.

Explosion means the separation of objects

which are initially rest.

m

1

u

1

= u

2

= 0

m

2

m

2

v

2

m

1

v

1

Total momentum before collision = total momentum after collision

m

1

u

1

+ m

2

u

2

= m

1

v

1

+ m

2

v

2

0 = m

1

v

1

+ m

2

v

2

Backwards Inelastic - Explosions

Suppose we have a 4-kg rifle

loaded with a 0.010 kg bullet.

When the rifle is fired the

bullet exits the barrel with a

velocity of 300 m/s. How fast

does the gun RECOIL

backwards?

Sp

before =

Sp

after

2

2

2

2 2 1 1

4 3 0

) )( 4 ( ) 300 )( 010 . 0 ( ) 0 )( 010 . 4 (

v

v

v

v m v m v m

T T

-0.75 m/s

Collision Summary

Sometimes objects stick together or blow apart.

In this case, momentum is ALWAYS conserved.

2 2 1 1 ) (

02 2 01 1

2 2 1 1 02 2 01 1

v m v m v m

v m v m v m

v m v m v m v m

p p

total o total

total total

after before

When 2 objects collide and DONT stick

When 2 objects collide and stick together

When 1 object breaks into 2 objects

Elastic Collision = Kinetic Energy is Conserved

Inelastic Collision = Kinetic Energy is NOT Conserved

Elastic Collision

J Af ter KE

J Af ter KE

J mv Bef ore KE

car

truck

car

000 , 50 ) 10 )( 1000 ( 5 . 0 ) (

000 , 150 ) 10 )( 3000 ( 5 . 0 ) (

000 , 200 ) 20 )( 1000 ( 5 . 0

2

1

) (

2

2

2 2

Since KINETIC ENERGY is conserved during the collision we call this an ELASTIC

COLLISION.

Inelastic Collision

J After KE

J mv Before KE

car truck

car

000 , 50 ) 5 )( 4000 ( 5 . 0 ) (

000 , 200 ) 20 )( 1000 ( 5 . 0

2

1

) (

2

/

2 2

Since KINETIC ENERGY was NOT conserved during the collision we call this an

INELASTIC COLLISION.

Example

Granny (m=80 kg) whizzes around

the rink with a velocity of 6 m/s.

She suddenly collides with Ali

(m=40 kg) who is at rest directly

in her path. Rather than knock

him over, she picks him up and

continues in motion without

"braking." Determine the velocity

of Granny and Ali.

How many objects do I have before the collision?

How many objects do I have after the collision?

2

1

T

T

T T o o

a b

v

v

v m v m v m

p p

120 ) 0 )( 40 ( ) 6 )( 80 (

2 2 1 1

4 m/s

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