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TEENAGE EATING DISORDERS

(ANOREXIA & BULIMIA NERVOSA):


WHAT TEACHERS SHOULD KNOW
AND DO.

Farah Diyana binti Abd Rahim 1019042
Noor Azaham binti Khapaji 1011578
Nuruljannah binti Ismail 1012390

DEFINITION

Definition:
Eating Disorders

Eating disorders refer to a group of
conditions defined by abnormal eating
habits that may involve either insufficient or
excessive food intake to the detriment of an
individual's physical and mental health.
Most common are:
1. Anorexia nervosa
2. Bulimia Nervosa
3. Binge Eating


Definition:
Anorexia Nervosa

Anorexia nervosa (AN), also known as
simply Anorexia, is an eating disorder
characterized by refusal to maintain a
healthy body weight, and an obsessive
fear of gaining weight.
Anorexia Nervosa is a disorder,
however, the term "anorexia" refers to
the actual loss of appetite.
Ps: One must be careful when using
these terms interchangeably

Definition: Bulimia Nervosa

People with bulimia, known as
bulimics, consume large amounts of
food (binge) and then try to rid
themselves of the food and calories
(purge) by fasting, excessive
exercise, vomiting, or using
laxatives.

SIGN/ SYMPTOMS

ANOREXIA NERVOSA
Dramatic weight loss
Dresses in layers to hide weight loss
Refuses to eat certain foods,
progressing to restrictions against
whole categories of food (e.g., no
carbohydrates, etc.)
Makes frequent comments about
feeling fat or overweight despite
weight loss
Complains of constipation, abdominal
pain, cold intolerance, lethargy, and
excess energy
Denies feeling hungry
Develops food rituals (e.g., eating
foods in certain orders, excessive
chewing, rearranging food on a plate)
Cooks meals for others without eating
Consistently makes excuses to avoid mealtimes or
situations involving food
Maintains an excessive, rigid exercise regiment
despite weather, fatigue, illness, or injury, the need
to burn off calories taken in
Withdraws from usual friends and activities and
becomes more isolated, withdrawn, and secretive
Seems concerned about eating in public
Resists maintaining body weight at or above a
minimally normal weight for age and height
Has disturbed experience of body weight or shape,
undue influence of weight or shape on self-
evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of low body
weight
Post puberty female loses menstrual period
BULIMIA NERVOSA
In general, behaviors and attitudes indicate that weight
loss, dieting, and control of food are becoming primary
concerns
Evidence of binge eating, including disappearance of
large amounts of food in short periods of time or lots of
empty wrappers and containers indicating consumption
of large amounts of food
Evidence of purging behaviors, including frequent trips
to the bathroom after meals, signs and/ or smells of
vomiting, presence of wrappers or packages of laxatives
or diuretics
Appears uncomfortable eating around others
Develops food rituals (e.g., eats only a particular food or
food group [e.g., condiments], excessive chewing,
doesnt allow foods to touch)
Skips meals or takes small portions of food
at regular meals
Drinks excessive amounts of water
Uses excessive amounts of mouthwash,
mints, and gum
Hides body with baggy clothes
Maintains excessive, rigid exercise regimen
despite weather, fatigue, illness, or injury,
the need to burn off calories
Shows unusual swelling of the cheeks or
jaw area
Has secret recurring episodes of binge
eating (eating in a discrete period of time an
amount of food that is much larger than
most individuals would eat under similar
circumstances); feels lack of control over
ability to stop eating
Purges after a binge (e.g., self-induced
vomiting, abuse of laxatives, diet pills and/or
diuretics, excessive exercise, fasting)
Body weight is typically within the normal
weight range; may be overweight
FACTORS THAT
CONTRIBUTE TO EATING
DISORDER
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS

Low self-esteem
Feelings of inadequacy or lack of
control in life
Depression, anxiety, anger, or
loneliness

INTERPERSONAL FACTORS

Troubled personal relationships
Difficulty expressing emotions and
feelings
History of being teased or ridiculed
based on size or weight
History of physical or sexual abuse
SOCIAL FACTORS

Cultural pressures that glorify thinness and
place value on obtaining the perfect body
Narrow definitions of beauty that include
only women and men of specific body
weights and shapes
Cultural norms that value people on the
basis of physical appearance and not inner
qualities and strengths
BIOLOGICAL FACTORS

Scientists are still researching possible
biochemical or biological causes of eating
disorders. In some individuals with eating
disorders, certain chemicals in the brain that
control hunger, appetite, and digestion have
been found to be unbalanced. The exact
meaning and implications of these
imbalances remains under investigation.
Eating disorders often run in families.
Current research is indicates that there are
significant genetic contributions to eating
disorders.
TREATMENT

TREATING: ANOREXIA NERVOSA
Psychotherapy


Hospitalization monitoring food intake
Medication prescribing antidepressants

Self help- having support groups & families
Nutritional counseling
Counseling
Group
Counseling
amitriptyline
chlorpromazine
TREATING: BULIMIA NERVOSA
Therapy
- Individual psychotherapy
- Group therapy
- Family therapy

Nutrition counseling
Medication (prescribing
antidepressants)
- Desipramine (Norpramin)
- Imipramine (Tofranil)
- Fluoxetine (Prozac)

Hospitalization (if
needed).

ARTICLES ON LINE REGARDING EATING
DISORDERS
The Star: 1 in 10 young girls are prone to eating
disorders

http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2007/6/24/nati
on/17817717&sec=nation

The Star: Lack of awareness on eating disorders

http://thestar.com.my/news/story.asp?file=/2007/6/24/focu
s/20070624074343&sec=focus


STATISTICS
The StarOnline Expert: One in 10 young
girls are prone to eating disorders
(Sunday June 24, 2007)
In a study conducted by chartered
psychologist Dr Hera Lukman, it was
revealed that about one in 10 young urban
female college students is prone to eating
disorders in their quest for a perfect body
shape. She conducted the recent survey
among 578 female college students aged
between 18 and 25 in the Klang Valley.
ROLE OF TEACHERS IN
HELPING STUDENTS
WITH EATING
DISORDER

Becoming familiar with the signs and
symptoms of eating disorders
Serving as role models by being well
nourished and feeling comfortable with their
bodies.
Integrating topics related to eating disorders
into health and science curricula
Addressing issues related to eating
disorders when teaching media literacy
Describing in a reassuring manner the
normal diversity of body sizes and shapes
that exists among teens peers.

Promoting a safe school
environment by refusing to
allow size and sexual
discrimination, teasing, and
name calling.
Taking immediate action when
concern arises about a student

ORGANIZATION FOR EATING
DISORDER

Support for Eating Disorders Singapore
(SEDS)

Comprehensive Care Centres for Eating
Disorders (CCCED)

National Eating Disorders Association
(NEDA)


SUPPORT FOR EATING DISORDERS
SINGAPORE (SEDS)
SEDS was officially launched on 25
February 2001. It was originally a self-
help group started by persons who
have recovered and/or are recovering
from eating disorders, and came under
the umbrella of SAMH in 2001. The
support group is an open group (ie.
anyone can join at any time) for both
persons with eating disorders and their
significant others.

OBJECTIVES

To educate and support persons with
eating disorders and their supporters
in a caring and supportive environment
To educate the public and disseminate
information on the prevalence and
nature of the illness in order to de-
stigmatise the illness and encourage
early treatment and advocacy.

COMPREHENSIVE CARE CENTERS FOR
EATING
DISORDERS (CCCED)
Based on legislation spearheaded by
New York State (NYS), Senator Joseph
Bruno, and funding from the NYS
Department of Health, three CCCEDs
have been established to develop an
integrated system of care that will
assure access to consistent, evidence-
based treatment through a network of
professionals.
In addition this legislation will fund
community outreach, education of
consumers and professionals, and
multi-center research to determine the
effectiveness of various treatments for
eating disorders.

OBJECTIVE
Promote the effective treatment and care of
patients with eating disorders and
associated disorders
Develop and advance initiatives for the
prevention of eating disorders
Disseminate knowledge regarding eating
disorders to members of the Academy, other
professionals and the general public
Stimulate and support research in the field

NATIONAL EATING DISORDERS
ASSOCIATION (NEDA)
a non-profit organization dedicated to supporting
individuals and families affected by eating
disorders. We campaign for prevention, improved
access to quality treatment, and increased research
funding to better understand and treat eating
disorders. We work with partners and volunteers to
develop programs and tools to help everyone who
seeks assistance.
Since 1999, our national toll-free helpline has
assisted families, friends and individuals find
appropriate treatment. NEDA is proud that our
website serves as an entry point for people around
the globe to find information on eating disorders.
We serve as an important and welcome first stop
for those searching for resources.


MISSION:

NEDA supports individuals
and families affected by eating
disorders, and serves as a
catalyst for prevention, cures
and access to quality care.
THE END