You are on page 1of 25


• The RF technology is used in the
project to communicate between
the transmitter and receiver.
• Each transmitter has a unique binary
code which is transmitted
continuously to space in a
particular range.
• This signal is captured by the
receiver when it reaches in its
• So in the case of a train, the
transmitter placed in the station is
detected by the receiver in the
train and the binary code is
• processed to give out the station
name display and audio
corresponding to the binary code in
the receiver.
• A LCD unit is used for displaying the
station name and a speaker is used
for the announcement
• One of the main form of
communication that has been in
use since 19th century is Radio
Wave communication.
• Radio Waves have found its place in
each and every field whether it be
medical, electronics or space.
• In general it exists in every system in
one or the other form.
• The use of Radio Waves had made
1.Power Supply
 The power supply section is the
section which provide +5V for the
transmitter section to work.
• IC LM7805 is used for providing a
2. Encoder

• This section contains the identity of

the transmitter.
• An encoder can be a device used to
change a signal (such as a bit
stream) or data into a code.
1.Power Supply
• power of +5V.

• A decoder is a device which does the

reverse of the encoder, undoing the
• encoding so that the original information
can be retrieved.
3. Microcontroller

• Unlike microprocessors, microcontrollers are

generally optimized for specific
4. RF Receiver

• The RF signal transmitted by the transmitter

is detected and received bythis section of
the receiver.
• This binary encoder data is sent to the
decoder for decoding the original data
5. LCD
• This is the output unit in the receiver
section. The station name is
• displayed on this display unit when
the receiver comes in the range of
the transmitter.
6. Voice Alert

• This is another output unit in the

• This gives the voice alert of the
station reached based on the RF
transmitter signal received.
• RF signal at the frequency range 434
MHz is employed for communication
between transmitter unit and
receiver unit in our project.
• Each station is identified by a unique
binary code, for example, 001 for
Chennai and 100 for Nagerkoil.
• This binary code is transmitted at a
frequency range of 434 MHz within a
distance of 400 foot outdoor and 200
foot indoor.
• This distance can be enhanced by
using additional RF antenna.

• When the receiver comes within the
range of transmitter, it receives the
data from the transmitter in the
form of RF signal

• which is further decoded to collect
the binary code and display the
station name along with the voice
play back.
• Transmitter section is the smallest
section having few components
 1. RF transmitter TWS-434 A
 2. Encoded HT-12 E
 3. Voltage Regulator LM7805.
 LM7805 assures a constant supply
of +5 V for the transmitter module.
This voltage of +5 V is used to drive
transmitter and encoder.
• Receiver module includes the following
 1. RF Receiver RWS-434 A

 2. Microcontroller 89C51 which is

regarded as the brain of the circuit.

 3. LCD module for display the station

 4. Audio playback IC APR 9600

 5. Power supply section which contains

transformer, rectifier, filter, regulator

which ensures a constant +5V.
• The RF transmitter used in our project is
• frequency range of 433.92 MHz with a
range of approximately 400 foot
(open area) outdoors.
• Indoors, the range is approximately 200
foot, and will go through most walls.
• TWS-434A has features which includes
small in size, low power consumption
i.e. 8mW and operate from 1.5 to 12
Volts-DC, excellent for applications
requiring short-range RF signal.
• Data to be send is Amplitude
• It is a device which integrates a number
of the components of amicroprocessor
system onto a single microchip.
• So a microcontroller combines onto the
same microchip.
• The following components:
• CPU Core
• Memory (Both RAM and ROM)
• Some Parallel Digital I/Os
• we are using microprocessor from
Atmel namely AT89C51 isa low-
power, high-performance CMOS 8-
bit Microcomputer with 4K bytes of
Flash programmable and erasable
read only memory (PEROM).

• The device is manufactured using
Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile
memory technology and is
compatible with the industry-
standard MCS-51 instruction set
and pin out.
• The onchip Flash allows the program
memory to be reprogrammed in-
system or by aconventional
nonvolatile memory programmer.
• By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU
with Flash on a monolithic chip, the
Atmel AT89C51 is a powerful
• microcomputer which provides a
highly-flexible and cost-effective
solution to many embedded control
• The design and development of RF
based station name intimation
inside train compartment have
been successfully designed,
fabricated and tested.

• This project demonstrates how RF
signal along with embedded system
can make our life simpler without
causing any ill effect or affecting
other devices.
• There are plenty of such examples
showing how embedded system
makes our life simpler and tension
• Our project has plenty of rooms for
expansion like the use of GPS system
instead of RF signal, interfacing with
pc for different forms of output,
harness of solar energy as the unit
consumes very low power etc.
• Its use is not limited to bus stand or
railway station, with suitable
modification the system can be used
to serve other purposes like providing
assistance to blind in their homes,
• Ajay V Deshmukh (2008),
‘Microcontrollers (Theory and
Applications)’,Tata McGraw Hill
Publishing Limited.