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CHEMICAL TREATMENT OF WASTE WATER

P R E S E N T E D B Y : -
V I N A I A G A R WA L ( B T 1 0 C H E 0 8 4 )
WHAT IS WASTE WATER TREATMENT AND WHY IT IS
REQUIRED?
 Wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used
to treat waters that have been contaminated in some way
by anthropogenic industrial or commercial activities prior to its
release into the environment or its re-use.


There are several processes for chemical treatment among which major
are following:
Oxidation
Chlorination
Ozonisation
Incineration


We need to treat water to obtain very high quality water for demanding
purposes.
OXIDATION
 Oxidation process degrades refractory molecules present in waste
water into smaller molecules.
 Chemical oxidation modifies the structure of pollutants in
wastewater to similar, but less harmful, compounds through the
addition of an oxidizing agent.
 During chemical oxidation, one or more electrons transfer from the
oxidant
to the targeted pollutant, causing its destruction.

 Due to the increasing interest in developing alternative methods
for improving the treatment of wastewater containing organic
pollutants, advanced chemical oxidation technologies (AOTs), was
applied for destruction of some organic compounds from their
aqueous solutions and from industrial wastewater containing
them. Advanced chemical oxidation technology applications help
in the elimination of environmentally hazardous waste.

CHLORINATION
 Water chlorination is the process of
adding chlorine or hypochlorite to water. This method is used
to kill certain bacteria and other microbes in tap water as
chlorine is highly toxic. In particular, chlorination is used to
prevent the spread of waterborne diseases.
 As a halogen, chlorine is a highly efficient disinfectant, and is
added to public water supplies to kill disease-causing
pathogens, such as bacteria, viruses, and protozoans, that
commonly grow in water supply reservoirs, on the walls of
water mains and in storage tanks.
As a strong oxidizing agent, chlorine kills via the oxidation of
organic molecule.

Principle :
When dissolved in water, chlorine converts to an equilibrium
mixture of chlorine, hypochlorous acid (HOCl), and hydrochloric
acid (HCl):
Cl
2
+ H
2
O -HOCl + HCl
OZONATION
• Ozone is a very strong oxidant and virucide.

• The mechanisms of disinfection using ozone include:
• Direct oxidation/destruction of the cell wall with leakage of
cellular constituents outside of the cell.
 Reactions with radical by-products of ozone decomposition.
Damage to the constituents of the nucleic acids (purines and
pyrimidines).

• When ozone decomposes in water, the free radicals hydrogen
peroxy (HO2) and hydroxyl (OH) that are formed have great
oxidizing capacity and play an active role in the disinfection
process.
 Ozone disinfection is generally used at medium to large sized
plants after at least secondary treatment.In addition to
disinfection, another common use for ozone in wastewater
treatment is odor control.
INCINERATION
 Incineration is a waste treatment process that involves
the combustion of organic substances contained in waste
materials.

 Three main types of incinerators are used:
 Multiple bed
 Fluidized bed
 Electric Infrared

 Multiple Bed:
 The basic multiple hearth furnace (MHF) is a vertically oriented
cylinder. The outer shell is constructed of steel, lined with
refractory, and surrounds a series of horizontal refractory
hearths. A hollow cast iron rotating shaft runs through the
center of the hearths. Cooling air is introduced into the shaft
which extend above the hearths.
Fluidized Bed Incinerators:
• Fluidized bed combustors (FBCs) consist of a vertically oriented
outer shell constructed of steel and lined with refractory. Tuyeres
(nozzles designed to deliver blasts of air) are located at the base of
the furnace within a refractory-lined grid.
• A bed of sand, approximately 0.75 meters (2.5 feet) thick, rests
upon the grid. Two general configurations can be distinguished on
the basis of how the fluidizing air is injected into the furnace. In
the "hot windbox" design the combustion air is first preheated by
passing through a heat exchanger where heat is recovered from
the hot flue gases. Alternatively, ambient air can be injected
directly into the furnace from a cold windbox.

• Electric Infrared Incinerators :
• Electric infrared incinerators consist of a horizontally oriented,
insulated furnace. A woven wire belt conveyor extends the length
of the furnace and infrared heating elements are located in the roof
above the conveyor belt. Combustion air is preheated by the flue
gases and is injected into the discharge end of the furnace.
• Electric infrared incinerators consist of a number of prefabricated
modules, which can be linked together to provide the necessary
furnace length.