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Mobile Number Portability

Presentation
By
Asit Kadayan
Director (Mobile)
Telecommunication Engineering Centre
Overview & Implementation in India
MNP Workshop at ALTTC-Ghaziabad, July 19-21, 2010
MNP Workshop for DoT held at ALTTC-GZB July 19-21, 2010 2
Introduction to Number Portability
Types of Number Portability
Routing of Calls, SMS in Post MNP scenario
Routing of Calls, SMS in Post MNP scenario
Agenda
Architecture of MNP adopted for India
Summary
MNP Workshop for DoT held at ALTTC-GZB July 19-21, 2010 3
Introduction (1/4)
 Number Portability (NP) offers the subscriber the flexibility
to retain his telephone number even when he switches to
another operator in a service area. Today, Subscribers are not
changing subscription:
– even if the competitor is offering lower tariff and better services
because they do not want to change their number.
– Changing one’s telephone numbers can be a major inconvenience
 The absence of NP may give the incumbent operators a
significant competitive advantage over new entrants.
 MNP will also help to retain their number to have 3G services
from a service provider other than present one serving to him.
 The subscribers and operators both would benefit from the
introduction of the number portability system
MNP Workshop for DoT held at ALTTC-GZB July 19-21, 2010 4
Introduction (2/4)
60-80% go because
of tariff plan
5-15% go because
of VAS and CUG
related reasons
19% of customers have
problems
with mobile coverage at
home
MNP-Liberation of Mobile Customer
WHO IS LOOKING FOR CHANGE
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Introduction (3/4)
 It will change the market dynamics
 The perception of ownership of customer will have a
paradigm shift.
 New innovations will be needed for keeping customer
attached to service
 Enterprise business will be the key target and will
face intense competition
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Introduction (4/4)
 As per TRAI,
– "MNP allows mobile subscriber to change their service
provider while retaining their subscriber number.
Therefore, MNP will benefit subscribers and increase the
level of competition, rewarding operators with the best
customer service, coverage, and service quality.”
 MNP is firstly introduced in December-99 in US, As
of Early 2010 MNP is available in about 60 countries
worldwide.
MNP Workshop for DoT held at ALTTC-GZB July 19-21, 2010 7
What NP would mean to subscribers & service providers?
 When fully implemented nationwide by both wireline and
wireless providers, portability will
– remove one of the most significant deterrents to changing service,
– providing unprecedented convenience for consumers and encouraging
unrestrained competition in the telecommunications industry.
– In short, this is the best method to increase the efficiency of the service
provider by increasing the competition, thereby ensuring better services
in all respects.
 From the subscribers’ perspective, this is a deceptively simple
and very welcome change, because
– No worry to notify friends, family and business contacts for change
– Eliminates the hassle and expenses of changing business cards,
stationery, invoices and other materials for businesses.
MNP Workshop for DoT held at ALTTC-GZB July 19-21, 2010 8
Types of Number portability (1/2)
 Number portability can be of different types.
– Location-based:
This enables a mobile subscriber to use the same number when shifting from
one geographical area to another.
– Operator-based:
This makes it possible for a mobile subscriber (or a fixed telephony
subscriber) to shift from one mobile (or a fixed) service provider to another
in the same area and retain his original number too.
– Service-based:
 Enables subscribers of a company to use the same numbers across different
mobile technologies — Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM)
and Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) based Wireless in Local Loop
(WLL)and 3G networks.
– Convergence-based:
Allows usage of the same number while shifting from fixed to mobile
telephony.
MNP Workshop for DoT held at ALTTC-GZB July 19-21, 2010 9
Types of Number portability (2/2)
 Total number portability:
– Enables usage of the same number across
different technologies,
geographical regions
and national boundaries and is the ultimate aim of number
portability.
– It will also be the most difficult to implement and would
require a collaborated effort on the global scale among
different service providers.
– It will be a combination of different types of portability
options.
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Number Portability Technologies (1/6)
 A significant technical aspect of MNP is related to the
routing of calls or mobile messages (SMS, MMS) to a
number once it has been ported.
– 3GPP TS 23.066 has given technical specification for
mobile number portability. There are various flavours of
call routing implementation across the globe.
– There are four main methods to route a number whose
operator has changed
All Call Query (ACQ)
Query on Release (QoR)
Call Dropback
Onward Call Routing
MNP Workshop for DoT held at ALTTC-GZB July 19-21, 2010 11
Number Portability Technologies (2/6)
Orig.
DB
Old
SP
New
SP
1
2
Number
Porting
All Call Query
Centralized
 All Call Query (ACQ)
– International best practice is via the
use of a central database (CDB) of
ported numbers.
– Network operators generally hold
local copies of CDB and query it to
find out which network to send a
call to.
– This is highly efficient and scalable.

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Network solutions for MNP (2/2)
ACQ(All Call Query) in the next step
Originating
Network
8) Ack[MSRN]
6) PRN[MN]
10) Paging and Term
L_NPDB
2) Query[DN]
3) query result
[DN,RN]
1) Call Origination
Donor Network
A
9) ISUP Setup B
4) IAM[RN,DN]
5) SRI[MN]
7) Ack[MSRN]
Recipient Network
GMSC
HLR
MSC
MSC
B
 Most efficient when the ported subscribers are a lot. (when more than about 40 %)

 Each carrier can decide when to start the ACQ depending on its traffic for the originating calls.

 No loss of the number resource.
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Number Portability Technologies (3/6)
Orig.
DB
Donor
SP
New
SP
3
4
Query on Release
1
2 release w/o #
Centralized
Old
SP
Number
Porting
 Query on Release (QoR)
– Originating network routes the
call to Donor Network.
– The Donor Network releases call
in case of ported subscriber and
informs that it no longer
possesses the number.
– The operator that originates the
call then checks the centralized
database, as is done with ACQ.
– The call is routed to New
Service Provider

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Network solutions for MNP (1/2)
QoR(Query on Release) in the first step
 Very efficient when the ported subscribers are small.

 Mandatory for the Donor network to response to the request for the ported number.

 No loss of the number resource.

Originating Network
HLR
12) Ack[MSRN]
10) RR[MIN]
14) Paging and Term
L_NPDB
6) Query[DN]
7) query result
[DN,RN]
1) Call Origination
GMSC
Donor Network
A
13) ISUP Setup
2) IAM[DN]
3) PRN[DN] 4)Ack[ported]
5) REL[ported]
B
8) IAM[RN,DN]
9) PRN[DN]
11) Ack[MSRN]
Recipient Network
GMSC
HLR
MSC
MSC
B
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Number Portability Technologies (4/6)
Orig.
DB
New
SP
2
4
1
3 release w/t #
External or
integrated
Donor
SP
Old
SP
Number
Porting
Call Dropback
– Also known as Return to Pivot (RoP).
– The operator that originates the call first checks with the
donor operator.
– The donor operator checks its own database and provides a
new route. The operator that originates the call then uses this
route to forward the call. No central database is consulted.
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Number Portability Technologies (5/6)
Orig.
DB
New
SP
2
3
1
External or
integrated
Old
SP
Number
Porting
Donor
SP
 Onward Routing (OR)
– The operator that originates the call checks with the donor
operator.
– The donor operator checks its own database and obtains a
new route.
– The operator to which the number was designated routes
itself the call to the new operator.
– This model is called indirect routing
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Components of the MNP Solution (1/3)

a. MNP Clearing House (MCH)-
Production & Disaster Recovery site
b. Number Portability Data Base (NPDB)-
Production & Disaster Recovery Site
c. Query Response Database (QRDB)-
Production & Disaster Recovery site
d. Storage server
e. Web server
f. Report Generation server
g. O&M server
h. Others- Routers, switches etc.


a. Local operator DB query response system
b. Number Portability operator Gateway
To be
Provided by
MNP
Service
Provider
To be procured, installed,
operated, maintained by
respective telecom service
providers in their network
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MCH
NPDB
Operat
or A
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or B
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or C
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or D
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or A
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or B
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or C
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or D
Local
DB
NP-OG
LSA-A
LSA-B
QRDB-A
Components of MNP
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Components of the MNP Solution (2/3)
 MCH is a centralized system used by operators to port
subscribers.
 NPDB shall maintain a record of all ported number and a history
file of all transactions relating to the porting of a number.
 QRDB provides real-time routing information to enable the
Operator to route calls and messages to ported numbers.
– The QRDB is queried by all of the Operator networks during call setup to
provide the routing number, based on the dialed number.
– Routing information is downloaded from the NPDB to the QRDB to
which queries may be based on SS7 and/or IP protocols (ENUM, DNS
and SIP).
– Depending on the deployment option, the QR database can either be used
by an individual Operator or be a common resource for use by all
Operator networks or mix of both local and centralized DB in sync.
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Components of the MNP Solution (3/3)
 NP gateways at operator’s end:
– MNP operator gateway is an operator based work flow
system for processing and managing MNP port
transaction with the centralized clearing house and
operator back-end systems, e.g. order and provisioning
system.
– The gateway will accept port requests, pass them on to the
centralized clearinghouse, and coordinate ported number
updates from the clearing house to back-end systems in the
operator’s network.

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Database Management for MNP
 Logically Centralized Database with regionally located
databases is setup and managed by neural third party setup by
operators or national administrator may issue license to operate
such service. (MNPO Licensee in case of India)
 Logically Centralised approach may serve as a common
platform for ordering, provisioning, and notification process of
number portability
 Synchronization: Port information is kept in a centralized
master of Reference Database.
– Any update to the Reference Database is broadcasted more or less in
real time to all operators. (push method).
– Alternatively Reference Database can be downloaded by operators
(pull method).
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Porting Process of number portability
 Process of NP process involves
– closure of the account with the donor operator
– opening of a new account with the recipient operator.
– If subscriber surrenders number then Number Range holder network
receives the number back.
 It is important to develop the method by which
– the user requesting a port is verified,
via reference to account records,
or on some form of documentary evidence such as a bill.
capability to quickly reverse a porting for fraudulently request
– arrangements for communication between entities of porting process,
may be electronically, by fax, or by letter
– procedures for porting bulk numbers as per timelines.
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Typical steps of porting process
 Subscriber contacts new operators and asks his
number to be ported
 New operator submits number port request to clearing
house
 The clearing house informs the old operator
 In a specific time frame the old operator deactivates
and the new operator activates
 Clearing house informs all operators that the number
is ported
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Operator A
MCH
Operator B

NP Request NP Request
NP Accept NP Accept
NP Exec NP Exec
NP Ready NP Ready
NP Broadcast NP Broadcast
NP Done
Example of Porting Process
T1
T3
T5
T2
T4
Validation
of
Request
Activation
and
Update Routing Info
Deactivation
of
Service
Update
Routing Info
Initiation
of
Execution
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Routing of Call to Ported Number
 Call to a ported number is routed in two stages
– The first stage, interception stage, is the recognition that the
call is towards a ported number. Interception can be
performed at
the donor switch,
 at some transit switch,
or at the originating switch.
– The second stage, routing stage, is when the call has been
recognized as a call to a ported number and then re-routed
from the intercepting switch to the new terminating switch.
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HLR
1
Local/
tandem
2
LD
LD
QRDB
3
4
5
GMSC
6
GMSC
X
7A
7B
7C
VMSC/
VLR
7D
7E
8
QRDB
1
MSC/
GMSC
2
HLR
A
A
B
HLR
11
Local/
tandem
22
LD
LD
QRDB
33
44
55
GMSC GMSC
66
GMSC
X
GMSC GMSC
XX
7A 7A
7B 7B
7C 7C
VMSC/
VLR
7D 7D
7E
8
QRDB
11
MSC/
GMSC
22
HLR
A
A
B
Inter-LSA Call to Mobile Network for a Ported Number
(N-1) approach
 DB size requirement may be for LSA only
 LSA where portability is not introduced in
Phase I, Local DB may not be required
 Local DB update from own Zone NPDB only
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Inter-LSA Call to Mobile Network for a Ported Number
Originating Network Query Approach
MSC/
GMSC
VMSC/
VLR
GMSC
GMSC
QRDB
HLR
QRDB
HLR
Local/
Tandem
1
LD
LD
7
1
2
4
5
A
B
2
3
3
6a
6b
8
X
 NLD selection as per subscription network of B
 Information available for Differential Tariff
 DB for country wide portability information
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4
QRDB
Local/
tandem
2 3
1
GMSC
HLR
QRDB
5B
VMSC/
VLR
5D
5C
5E
HLR
QRDB
3A
3B
4
5A
1
GMSC
X
GMSC
X
B
A
A
2
3
6
MSC/
GMSC
44
QRDB
Local/
tandem
22 33
11
GMSC GMSC
HLR
QRDB
5B 5B
VMSC/
VLR
5D
5C 5C
5E 5E
HLR
QRDB
3A 3A
3B 3B
44
5A
11
GMSC GMSC
X
GMSC GMSC
X
B
A
A
22
33
66
MSC/
GMSC
Intra-LSA Call to Mobile Network for a Ported Number
MNP Workshop for DoT held at ALTTC-GZB July 19-21, 2010 29
•Own not ported
•Ported in
•Foreign not ported
•Ported out
Non Call Related Traffic: SRI for Short Message
IN-
SCP
HLR
SMS-C
STP
NP-DB
SMSC
SRF (GTT)
NCR
SRI_for_SM
3GPP TS 23.066
ANNEX B
SRI_for_SM
Internal
inquiry
SRI_for_SM
L1
MTP
SCCP
TCAP
MAP
To B-MSISDN
subscription network

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Impact on Service Providers

– Impact of NP (not exhaustive)

Point of Sales
 IT Systems: Provisioning, Roaming, Billing systems
SS7 Impacts: MSC/VLR, GMSC, STP, IN systems
Software feature Impact: MSC/VLR,STP, HLR, IN system
Configuration Impact: MSC/VLR, GMSC, HLR, IN system, STP,
SMSC
PrePaid Services, like Friends and Family, Tariff Classes
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MCH-A
NPDB-A
MCH-B
NPDB-B

Op.A
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or B
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or C
Local
DB
NP-OG

Op.D
No
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or A
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or B
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or C
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or D
Local
DB
NP-OG
LSA-A
LSA-D Operat
or A
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or B
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or C
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or D
Local
DB
NP-OG
Opera
tor A
Local
DB
NP-
OG
Opera
tor B
Local
DB
NP-
OG
Opera
tor C
Local
DB
NP-
OG
Opera
tor D
Local
DB
NP-
OG
LSA-C
LSA-B
QRDB-A
QRDB-B
East Zone
West Zone
Network
No
Local
DB
Billing &
Provisioning
System
BSS
Internal Interfaces
MNP Workshop for DoT held at ALTTC-GZB July 19-21, 2010 32
MCH-A
NPDB-A
MCH-B
NPDB-B
Operat
or A
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or B
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or C
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or D
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or A
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or B
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or C
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or D
Local
DB
NP-OG
LSA-A
LSA-B
Option-A
QRDB-A QRDB-B
Local DBs of Operators parented to NPDB of both zones
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MCH-A
NPDB-A
MCH-B
NPDB-B
Operat
or A
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or B
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or C
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or D
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or A
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or B
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or C
Local
DB
NP-OG
Operat
or D
Local
DB
NP-OG
LSA-A
LSA-B
Option-B
QRDB-A QRDB-B
NPDBs of Both Zones may Synchronize
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Summary
 Over the past decade, number portability of various types has
been implemented in a number of countries
 The introduction of number portability will also benefit
operators as they will strive to offer better service to prevent
churn.
 International experience proves that there is substantial
improvement in the QoS after introduction of NP.
 MNP requires cooperation of all the stakeholders.
– there are a great variety of solutions for implementing NP,
– it is vital that all operators agree upon a methodology,
– and have close co-operation between all stakeholders to ensure that NP is
implemented expeditiously and efficiently.
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