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AVR

Automatic Voltage
Regulator
EXCITATION SYSTEM
AVR-1
AVR-2
AVR
Manual
Pulse
Generator
AVR
Manual
Pulse
Generator
Thy.
Bridge-1
Thy.
Bridge-2
~
GB
Bus
Gen
Rotor
Field
Flashing
Rectifier
Field
Breaker
Ex. Tr.
AC
DC
AC
Causes for voltage variation
The variation in terminal voltage of the
machine, on load condition are due to the
following causes:
Voltage variation due to the resistance of
the winding R
Voltage variation due to the leakage
reactance of the winding Xl
Voltage variation due to the armature
reaction effect Xa

What is Voltage Regulation
The voltage regulation of an Alternator is
defined as the change in terminal voltage from no-
load to load condition expressed as a fraction or
percentage of terminal voltage at load condition;
the speed and excitation remaining same.

Voltage regulation in percentage,

U RP = E – U x 100
U
Types of Voltage Regulation

 Manual Voltage Regulator
open loop control system without
feedback.

 Automatic Voltage Regulator
closed loop control system with
voltage feedback.
FUNCTIONS OF AVR

• To maintain constant generator terminal
voltage.

• Meet excitation power requirements under all
normal operating conditions.

• Improve dynamic and transient stability
thereby increasing plant/machine availability.

• Regulate MVAR loading within limits.
Advantages of AVR
1. The response time for any
variation is less.
2. Steady state error is small.
3. The settling time is less.
4. The system remains stable for a
wide range of operating points.
5. Limiters can be incorporated.
Types of AVR
1. Analog type AVR

2. Digital type AVR
Advantages of Digital AVR
• Lesser number of Electronic cards.
• Better configuration and control.
• Fast reaction to network disturbances.
• Troubleshooting easier.
• User- friendly software can be used for
setting parameters and measuring variables.
• Easy adaptation to customer’s requirements
( logic changes ) even at site without any
hardware modifications.
• Self monitoring and fault diagnosis features.
Automatic Voltage Regulator
The Control system keeps the Generator
output voltage constant by controlling the field
energy supplied to the rotor.
Control
Voltage
Error
Signal
Increase
Decrease
Comparator
Gen. Voltage
Feedback
Limiters
Reference
Value
Generator
Actual
Value
Generator
+
-
PID
Controller
Firing Pulse
Generator
IExe
VExe
Voltage Feedback measurement
Excitation system
performance could be
judged by the exciter voltage
VS time characteristics in
response to a step change in
the generated voltage.
The factors to be studied for
optimum performance are
1. Overshoot
2. Rise time
3. Settling time
For ideal performance, it should have one overshoot and one
undershoot with a quicker rise time.
PID CONTROLLER

The objective of any closed loop control system is
to keep the following parameters in check

 The overshoot after any step change in controlled
variable (in this case the voltage) should be within
acceptable limits for the system to be stable.

 The response time should be as small as possible so
that the corrective action to any change in the
controlled variable is taken by the controller without
any appreciable lapse of time.
Steady state error should be as small as possible.

The settling time should be as small as possible.

The system should remain stable for a wide
range of operating points.

To improve the performance, compensation
networks are provided in the control amplifier.
These compensation networks are namely
Proportional, Integral and Derivative feed back
circuits.
PID CONTROLLER
Features of AVR
Feature Purpose
Reactive Current
Compensation
To compensate the external reactance of the group
transformer or to share the reactive load among
different parallel generators.
Limiters
To maintain field current and stator current and to
operate the machine within capability limit.
Power System
Stabilizer
To smoothen the electro mechanical oscillations.
Reactive Power
Control
To regulate the reactive power if necessary.
Power Factor
Control
To regulate the power factor if necessary.
Rotor Temperature
Calculation
To calculate the rotor winding temperature from
Rotor current and rotor voltage.
CAPABILITY DIAGRAM OF GENERATOR
 In power system operation, the importance and
necessity of fast acting and reliable excitation control
system is well known.
 Capability diagram of Generators give the safe
operating regimes and limitations etc. This is of great
help to the operating Engineers to ensure operations of
the machines accordingly.
 Their information particularly for limiting zones of
operations are useful in setting the various limiters of
Automatic Voltage Regulator.
 MW values are marked on Y axis and MVAR values
on X-axis on per unit basis of rated MVA.
CAPABILITY DIAGRAM OF GENERATOR
 safety factor a 12.5 percent (or 1.125 p.u) power
margin to increase in power demand with no
corresponding increase in excitation “Practical
Stability Limit Line”.
(125 x 0.6)=75 MVAR i.e. 0.6 pu
• From the point „A‟ the dotted line „AS‟ denotes the
theoretical stability line.
• Horizontal lines parallel to X-axis denote the MW
(constant power) lines.
 The diagram FBED is the „Capability Diagram” of
the machine.


LIMIT CONTROLLERS
 With ever increasing size of generating units
today, more stringent requirements have to be met by
excitation systems.
 Static Excitation assures, stable operation both
under dynamic and transient conditions.
 Generators running in parallel with the power
network even under extreme conditions must remain
in synchronism with the maximum load limit on it
being not exceeded.
 Optimum utilization of the generator can be
ensured only if the basic AVR is influenced by
additional limiting signals.
ADVANTAGES OF LIMIT CONTROLLERS
• Limit controllers in conjunction with AVR ensure
optimum utilization of the machine.
• Limit controllers simplify the job of the operating-
staff.
• Limit Controllers enable stable operation of the
machine close to the limiting values.
• With limit controllers in service, operational errors
and faults in the regulator lead only to the limit
value control and not to disconnection.
ADVANTAGES OF LIMIT CONTROLLERS
• Limit controllers are not meant to replace the
protection system.
• They are intended to prevent the protection
system from operating under extreme transient
conditions.
• Limiters, whenever they intervene, influence the
voltage regulator suitable to bring about a
corresponding change in the excitation.

Types of Limit Controllers
1. Rotor Current Limiter
2. Stator Current Limiter
3. Rotor Angle Limiter
4. Minimum Excitation Limiter

Rotor current limiter
• The AVR drives the field or the Thyristor network into
overload for one or more of the following reasons :
a) faulty handling
b) system voltage reduction
c) loss of sensing voltage to AVR and
d) failure within the controller.
• The Rotor current limiter must prevent this overload from
persisting.
• On the other hand, during dynamic disturbances in the
system the excitation should not be reduced at once, but
ceiling excitation should be possible for a limited time.

ROTOR CURRENT LIMITER
FUNCTION OF ROTOR CURRENT LIMITER
• The field current is measured on the
a.c. input side of the thyristor converter
• It is converted into proportional d.c.
voltages.
• The signal is compared with an
adjustable reference value, amplified,
and with necessary time lapse fed to the
voltage regulator input.

ROTOR CURRENT LIMITER
• Rotor current limiter avoids thermal overloading of
the rotor winding and is provided to protect the
generator rotor against excessively long duration
over loads.

• The ceiling excitation is limited to a predetermined
limit and is allowed to flow for a time which is
dependant upon the rate of rise of field current
before being limited to the thermal limit value.
ROTOR CURRENT LIMITER
• Simple mode: In this mode the excitation current is
limited to a preset maximum value. The limiter
intervenes with a time delay which is proportional to the
magnitude of the over load.

• Mixed mode: If during the above period of limitation,
the generator voltage dips steeply for any reason, the
ceiling excitation limit is validated again. The ceiling
excitation current helps in increasing the short circuit
current in the fault zone and hence aid selective tripping
of the faulted section.

• Switching mode: In the switching mode the excitation
is limited to the thermal or rated current value. Only in
case of sharp dip in the machine voltage, the ceiling limit
was unable momentarily. The limit switches back to the
rated value after the set time.
Stator current limiter
 The stator current limiter has to influence the
AVR differently depending on whether the
machine is over-excited or under-excited.

 The excitation current is to be suitably
reduced to limit the inductive stator current.

 The excitation current is increased to limit the
capacitive current.
Stator current limiter
 Capacitive stator current limitation comes into
play only with synchronous condensers which
are to some extent negatively excited with
generators.

 It prevents excessive leading MVAR loading
corresponding to any given MW load.

STATOR CURRENT LIMITER
Stator current limiter
 The generator stator current is converted into
polarised dc signal +ve or –ve, depending upon
whether the machine is over-excited or under-
excited.
 This voltage forms the actual value for the
controllers which process each of the bipolar signal
independently.
 One of the these controllers compare the
capacitive stator current against its reference and
acts directly on the regulator via a de-coupling
diode to increase the excitation.
Stator current limiter
 The action of second controller which limits the
inductive stator current is delayed by means of an
integrator before it influences the control input of
the AVR so as to reduce the excitation.

 The time lag offered is perfectly acceptable as far
as stator overheating is concerned.

 The integrator time constant is set one order less
than the stator thermal time constant.
Rotor Angle Limiter
• The load angle is the electrical angle between the
voltage vector of the system and the vector of the
machine voltage ‘e’.
Rotor Angle Limiter
• In the event of a short circuit in the systems, the
generators may accelerate owing to the abrupt partial
removal of the electrical load.

• As the turbine governor cannot act fast, the rotor angle
increases and the angle can become so large relative to
the system vector that the machine may fall out of step.

• The rotor angle limiter limits the load angle of the
machine to an acceptable present value and provides a
more definite protection in preventing the machine from
falling out of step.

ROTOR ANGLE LIMITER
Minimum Excitation Limiter
• Minimum Excitation limiter measures the reactive
power and compare it with the set reactive power
in the leading side . It gives positive output to
increase the voltage regulator reference.
• This Limiter assures to feed the generator the
minimum excitation that is necessary to keep the
synchronization defined by the capability curve.

Power System Stabilizing unit
• In large power system network sudden change in
load sets up all kinds of oscillatory responses. These
oscillations are essentially exchange of power or
energy between rotors of machines.
• The Power system stabilizing unit is used for the
suppression of rotor oscillations of the machines
through the additional influence of excitation.
• The power as well as acceleration signals needed for
the stabilization are derived from active power
delivered by the alternator.
• Both the signals, which are correspondingly amplified
and summed up, influence the excitation of the
synchronous machine through AVR in a manner as to
suppress the Rotor oscillations.
Automatic Voltage Regulator
Maintaining terminal voltage of a Generator
constant.
Maintaining stable operation of machine under
steady state, transient and dynamic conditions.
Satisfactory operation with other machines
connected in parallel.
Effective utilization of machine capabilities
without exceeding machine operating limits.
THANK YOU