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Reviewer in

FORENSIC MEDICINE
By

MELCON S. LAPINA, MSCrim
Q1
The scope of forensic medicine can be
summed in two words.
a. Absolute and complicated
b. Broad and encompassing
c. Definite and wide-ranging
d. Specific and delimiting
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Q2
It is the inner framework of the body. It gives
form and rigidity to the body, and serves to
protect many vital organs.
a. Digestive system
b. Integumentary system
c. Muscular system
d. Skeletal system
10/17/2014 3
Q3
An effect of injury that takes place when the
stimulus applied is insufficient to cause injury
and the body resistance is great.
a. Apparent
b. Real
c. Immediate
d. Delayed
10/17/2014 4
Q4
Under the physics of wound production, this
factor explains why an M-16 will do more
damage than .38 caliber bullet.
a. Area of Transfer
b. Elasticity and plasticity of tissue
c. Kinetic energy
d. Time
10/17/2014 5
Q5
Sensation of heat or increase in temperature.
a. Rubor
b. Calor
c. Dolor
d. Loss of function
10/17/2014 6
Q6
Wound brought about by blunt instrument
could be any of the following, EXCEPT
a. Contusion
b. Hematoma
c. Laceration
d. Incision
10/17/2014 7
Q7
X, a doctor, wanted to kill his wife by poisoning. During
dinner time, he put poison on the food of his wife.
Moments after, his wife suffered excruciating pain in the
stomach. Seeing his wife in agony, he pitied his wife and
administered an antidote. Thus, his wife did not die.
What is the crime committed by X?
a. Frustrated parricide
b. Attempted parricide
c. Serious physical injuries
d. Murder
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Q8
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Q9
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Q1
The scope of forensic medicine can be
summed in two words.
a. Absolute and complicated
b. Broad and encompassing
c. Definite and wide-ranging
d. Specific and delimiting
TOPIC: Medical Science in Crime Investigation
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Legal Medicine definition
• Branch of medicine
• Application of medical knowledge to law &
admin of justice
• Application of basic & clinical, medical &
paramedical sciences to elucidate legal
matters
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Scope of Legal Medicine
• Broad & encompassing
• Applies medical & paramedical sciences
– Wounds: surgery
– Abortion: gynecology
– Sudden death & effects of trauma: pathology
• Basic medical sciences:
– Anatomy
– Physiology
– Biochemisty,
– Physics
– Other allied sciences
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Nature of Study
• Knowledge in
– Pathology
– Surgery
– Gynecology
– Toxicology
– Other branches of medicine
10/17/2014 14
Q2
It is the inner framework of the body. It gives
form and rigidity to the body, and serves to
protect many vital organs.
a. Digestive system
b. Integumentary system
c. Muscular system
d. Skeletal system
TOPIC: Human Anatomy & Physiology
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Systems of Human Body
1. Integumentary System
- Outer covering of body
- Function: protection, regulation of
temperature, sensation & excretion
2. Skeletal System
- Inner framework of body
- Gives form & rigidity to body
- Protects vital organs

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Systems of Human Body
3. Muscular System
- Changes energy from food to mechanical
energy
- Enables parts of body to move & perform
work
4. Digestive System
- Changes food to soluble form: absorbed by
blood & utilized by body
10/17/2014 17
Systems of Human Body
5. Circulatory System
- Brings food & oxygen to cells of body
- Removes waste materials
- Helps maintain even temperature of body
- Provides defenses against disease
6. Respiratory System
- Supplies oxygen to cells: used for production
of energy
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Systems of Human Body
7. Excretory System: Anim. 1 & Anim. 2
- Collects & eliminates metabolic wastes of
body
8. Reproductive System: Male & Female
- Ensures perpetuation of species
9. Nervous & Endocrine Systems
- Coordinate all other systems of body
- Make other systems work together
harmoniously & efficiently
10/17/2014 19
Q3
An effect of injury that takes place when the
stimulus applied is insufficient to cause injury
and the body resistance is great.
a. Apparent
b. Real
c. Immediate
d. Delayed
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TOPIC: Medico Legal
Aspects of Physical Injuries
Concept of Physical Injury

• Effect of some forms of stimulus on body
• Effect:
– Apparent: stimulus applied insufficient to cause
injury & body resistance great
– Real : effect visible
– Immediate: sharp pointed & sharp edged
instrument – immediate production of stab
wound
– Delayed: blund object – delayed production of
contusion
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SOURCE: Except as otherwise stated, the materials taken from this slide and subsequent slides were taken from -
Solis, P. P. (1987). Medico-Legal Aspects of Physical Injuries. In Legal Medicine (pp. 240-
285). Quezon City: R.P. Garcia Publishing Company.
Causes of Physical Injuries
• Physical violence
• Heat or cold
• Electrical energy
• Chemical energy
• Radiation by radio-active substances
• Change of atmospheric pressure
(barotrauma)
• Infection
10/17/2014 22
Q4
Under the physics of wound production, this
factor explains why an M-16 will do more
damage than .38 caliber bullet.
a. Area of Transfer
b. Elasticity and plasticity of tissue
c. Kinetic energy
d. Time
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TOPIC: Physical Injuries Brought
about by Physical Violence
Effect of Physical Violence
• Production of wound
• Wound:
– Solution of natural continuity of any tissue of
living body
– Disruption of anatomic integrity of tissue of
body
– Interchangeably used w/ wound
– NOTE: physical violence not always resulting to
wound but wound always result of physical
violence
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Physics of Wound Production
• Wound = kinetic energy X time X area X
“other factors”
• Kinetic Energy = MV
2
/2
• Kinetic Energy:
– Explains why M-16 bullet (speed: 3,200 ft/sec) will
do more damage than .38 caliber bullet (heavier but
has much slower velocity)
• Time:
– Shorter time of transfer of energy, greater
production of damage

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Physics of Wound Production
• Area of transfer
– Larger area of contact, lesser damage to body
– Instrument for stabbing greater than blunt
instrument
• Other factors
– Less elastic & plastic tissue, greater laceration
– Movement of parts of body resulting from force
applied & local stretching of tissue cause
internal injuries


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Q5
Sensation of heat or increase in temperature.
a. Rubor
b. Calor
c. Dolor
d. Loss of function
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TOPIC: Vital Reaction
Vital Reaction
• Sum total of all reactions of tissue or organ
to trauma
• Reaction observable macroscopically &
microscopically
• Reactions of living to tissue to trauma:
– Rubor: redness or congestion of area due to
increase of blood supply as part of reparative
mechanism
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Vital Reaction
• Reactions of living to tissue to trauma:
– Calor: sensation of heat or increase in
temperature
– Dolor: pain on account of involvement of
sensory nerve
– Loss of function: tissue losing ability to
function normally
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Vital Reaction
• Importance: differentiates ante-mortem
injury vs post-mortem injury
• Vital reactions not observable:
– Physical injuries inflicted during agonal state
– Sudden death, ex: sudden coronary occlusion
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Q6
Wound brought about by blunt instrument
could be any of the following, EXCEPT
a. Contusion
b. Hematoma
c. Laceration
d. Incision
10/17/2014 31
TOPIC: Classification of wounds
Classification of Wounds
• As to Severity
– Mortal wound: capable of causing death
• Heart & big blood vessels
• Brain & upper portion of spinal cord
• Lungs
• Stomach, liver, spleen & intestine
– Non-Mortal Wound: not capable of producing
death
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Classification of Wounds
• Instrument Used
– Blunt instrument: contusion, hematoma,
lacerated wound
– Sharp instrument: (1) incised wound – sharp-
edged instrument; (2) punctured wound –
sharp-pointed instrument; (3) stab wound:
sharp-edged & sharp pointed instrument
– Tearing force: lacerated wound
– Change of atmospheric pressure: barotrauma
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Classification of Wounds
• Instrument Used
– Heat/Cold: frostbite, burns or scald
– Chemical explosion: gunshot/shrapnel wound
– Infection
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Classification of Wounds
• Manner of Infliction
– Hit: bolo, blunt instrument, axe
– Thrust/Stab: bayonet dagger
– Gunpowder explosion: projectile/shrapnel
wound
– Sliding/rubbing or abrasion
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Classification of Wounds
• Depth of Wound
–Superficial: only layers of skin
–Deep: inner structure beyond layers of
skin
• Penetrating – no exit: punctured, stab &
gunshot wounds
• Perforating – w/ exit
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Classification of Wounds
• Relation of Site of Application of Force &
Location of Injury
– Coup Injury: injury @ site of application of
force
– Contre-Coup Injury: injury opposite site of
application of force
– Coup Contre-Coup Injury: injury @ site &
opposite site of application of force
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Classification of Wounds
• Relation of Site of Application of Force &
Location of Injury
– Locus Minoris Resistencia: injury not @ site &
opposite but areas offering least resistance. Ex:
blow on forehead, contusion @ eyeball
– Extensive injury: injury on greater area more
than site of application of force. Ex: fall from
height, run-over victim of vehicular accident
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Classification of Wounds
• Special Types of Wounds
–Defense wound: result of instinct of self-
protection
–Patterned wound: w/ nature & shape of
object/instrument
–Self-inflicted wound: produced on oneself
but no intention to end life
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Classification of Wounds
• Self-Inflicted Wounds: Motive
– Pension/workman’s compensation
– Escape obligations/punishment
– New identity/destroy existing one
– Attention/sympathy
– Psychotic behavior
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Q7
X, a doctor, wanted to kill his wife by poisoning. During
dinner time, he put poison on the food of his wife.
Moments after, his wife suffered excruciating pain in the
stomach. Seeing his wife in agony, he pitied his wife and
administered an antidote. Thus, his wife did not die.
What is the crime committed by X?
a. Frustrated parricide
b. Attempted parricide
c. Serious physical injuries
d. Murder
10/17/2014 41
TOPIC: Legal Classification of
Physical Injuries
Legal Classification of Physical Injuries
• Mutilation (Art. 262)
– Elements
– Penalty
– Important Points to Remembers
• Serious Physical Injuries (Art. 263)
– Element & Penalty
– Important Points to Remember
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Legal Classification of Physical Injuries
• Administering Injurious
Substances/Beverages (Art. 264)
– Elements
– Penalty
– Important Points to Remembers
• Less Serious Physical Injuries (Art. 265)
– Elements
– Penalty
– Important Points to Remembers
10/17/2014 43
Integumentary System Animation
• Skin: true integument covering surface of
body
• Largest organ of vertebrate body
• 15-16% of total body weight of adult human
• 17.5 sq ft for ave. woman; 20 sq ft for ave.
man
• 1-2 mm thick

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Integumentary System
• Layers
– Epidermis (thinner; 10-30 cells thick)
– Dermis (thicker)
• Melanocytes
– Scattered at juncture between deep layers of
epidermis & dermis
– Cells producing dark pigment melanin
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Integumentary System
• Melanin
– Absorbs UV rays
– Tanning: increase in melanin production by
much exposure of UVR
– Light vs Dark: Production of melanin
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Stratum Corneum: a.k.a. cornified layer or horny layer; outermost layer; flat, arranged in
rows as dead cells.
Stratum Lucidum: a.k.a. hyalin layer; flat & translucent dead cells; appears only on palms
& soles
Stratum Granulosum: a.k.a. granular layer; initiates process of keratinization (dying
process of cells); last of living cells.
Stratum Spinosum: a.k.a. spinous layer; “pickle cells” – many sided cells w/ “spines”
protruding from surface.
Stratum Basale: a.k.a. stratum germinativum or generating layer; creates new cells;
deepest layer; parallel to basement membrane.
47
Dermis
• Contains:
– Muscle fibers
– Glands
– Pigment cells
– Blood vessels
– Sensory nerves
• 15-40 times thicker than epidermis
• Subcutaneous layer
– Beneath dermis
– fat-rich cells of adipose tissue: acts as (1) shock
absorbers & (2) insulation to conserve body heat
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The Skin Animation
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Skeletal System Animation
• Skeleton: framework of animal body,
composed of
– Cartilage
– Bone
– Combination of both
• 2 Parts
– Axial Skeleton
– Appendicular
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Axial Skeleton
• Skull
• Vertebral Column
• Ribs
• Sternum
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Appendicular Skeleton
• Upper pectoral appendages (arms) & girdle
(scapula: shoulder blade& clavicle:
collarbone)
• Lower pelvic appendages (legs) & girdle
(ilium, ischium, & pubis, collectively called
as hips)
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Appendicular Skeleton
Arms Legs
Upper arm Humerus Thigh Femur
Forearm Radius &
Ulna
Shank Tibia &
Fibula
Wrist Carpals Knee Cap Patella
Palm metacarpals ankle Tarsals
Fingers Phalanges Sole Metatarsals
Toes Phalanges
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Appendicular Skeleton
• Distribution of Bones: (1) adult human: 206
bones; (2) Infants: over 270 bones
Skeleton No. Skeleton No.
Cranium 8 Face 14
Ears 6 Hyoid 1
Vertebral column 26 Sternum 1
Ribs 24 Pectoral girdle & arms 64
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Muscular System
• Tissues w/ ability to contract
• Myofibril: basic unit of all muscles; minute,
thread-like structure
• Muscle fiber: each muscle cell; contains
several myofibrils: myofilaments of 2 types,
thick & thin.
• Thick myofilament: several hundred
molecules of protein myosin
• Thin myofilament: 2 strands of protein actin
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Muscular System Animation
• Human body has 3 types of muscles:
– Skeletal muscles
– Smooth muscles &
– Cardiac muscles
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Digestive System
• Chain of organs:
– Mouth
– Oral cavity
– Pharynx
– Esophagus
– Stomach
– Small intestine
– Large intestine
– Anus
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Digestive System Animation
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Circulatory System Animation
• After process of digestion, digested food
delivered to all parts of body by blood stream
• Blood picks up nutrients @ small intestine, &
transports to approx. 17 billion cells; transports
oxygen to cells; collects waste materials for
elimination
• Heart: pumping station of blood system; cone,
muscular organ size of fist; middle of chest
cavity; lower end pointed to left
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Circulatory System Animation
• Heart: 4 chambers
– Atria (upper 2)
– Ventricles (lower 2)

• Heart Beat:
– Systole: alternate contraction
– Diastole: relaxation
Separated by atrio-ventricular valves;
tricuspid valve: right & bicuspid
valve: left. Valves: allow blood to flow
down only, never up. VEINS: carry
blood into atria; ARTERIES: carry
blood out of ventricles
of muscular walls
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Circulatory System
• Blood Vessels: circulates thru body by
means of tubes that varyin size & function
–Arteries
–Veins
–Capillaries
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Respiratory System
• Breathing mechanism operates throughout
lifetime: taking in oxygen & giving off
carbon dioxide
• Comparative absence & survival
– W/out food for 40 days: survives
– W/out water for 5 days: survives
– W/out oxygen for only a few minutes: death
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Respiratory System Animation
• Respiratory Tract:
– Nostrils
– Pharynx (throat)
– Glottis
– Larynx (voice box)
– Trachea (windpipe)
– Bronchi
– lungs
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Respiratory System Animation
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Skull
• Framework of head
• Most complex of all parts of endoskeleton
• Cartilaginous during embryonic stage
• Includes:
– Cranium (primary brain case)
– 3 pairs of sense capsule for organs of smell, sight &
hearing
– Visceral skeleton for tongue (hyoid apparatus)
– Ear (incus, malleus, & stapes) for sound conduction
– Throat
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Skull
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Skull Animation
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Vertebral Column
• Backbone
• Main axial support of vertebrates
• Composition: segmentally arranged
vertebrae from base of skull to tip of tail
• Protects spinal cord
• Provides rigidity of body
• Direct or indirect attachment of
appendicular skeleton

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Vertebral Column
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Adult human: 26 vertebrae
-7 cevical vertebrae (neck)
- 12 thoracic vertebrae (chest)
- 5 lumbar vertebrae (lower
back)
- 1 on pelvis (sacrum)
- 1 on tail (coccyx)

SOURCE: General Anatomy & Physiology. (2012). Retrieved August 15, 2012,
from Wisc-Online: http://www.wisc-
online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP12104

Vertebral Column
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Ribs
• Series of cartilaginous/elongated bony
structures attached to vertebrae
• Stout, arched structures surrounding thoracic
cavity & uniting ventrally w/ sternum
• Forms thoracic cage
• 12 pairs of ribs – 1st-7
th
pairs: true ribs, directly
attached to sternum; 8
th
-10
th
pairs: false ribs,
ends unite w/ cartilages of true ribs; 11
th
-12
th

pairs: floating ribs, ends terminate freely
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Ribs
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Sternum
• Breatbone
• Elongated structure lying in central portion
of chest
• Flat & narrow
• 3 parts: (1) manubrium: upper part; (2)
gladiolus: middle/body & largest part; (3)
xiphoid: lowest portion
• Protect heart; holds sternal ends of ribs &
some abdominal muscles
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Sternum
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Skeletal Muscles
• Attached to
skeleton by tendon
• Responsible for
voluntary
movement of body
• A.k.a. striated
muscles: striations
made by alternating
light & dark bands
of myofibrils
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Smooth Muscles
• A.k.a. visceral muscles
• Found in internal organs (involuntary
movement)
• Involved in automatic process w/out
conscious actions: disgestion & blood
pressure
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Cardiac Muscles
- Only in heart
- W/ striations like
striated muscles
(skeletal muscles)
- Involuntary
contraction of
heart
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3 Types of Muscles
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Arteries
- Large, elastic, thick-
walled tubes
- Carry blood away
from heart
- Location: deep w/in
body; exception: in
wrists, temples, &
neck – felt pulsating
very near surface
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Veins
- Large, inelastic
tubes
- Carry blood back to
heart
- Walls: equipped w/
valves preventing
blood from flowing
backward
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Capillaries
• Extremely fine tubes • Form network throughout body
• Connect small arteries (arterioles) &
small veins (venules)
• Pathway for exchange of dissolved
materials between blood & cells
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Heart: 4 Chambers
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Heart Beat
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Melanocytes
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7 Cervical Vertebrae
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SOURCE: General Anatomy & Physiology: The Seven Cervical Vertebrae. (2012). Retrieved August 15, 2012, from Wisc-Online:
http://www.wisc-online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP12104
12 Thoracic Vertebrae
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SOURCE: General Anatomy & Physiology: The Twelve Thoracic Vertebrae. (2012). Retrieved August 15, 2012, from Wisc-Online:
http://www.wisc-online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP12104
5 Lumbar Vertebrae
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SOURCE: General Anatomy & Physiology: The Five Lumbar Vertebrae. (2012). Retrieved August 15, 2012, from Wisc-Online:
http://www.wisc-online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP12104
Sacrum & Coccyx
10/17/2014 89
SOURCE: General Anatomy & Physiology: The Sacrum and the Coccyx. (2012). Retrieved August 15, 2012, from Wisc-Online:
http://www.wisc-online.com/Objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP12104
Elasticity & Plasticity
• Ability of tissue to return to its “normal”
size & shape after being deformed by
pressue
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Agonal
• “pertaining to death or extreme suffering.”
SOURCE: agonal. (2012). Retrieved August 18, 2012, from The Free Dictionary by Farlex: http://medical-
dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/agonal
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Sudden Coronary Occlusion
• Coronary refers to “arteries carry blood
containing oxygen and other nutrients
essential to the normal functioning of the
heart muscle.”
• Occlusion refers to blockage
SOURCE: Team, T. N. (2010, January 11). What is coronary occlusion? Retrieved August 18, 2012, from netdoctor:
http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/ate/heartandblood/203287.html
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Contusion
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Soft Tissue Emergencies. (2007, January 27). Retrieved August 18, 2012, from http://www.raems.com/softtissueemergencies.htm
Hematoma
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Dreisbach, B. (2011, July 16). Boxing: See Pictures of Pawel Wolak's Face After Brutal Fight with Delvin Rodriguez. Retrieved August 18, 2012,
from bleacher report: http://bleacherreport.com/articles/769287-see-pictures-of-pawel-wolaks-face-after-brutal-fight-with-delvin-
rodriguez
Lacerated Wound
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Cosmell, H. (2011, May 3). 9 Of The Worst Beatings in Boxing/MMA History. Retrieved August 18, 2012, from totalprosports.com:
http://www.totalprosports.com/2011/05/03/9-of-the-worst-beatings-in-boxing-mma-history/
Incised Wound
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Eriksson, S. (2012). The Med Cell: The Foot. Retrieved August` 18, 2012, from Fight Times:
http://www.fighttimes.com/magazine/magazine.asp?article=396
Punctured Wound
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Home Treatment for Puncture Wound. (2009, September 18). Retrieved August 18, 2012, from hometreatment net:
http://hometreatment.net/home-remedies/common-injuries/home-treatment-for-puncture-wounds/
Stab Wound
10/17/2014 98
Lyle, D. (2010, February 20). Stab Wounds Don’t Always Kill. Retrieved August 18, 2012, from The Writer's Forensic Blog:
http://writersforensicsblog.wordpress.com/2010/02/20/stab-wounds-don%E2%80%99t-always-kill/
Barotrauma
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Sinus Barotrauma Symptoms and Treatment. (2012). Retrieved August 18, 2012, from best-diving.org: http://best-diving.org/barotrauma-
and-diving/137-sinus-barotrauma/162-sinus-barotrauma-symptoms-and-treatment
Frostbite
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SOURCE: Stöppler, M. C. (2012). Frostbite (cont.). Retrieved
August 19, 2012, from emedicinehealth:
http://www.emedicinehealth.com/frostbite/page3_em.htm
Scald
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Scald Prevention. (2012). Retrieved August 19, 2012, from National Fire Protection Association:
http://www.nfpa.org/itemDetail.asp?categoryID=2360&itemID=55362&URL=Safety%20Information/For%20consumers/Unintenti
onal%20injuries/Scald%20prevention
Gunshot Wound
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Grey, T. (n.d.). Firearms Tutorial. Retrieved August 19, 2012, from
http://library.med.utah.edu/WebPath/FORHTML/FOR018.html
Shrapnel Wound
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Addario, L. (n.d.). Retrieved August 19, 2012, from lynseyaddario.com: http://www.lynseyaddario.com/#/iraq-medics/42-
15133312
Coup Injury
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SOURCE: Child Head Injury - Brain Injury in Children. (n.d.). Retrieved August 19, 2012, from braininjury.com:
http://www.braininjury.com/children.shtml
Contre-Coup Injury
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SOURCE: El Sayed, T., Mota, A., Fraternali, F., & Ortiz, M. (n.d.). Biomechanics of traumatic brain injury. Retrieved August 19,
2012, from Fernando Fraternali research: http://www.fernandofraternaliresearch.com/article.asp?id=7&pg=3
Defense Wound
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SOURCE: Taylor, J. R. (2009, November 17). Love Hurts: Theories on Relationship Violence. Retrieved August 20, 2012,
from Living Las Vegas: http://living-las-vegas.com/2009/11/preventing-relationship-violence/
Self-Inflicted Wound
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SOURCE: Marazzi, P. (n.d.). Self-inflicted wounds on arm. Retrieved August 20, 2012, from Sciencephotolibrary:
http://www.sciencephoto.com/media/264295/view
Elements of Mutilation
1. Castration (intentional mutilation
(totally/partially) of organ for reproduction
a. Castration
b. Intention
2. Mayhem – lopping/clipping off any part of
body other than organ for reproduction
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Penalty of Mutilation
1. Castration – RT-RP
2. Mayhem – PM med & Max
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Mutilation: Important Points to
Remembers
1. Castration: intentional
2. 1 degree higher: victim ↓12 yrs old
3. Offender has intention to deprive offended
party of part of his body
4. Mutilation – lopping/clipping off of some
part of body
5. Mayhem – other intentional mutilation
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Elements & Penalty of SPI
• Becomes insane, imbecile, impotent or blind by PI =
PM
• Loses: (a) use of speech/power to hear/smell, eye,
hand, foot, arm, leg, (b) use of any such member;
becomes incapacitated for work = PC med & max
• (a) becomes deformed; (b) loses of any member of
body; (c) loses use thereof, (d) becomes
ill/incapacitated for work for ↑90 days = PC min &
med
• Becomes ill/incapacitated for labor for ↑days & not
↑90 days = AM max to PC min
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Mutilation: Important Points to
Remember
1. Commission: wounding, beating,
assaulting/administering injurious
substance
2. Also by reckless imprudence/simple
imprudence/negligence
3. No intent to kill
4. Blindness (complete) & loss of eye:
(a) par 1 – both eyes; (b) par 2 – 1 eye
only
5. Loss of power to hear: (a) par 2 –
both ears; (b) par 3 – 1 ear only
6. Loss of hand/incapacity of usual
work: permanent
7. Par 2: principal members of body;
par 3: any other member not
principal member of body
8. Deformity: (a) physical ugliness, (b)
permanent & definite abnormality,
& (c) conspicuous & visible
9. Deformity by loss of teeth: not
reparable by nature
10. Illness: not healing w/in period
11. Medical attendance not important in
SPI
12. Pars 2 & 3: must have work at time
of injury
13. Par 4: incapacity for labor
14. Illness/incapacity for labor: needs
proof; otherwise, slight PI only
15. SPI by excessive chastisement by
parents: not qualified.
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