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GROUP 7:
PRESENTER:
PARIMALA A/P SUPPIAH PILLAY (815635)
DEEPARANI A/P RAMOO (816279)
TUNG CHAI YIN (812839)
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Language teaching
philosophies that can be
interpreted and applied in a
variety of different ways in
the classroom.
( Rodgers, 2001)
Fixed teaching systems
with prescribed
techniques and
practices.
( Rodgers, 2001)
A technique is
implementational. Tat trick,
stratagem or contrivance
which actually takes place in
the classroom to accomplish
an immediate objective.
( Anthony, 1963)
ARE THEY
THE SAME
?
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Method
The plan of language teaching which consistent
with the theories. (Edward Anthony-1963)
Method may mean different things to different
people (Mackey, 1975:155) For some , it means a
set of teaching procedures; for others, the
avoidance of teaching procedures. For some, it is
the primary of a language skill; for others, it is the
type and amount of vocabulary and structure.



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METHOD
It is considered the practical realization of an
approach.

It is understood as a group of procedures, a
system that clearly explains how to teach a
language (syllabus organization -contents &
skills to be taught-, roles of teachers and
learners, kinds of materials to use).

It is understood as a group of procedures, a
system that clearly explains how to teach a
language (contents and skills to be taught)

The method is based on a specific approach.
The approach is axiomatic whereas the
method is procedural.


When a method has fixed procedures,
informed by a clearly articulated
approach, it is easy to describe.
However, if a method takes procedures
and techniques from a wide variety of
sources, that is that they are used in
other methods or are mentioned by
other beliefs, it will be very hard to
continue describing it as a method.
How should it be categorized then?

Merrill/Pearson, 2010 6
There are four methods of presenting the subject matter.
1. TELLING METHOD; Lecture method, Discussion method,
Story telling method and so on.
2 .DOING METHOD; Project method, Problem solving
method, Textbook method and so on.
3 .VISUAL METHOD; Demonstration method, Supervised
study method and so on.
4 .MENTAL MEHOD; Inductive, Deductive, Analysis,
Synthesis method etc.

Peter S.Westwood - 2008
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Story should be
interesting.
Natural sequence
should be maintained.
Character should be
elaborated to the
demanding situations.
Actions-Story should
be full of actions.
Phrases and figures of
speech should be used.
Story should be
purposeful.
Tell the students
real time stories,
anecdotes about
great men, women,
rulers, prophets,
saints to develop-
qualities of truth,
honesty,
perseverance,
courage, co-operation
or creativity-
identification of
characters,
empathizes.
oIncrease interests of
the people.
o Improves vocabulary.
oIncrease in
imaginative power.
oDevelop good
qualities.
oLively environment.

APPLICATIONS
oUsed languages and
social sciences
Peter S.Westwood(2008)
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For introducing a new
lesson.
Cognitive and affective
domains can be
developed.
More content can be
presented.
Lays much stress on
presentation thereby
developing ability of
presentation in students
also.
Concentration for a
longer period of time
APPLICATION
All school subjects
can be taught
Traditional method
A teacher delivers a
lecture on different
point on any topic in a
serial order and asks
several questions.
Logical and
sequential
presentation of the
content.
Content should be
systematized in a
logical and
systematic manner.
Listeners should
not find any gap
Language should
be easy, clear and
understandable.
Question should be
asked to the student
in between the
lecture.
Material aids such
as chart, graph, and
picture should be
used.
LECTURE METHOD
(Davis.1993)
9

I
It is helpful in teaching skills in
training institutions.
Lower and middle level of
objective cognitive and
psychomotor domains can be
easily achieved through this
method.
Useful in teaching science
subject in schools
Every practical work needs
demonstration
Observation and thinking
capacity of students can be
developed.
APPLICATION
This method is applicable in
teaching science crafts arts
and agriculture.
Teacher shows all the
activities given in the
lesson to the students
as an action and
explains the important
points before them
during demonstration.
1. Teacher should prepare
well what and how he has
to demonstrate in the
class
2. Students should be given
enough chance to remove
their doubts after the
demonstration
3. Afterwards the activity
students should be asked
to repeat the demo.
4. Important point should be
explained by short lectures
during the process of
demonstration.
5. The demo - Process
should be divided into many
phases and students
should be evaluated after
every phase.
DEMONSTRATE
METHOD
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It is a type of remedial
teaching.
Teacher can teach in
the class keeping the
individual differences
due to the small size of
the class.
Absence of previous
knowledge can be
compensated.
Every student gets the
chance to express his
problem openly and
individually.
APPLICATION
Teaching natural
science and
mathematics.

All class is divided in two
different groups of
common features.
The division is made on
the basis of difficulty level
of different subjects. Every
group is handed to
different teacher
separately. Here teachers
find out the individual
problem of students and
then he individually guides
them to remove this
problem. If difficulty of
whole group is similar,
group teaching and group
guidance can be given.
Students of same
capacity or same
weakness should be
kept in same group.
The behavior of teacher
should be unbiased at
the time of guidance to
ensure equal chance of
progress.
It should be done by
experienced and expert
teachers.
Every student should
be motivated to tell his
problems frankly so as
to get the benefits.
TUTORIAL METHOD
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It is an oral method like
question and answer
method.
Maximum interaction
between teachers and
students can be seen.
Discussion can be
formal and informal.
Formal discussions are
arranged for the
purpose of achieving
predetermined
objectives hence rules
are also predetermined.
Informal discussions
are neither objective
oriented nor rules are
predetermined.
Ensure maximum
participation.
Students have the
opportunity to criticize and
evaluate.
Logical and meaningful
criticism should be
accepted.
Students should anchor
the discussion
themselves.
Keeping teachers as
guide.
Teacher selects the topic
only with the help of
students.
Students who have
leadership quality should
be selected for anchoring.
Relevant topic should only
be considered
DISCUSSION METHOD
Leadership quality
can be developed.
Expression ability can
be developed.
Problem solving
ability can be
developed.
Develop creative
potentials of the
students.
Attitudes and interest
of students can be
drown out towards
learning.
APPLICATION
All subject except
mathematics, art,
music, dance can be
taught.
McCarthy, P. (1992)
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This method was propounded by W.H Kilpatrick.

Pupil is assigned a project which has direct utility
for the students.

Students work on the project under the guidance
of the teacher.

Find out the solution of the problem based on their
experience.
PROJECT METHOD
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DISCOVERY METHOD
Used in social science to clarify facts and concepts
unlike heuristic method used in science to formulate or
testify laws and principles.
Facts and concepts are explained in an objective
manner unlike heuristic method where subject matter
is comprehended subjectively.
Discovery is related to past events while heurism is
concerned with phenomena at present.
E.g. Courses of Aurangzebs failure in South India is
a discovery and Causes of Law Productivity of
Agriculture Lands in India is a heuristic method.
Gary D. Borich, Debra A. Stollenwerk(2004)
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STEPS INVOLVED

1. Creating situation:- Teacher creating situation
in the class that student propose themselves to
work on the project .
High level of motivation is found in students.
Teacher tells them the method and procedure of
the project.

2. Selection of the project:- Six principles as
mentioned above are taken into consideration.
Teacher helps the student to select the project on
the basis of their interests.

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3. Planning:- Teacher discusses various points of the project with the
students. Students take part on discussion. After discussion, teacher
writes down the whole programmmes of action step wise on the black
board. Grouping is also done.
4. Execution:- Students first upon select relevant facts, information
and material and each groups works on the project separately and
complete it within time limit.
5. Evaluation:- When project gets completed ,it is first criticized and
evaluated by the students themselves within the group and when fully
satisfied report to the teacher.
6. Reporting:- Students write each and every steps of the project that
is how they did. The report may submit to the teacher.


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Students are given a chance
to play the role of teacher.
It is a dramatic method.
Teacher teaches the topic and
the students one by one
teaches the same topic to the
class.
When he teaches all his
classmates answer his
questions.
They not down the
shortcoming of the student
teacher.
This teaching is later criticized
and suggestions for
improvement are given.
Drama in literature is also
thought to this method.
This method is usually
adopted in training colleges.

Subject teacher, he is
advice to be present in the
class at the time of role
play.
He should be there in the
class at the time of
criticism.
The topic of teaching for
the purpose of role playing
should same for all for
comparison.
All the observers should
note down the short
comings of all teachers
selected for the purpose.
Discussion based on
memory and recall is
recommended.

ROLE PLAYING
METHOD
Repeated teaching of
the same topic
increases learning.
Practice makes a man
perfect and a critical
observation make man
alert.
It increases social
skills of students
Students learn the
methods of analysis,
synthesis and
evaluation.
Develop critical power
of the students.
Remove their own
mistakes through
imitation.
(Singh, and Sudarshan, 2005, p .238, 239)
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The basic assumption of
this method of teaching is
that a group of pupils can
give more ideas than a
single person.
Problem can be analyses
and evaluating more
comprehensively.
A problem is given to
students and there asked
to put forward their views
on this problem one by
one.
Thus many views
regarding the nature of the
problem, its causes and its
possible solutions come to
light.
Conclusion is drawn after
evaluating these jumbled
ideas.
This method being
problem centred, it should
be meaningful and related
to real life situation.
All views of students are
welcome and relevant
views should be isolated
from them later on.
The views of students will
be either written or typed.

BRAIN STORMING
METHOD
Cognitive and
affective objectives
can be achieved.
Good ideas can be
inculcated.
Imaginative power of
students can be
developed
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INDUCTIVE AND DEDUACTIVE METHODS
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Identify learning outcomes and class composition before choosing or use both
Faster to teach large number of facts
Easier to teach concrete concepts
Draws on prior learning experiences
Learning experience must be structured
Engagement of learner / content
Students need to understand more
Students need to remember more
Self-directed learning experience
i before e
except after c
Retrieve
Believe
Priest
Chief
Receive
Conceive
Perceive
Both methods are effective Ellis (1993:11)
Inductive method
The inductive teaching method or process
goes from the specific to the general and
may be based on specific experiments or
experimental learning exercises.
Deductive teaching method progresses from
general concept to the specific use or
application.

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Inductive method
Inductive teaching is a constructivist model
of teaching that is more student-centred.
In inductive teaching first provide examples,
then have students practice and figure out
the rule themselves.
This method of teaching is more experiential
and based on a guided discovery learning
philosophy.
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Deductive method of teaching
Deductive teaching is a more traditional form of
teaching. In deductive teaching you typically
provide information(lecture), share specific
examples of the concept or skill being taught.
This is a more teacher-centered model of
teaching that is rule driven. Some of the positives
of this method are that it is timesaving and gets to
the point of the lesson easily.

W.H.Winch(2009)
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It is a conjunction of ideas related to
the nature and teaching of a given
language.

It refers to theories about the nature of
language and language learning.

It describes how people acquire their
knowledge of the language and makes
statements about the conditions which
will promote succesful language
learning.

It offers a model of language
competence.




It is the level in which a whole
theory and its beliefs are reflected
regarding a language and its
learning. It is a much wider
concept than a method and
technique.

It is the source of the principles
and practices of language
teaching.

It describes how a language is
used and how its constituent
parts interlock.


APPROACH
Roedenbeck, M. (2006)
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Edward Anthony (1965)

An approach is a set of correlative
assumptions dealing with the nature of
language and the nature of language
learning and teaching.

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ROLE-PLAYING
APPROACH
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DEFINITION OF ROLE-PLAY
Involves an activity which a student or a
group of students dramatizes his or their
real reactions to certain problematic
situations.

The purpose is to find out how students will
normally conduct themselves once they are
confronted with a particular kind of conflict
or difficulty.
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ROLE-PLAY vs. DRAMA
Drama: a type play to be performed by
actors on stage, radio, or television; a play
that is highly emotional, tragic, or turbulent.

Role Play: the act of imitating the character
and behaviour of someone who is different
from yourself, for example, as a training
exercise, or in language learning.


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Steps in role playing:
1. Identiying the Problem
- decide exactly what you want the group to learn
from the episode.

2. Establishing the Situation for Role Playing
- design the situation to fit the objectives they
want to achieve.

3. Establishing Roles and Selecting Participants
- sketch out clearly the type of people involved.


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Steps in role playing:
4. Presenting the Act
- Talk about the objective of the role playing
during the presentation and explain the skills
and insights the activity hopes to acquire.

5. Playing the Situation
- the playthrough and is supposed to be the
most difficult step.
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Steps in role playing (cont.)
6. Analyzing and Evaluating the Presentation
Requirements in the Analysis:
a. What happened?
b. Why did it happen that way?
c. What were the feelings and motives
involved?
d. What variations would have produced other
results?


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Team Teaching is
An approach in which two or more teachers
share responsibilities within one classroom.
Using various arrangements of students
and groups sizes, so each students
educational potential is recognized.
Committed to our students, rather than
mine and yours.
(Lingard & Berry, 2002)
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Why Team Teaching?
Allows both teachers
to blend their teaching
styles and expertise.
All students will have
same curriculum and
the same amount of
time with different
disciplines.
Requires more
planning.
Requires high levels of
trust and commitment.
Requires excellent
classroom
management skills .
Requires high levels of
organization.
Strengths Challenges
Anderson, 1983
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Benefits for Students
Develops respect for differences.
Creates more opportunities for differentiated
instruction.
Friendship development.
Provides models of positive peer interactions
between teachers.
Learn to relate to more than one type of teacher
personality.
Freedom to be expressive in the open concept
classroom.

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Benefits for Teachers
Creates a deeper awareness of individual
teachers craft.
Enhances instructional knowledge base.
Develops teamwork and collaboration.
Increases ways of creatively addressing
challenges.
Curriculum moves on even if one teacher is
absent.
Grading and evaluation are enhanced.

Anderson, 1983
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Conceptual
Approach
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It is choosing and defining content of a certain
discipline to be taught through the use of big
and pervasive ideas.

It is using the content as a means of leading
the students to discover the laws and principles
or generalizations that govern a particular
subject or discipline.
Martin and Ramsdens (1992) inene
Conceptual approach
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Conceptual
scheme
principle
generalization
concept
fact A simple statement of truth
Synthesis of facts
General statement
relating two concepts
The main pervasive theme
underlying a major field
Statement of fundamental
processess
Conceptual approach
Step 1: select and
define a concept
Step 2: Select the
attributes
Step 3: develop
positive and negative
examples
Determine if the concept is
appropriate and teachable according
to this model. The definition should
be clear and the attributes are
identifiable
Determine those qualities that are
essential to the concept
It is the stage where the key concept
are being developed through the
essential and nonessential attributes
given by students
Step 4: Introduce
the process to the
students
Step 5: Present the
examples and the
list of attributes
Step 6: Develop a
concept definition
The stage of explaining clearly
what you will be doing and what
each step will entail
The listing out of positive and
negative attributes
The stage of using the positive
attributes to help students define
the concept
Step 7: Give
additional examples.
Step 8: Discuss the
process with the
class.
Step 9: Evaluate
It is the stage of improving the
meaning for the students who
comprehends slowly and a
reinforcement to those fast learners
This helps them to see how concepts
are formed
It is to determine if the concept has
been retained by the students
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The Term of Technique
(H.D. Brown 2007:180)
1. Task usually refers to a specialized form of
technique or series of techniques closely allied
with communicative curricula, and as such
must minimally have communicative goals. It is
focuses on the authentic use of language for
meaningful communicative purpose beyond
the language classroom.



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ASSUMPTION BUSTING
Michael R.Rogers(2004)
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WHAT
Concept maps represent knowledge graphic form. Networks consist of nods,
which represent concepts, and links, which represent relationships between
concepts.
BENEFITS
Concept maps can aid in generating ideas, designing complex structures, or
communicating complex ideas. Because they make explicit the integration of old
and new knowledge concept maps can help instructors assess students'
understanding. .
HOW
Create a focus question specifying the problem or issue the map should help
resolve. List the key concepts (roughly 20-25) that apply to the area of
knowledge. Put the most general, inclusive concepts at the top of the list, and
most specific at the bottom.
Build a hierarchical organization of the concepts, using post-its on a wall or
whiteboard, large sheets of paper, etc. Revision is a key element in concept
mapping, so participants need to be able to move concepts and reconstruct the
map. Seek cross links between concepts, adding linking words to the lines
between concepts.
CONCEPT MAPPING
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Adapted from Novak, J. & Caas, A. (2006). The theory underlying concept maps and
how to construct and use them.
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WHAT
Story-boarding can be compared to spreading students' thoughts out on a wall
as they work on a project or solve a problem. Story boards can help with
planning, ideas, communications and organization.
BENEFITS
This method allows students to see the interconnections, how one idea relates
to another, and how pieces come together. Once the ideas flow, students
become immersed in the problem and hitch-hike other ideas.
HOW
Use a cork board or similar surface to pin up index cards, or use software such as
CorkBoard. Begin with a set of topic cards, and under each place header cards
for general points, categories, etc. Under these, place sub-heading cards that
will be contain ideas and details generated that support the headers.
During a story board session, consider all ideas relevant, no matter how
impractical they appear.
STORYBOARDING
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WHAT
This method can gather ideas from large groups, numbering from the dozens to
the hundreds. Participants are given slips of paper and asked to write down
ideas which are discussed or evaluated.
BENEFITS
This method collects a large number of ideas swiftly and creates a sense of
participation or ownership at the same time
HOW
Each student is given a stack or note-pad of at least 25 small slips of paper. The
pads can contain idea-jogging graphics or be designed so that ideas can be
sorted and separated easily. A question or problem is read to the group (e.g.,
"How do we?" or "What would it take to?"). Students write down one idea per
sheet, in any order. When writing begins to slow down, collect pads from
students and offer quick feedback in the form of examples. If the group is very
large, present examples from a limited sample of booklets. After the early
feedback, analysis and evaluation can continue at a steadier pace to identify the
most useful ideas and develop them into practicable proposals.
SLIP WRITING
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WHAT
Laddering or the "why method" involves toggling between two abstractions to
create ideas. Laddering techniques involve the creation, reviewing and
modification of hierarchical knowledge. In a ladder containing abstract ideas or
concepts, the items lower down are members or sub-sets of the ones higher up,
so one moves between the abstract and concrete.
BENEFITS
Laddering can help students understand how an expert categorizes concepts into
classes, and can help clarify concepts and their relationships.
HOW
Beginning with an existing idea, "ladder up" by asking, of what wider category is
this an example? "Ladder down" by finding more examples. Then "ladder up"
again by seeking an even wider category from the new examples obtained from
step 2.
Generally, "laddering up" toward the general allows expansion into new areas
while "laddering down" focuses on specific aspects of these areas. Why
questions are ladders up; so-what questions are ladders down.
LADDERING
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WHAT
The reversal method takes a given situation and turns it around, inside out,
backwards, or upside down. Any situation can be "reversed" in several ways.
BENEFITS
Looking at a familiar problem or situation in a fresh way can suggest new
solutions or approaches. It doesn't matter whether the reversal makes sense or
not.
EXAMPLE
In a marketing class, instead of asking "how can management improve the
store?" reversal questions can ask: How can the store improve management?
How can the store improve itself? How can management make the store worse?
REVERSAL
Stephen D. Brookfield(2009)
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WHAT
The fishbone technique uses a visual organizer to identify the possible causes of
a problem.
BENEFITS
This technique discourages partial or premature solutions and demonstrates the
relative importance of, and interactions between, different parts of a problem.
HOW
On a broad sheet of paper, draw a long arrow horizontally across the middle of
the page pointing to the right. Label the arrowhead with the title of the issue to
be explained. This is the "backbone" of the "fish." Draw "spurs" from this
"backbone" at about 45 degrees, one for every likely cause of the problem that
the group can think of; and label each. Sub-spurs can represent subsidiary
causes. The group considers each spur/sub-spur, taking the simplest first, partly
for clarity but also because a simple explanation may make more complex ones
unnecessary. Ideally, the fishbone is redrawn so that position along the
backbone reflects the relative importance of the different parts of the problem,
with the most important at the head.
FISHBONE
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Adapted from Mycoted wiki
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Recognize consonant alphabets in pictures

HP : 3.2.1
1) Approach Inductive
2) Methods Direct, Oral-Aural, Linguistics &
Phonetic
3) Techniques Discussion, Brainstorming &
Question & Answer
Example
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Activity 1 :
1)Teacher shows picture cards with words to the students.

2)Teachers ask students to say the words as shown on
the cards.


3)Teachers ask students to find and say consonants as
shown on the cards.
ship
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Continued
ball
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Continued
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Recognize consonant alphabets in pictures

HP : 3.2.1
1) Approach Deductive
2) Methods Direct, Natural & Linguistics
3) Techniques Story-Telling, Role-Play, Drama &
Demonstration
Continued
Continued
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Activity 2 :
1. Teacher shows consonant cards
and asked the students to say the consonants.

Continued
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Activity 2 :
2. Then, the teacher shows examples words containing
consonants.


Continued
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Activity 2 :
3. Teachers divide the students into five groups. Each group
represents one consonants.

4. Students are asked to enact any stunt work that contains a
consonants given to the class.
Example: drum, drink, green, grass and others.

5. Teachers and students talk about consonants in the word.
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Recognize consonant alphabets in pictures

HP : 3.2.1
1) Approach - Eclectic
2) Methods - Direct, Oral-Aural, Natural & Linguistics
3) Techniques - Questions & Answers, Drills,
Problem-Solving & Demonstration
Continued
Continued
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Activity 3 :
1.Teachers divide the students into four groups.

2. Teachers distribute picture cards and consonants cards to
each group. Each group was asked to identify the appropriate
consonants picture cards.


skirt
Continued
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Activity 3 :
3. Then, the teacher gives the word cards to each group.
Each group was asked to identify the consonants letters found
in the word given.
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Recognize consonant alphabets in pictures

HP : 3.2.1
1) Approach - Communicative
2) Methods - Direct, Oral-Aural & Linguistics
3) Techniques Story-Telling, Brainstorming, Questions
& Answers, Discussions & Game
Language
Continued
Continued
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Activity 4 :
1.Teachers show and mention the consonants letters
(b,c,d,f,g,h,j,k,l,m,n,p,q,r,s,t,v,w,x,y,z) in the form of three-
dimensional with a student.

2. Students placed in five groups.

3. Teachers distribute word cards grass, pencil, grapes, apple)
to each group.

4. One group was required to state the characteristics of the
represented. Example: green color, long, can be seen in school
field. Students are asked to guess the rest of it.
Continued
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Activity 4 :
5. Then, members of the group show the word cards to the
class. Teachers and students answer questions about the
consonants in the word.

6. Steps 4 and 5 are repeated with another group.
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There are many approaches, methods and techniques
that can be used by teachers during the T & L.

Teachers are free to choose the approach, methods and
techniques to be used because there is no one approach,
specific methods and techniques in the process of T & L.

This selection must be creative so that students acquire
useful experience.
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Why do We Use Materials/What are Materials for?
Allwright (1990) argues that materials should teach
students to learn, that they should be resource books for
ideas and activities for instruction/learning, and that they
should give teachers rationales for what they do.
From Allwright's point of view, textbooks are too inflexible
to be used directly as instructional material.
O'Neill (1990), in contrast, argues that materials may be
suitable for students' needs, even if they are not
designed specifically for them.
Allwright emphasizes that materials control
learning and teaching.
O'Neill emphasizes that they help learning
and teaching.
Materials are the center of instruction and
one of the most important influences on
what goes on in the classroom.
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Littlejohn and Windeatt (1989) argue that materials have
a hidden curriculum that includes attitudes toward
knowledge, attitudes toward teaching and learning,
attitudes toward the role and relationship of the teacher
and student, and values and attitudes related to gender,
society and so on.
Materials have an underlying instructional philosophy,
approach, method, and content, including both linguistic
and cultural information
Materials are getting more complicated, and instructional
philosophy, approach, methods, and techniques are
getting more important.
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Teaching materials is not isolated nature of
teaching and learning, it is a very useful tool
to their teaching.
Learning with the use of teaching materials
to ensure that students follow and can give
students an understanding of effective and
also to attract them to the subjects taught.
In principle, teaching materials is a tool that
can help a teacher in the teaching process

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This teaching material is not limited to
textbooks, board and photographs, but also
includes all materials used in the lessons
that can be seen, heard, held, read,
narrated, felt, smelt, use and so on.
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PURPOSE AND IMPORTANCE OF
TEACHING MATERIALS
Use of teaching material to control and overcome the
shortage of teachers lack the time .
Can enhance the interest of students in the learning
process
Enhance enthusiasm for learning .
Get a deeper understanding and realistic about the topic
taught .
To preserve the memory of the older of the contents of
teaching .
Felt the excitement of learning and avoid the tedium of
teaching .
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Teaching Material provides a strong basis for the development of
understanding and thinking patterns , thus it reduces the variety of
verbal responses from students
Teaching material provides a basis for the development of pupils'
learning and make learning more permanent .
Teaching materials helps to keep the students learning more about
understanding the content of teaching .
Teaching material offers a real experience and make teaching
more attractive
Lessons learned will be more meaningful.
Materials that can produce creative impulse , both for teachers and
students .
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Producing one interaction and collaboration
between students and teachers.
It saves time and students will learn more in
a short time .
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SKILL SELECTION AND APPLICATION OF
TEACHING MATERIALS
Teaching material to be in accordance with the teaching and
learning activities . The content should be accurate and is closely
related to the topic to be taught .
Teaching material should contain the ideas and designs are
original and distinctive .
Teaching material can help teachers in teaching activities or can
also be used by the students in their learning activities . In other
words, the teacher can convey concepts more easily , accurately
and quickly again with the availability of teaching material. The
students were able to learn the concept accurately, and more
permanent interest in memory.
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The design of teaching material to be interesting and
effective way to attract attention and arouse students'
interest , these tools should be provided with a colored
picture .
Teaching material must be provided with a low expense
and within a reasonable time . There's no point making
teaching material with exorbitant expenses and use of
time to prepare .

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Teaching material should be available in an appropriate
size and weight so that it can be easily carried , used
and stored. Teaching material which is too heavy and will
disrupt the smooth delivery of teacher or student use .
Teaching and learning resource should contain
values high . Teachers should not use substances such
indecent photographs , such a provocative fashion wear
or use materials that contain negative elements such as
gambling and smoking

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APPLICATIONS OF TEACHING
MATERIALS

Determine contribution can the teaching material is a specific
instruction in relation to the learning objectives to be taught.
Avoid preparing teaching material which is not suitable or can not
be used effectively.
Plan how teaching material can be combined to increase their
use in the teaching learning experience of pupils.
Arrange for teaching material that can be used by students
with the best so do not be panic or disrupt teaching.
Survey information from a variety sources about the use of
teaching material to get satisfactory effect.
Evaluate the contribution of teaching material to teaching
through trial. Customize their applications based on this
assessment.
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TEACHING
MATERIALS
non-
electronic electronic
form
oriented
experience


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Non-electronic teaching material

whiteboard or chalkboard

textbooks

vertical files

reading materials

picture

chart








puppet

drama

teaching board

model







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TEACHING
MATERIAL
(ELECTRONIC
FORM)
Overhead projektor
(OHP )

Transparency
Tape slide
Radio
Computer
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TEACHING MATERIAL (ORIENTED
EXPERIENCE)
Patterned materials such as role-playing experience, tours
and exhibition projects.
Able to maintain the effectiveness of knowledge and
understanding as it involves students directly.
Material from the environment such as
i nonliving materials: stone, soil, sand, water, metal, etc.
ii-made materials: chairs, clocks, games and so on.
iii plants: grass, ferns, flowers and so on.
iv-living things: fish, frogs, mosquitoes, moths and so on.
Effective use of material from the environment is that the
students can see the real and natural
SUITABLE TEACHING MATERIALS FOR ACTIVITY 1
(INDUCTIVE)
Picture Card
Concrete Material (ship & ball)
Consonant cards

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SUITABLE TEACHING MATERIALS FOR ACTIVITY 2
(DEDUCTIVE)
Manila card
Pictured card
Overhead projector
Computer
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SUITABLE TEACHING MATERIALS FOR ACTIVITY 3
(ECLECTIC)
Pictured card (skirt)
Consonants cards

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SUITABLE TEACHING MATERIALS FOR ACTIVITY 4
(COMMUNICATIVE)
Pictured card (grass, pencil, grapes, apples)
consonants cards
Material from the environment
- Plants: grass
- Made material: pencil
- Fruit: grapes, apples (concrete material)



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References
Kontozie A., & Kouratou E. (n.d.). Is there a difference between the effects of deductive and
inductive instructions. University of Cyprus, Department of English Studies.

Gary D. Borich & Debra A. Stollenwerk (2004). Effective Teaching Methods. 5
th
Ed.
Pearson/Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Joseph D.Novak & Caas, A. (2006). The theory underlying concept maps and how to
construct and use them.

Peter S.Wood (2008). What teachers need to know about teaching methods. Aust. Council
for Ed Research.

Stephen D. Brookfield (2009). The skillful teacher: On technique, trust and responsiveness in
the classroom. John Wiley & Sons.


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References
http://itukamibudakseni.blogspot.com/2010/11/bahan-bantu-
mengajar.html

http://khairulameera.wordpress.com/kemahiran-pemilihan-dan-
aplikasi-alat-bantu-mengajar-abm/

http://berlatihbicara.blogspot.com/2012/07/definisi-bahan-bantu-
mengajar.html


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