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Tran Binh Minh

Nguyen Hoang Le
Nguyen Minh Lam
Tran Van Huyen
Tu Van Lam
Nguyen Tan Luc
Ho Nguyen Van Man

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Introduction to wave antennas
- Microwave - Infrared waves


CONTENTS
Introduction to wireless network
For nearly 10 years
over the wireless network
being developed at a rapid
pace.

There are many types of networks,
technologies, wireless standards have been
standardized.

4
Classification
wireless network
PAN
LAN
MAN
WAN
Classification wireless network
PAN: Personal wireless network, with small
coverage range of several meters to tens of
meters.
The technology used to connect peripherals
such as printers, keyboards, mouse, hard
disk, mobile phone ... with computers.
Classification wireless network
LAN:
Wireless local area
networks. This group includes
technology coverage range of
several hundred meters.


Classification wireless network
MAN:
Metropolitan
wireless networks. Its
coverage will
silkworms few km
(range 4 ~ 5 km
maximum).
.
Typical representatives
of this group is WiMAX.
Classification wireless network
WAN
Wide-area wireless
network. Its coverage also
reach several kilometers to
tens of kilometers range.

This group covers network
technologies such as UMTS
mobile communication /
GSM /CDMA2000...
Classification wireless network
Organizations IEEE
just About Us IEEE 802,22,
called is a regular connected
WRAN (Wireless Regional
Area Networks)
Purpose that helps to the user
was captured Sng Wifi even when the
current moving speed cao above xe
hoi, xe firewall.
Wireless transmission
Three frequency range of
interest .
Microwave
1GHz-40GHz
Radio
30MHz-1GHz
Infrared
waves
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Microwave
Microwave (or microwave / shortwave) are
electromagnetic waves with wavelengths
longer than infrared rays
Microwave, also known as ultra high frequency signals
(SHF), with a wavelength range of 30 cm (frequency 1
GHz) to 1 cm (frequency 30 GHz).

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Around the microwave frequency band is determined according to the
following table
L-band

1 to 2 GHz

S-band

2 to 4 GHz

C-band

4 to 8 GHz

X-band

8 to 12.4 GHz
Ku-band

12.4 to 18 GHz
K-band

18 to 26.5 GHz
Ka-band

26.5 to 40 GH
Q-band

30 to 50 GHz
U-band

40 to 60 GHz
V-band

50 to 75 GHz
E-band

60 to 90 GHz
W-band

75 to 110 GHz
F-band


90 to 140 GHz
D-band

110 to 170 GHz
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Distances waves
Broadcasting straight distance is limited by the
curvature of the earth.

Because the radius of the earth r = 6,37.10^6 m.

Call h1 [m] and h2 [m] 2 antenna height, the maximum
distance information for microwave line is d [km].
Parabolic Antennas
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Microwaves ground
commonly used parabolic reflector antenna.
If an electromagnetic energy source is placed
at the focus of the parabola, when the power
output meets the surface it will revert back to a
line parallel to the axis of the parabola
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n the radiation efficiency of approximately 0.5
is the wavelength
A the radiation of the antenna surface, perpendicular to
the direction of
The gain G of the antenna are
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antennas
The wireless carrier is very high due to the
orientation of directional antennas
For the media does not control, transmission
and reception is performed by means of an
antenna
An antenna can be defined as an electrical conductor may be
radiated electromagnetic energy or electromagnetic energy
collected
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Terrestrial microwave transmission
description
The most common type of microwave
antenna is the "plate" parabolic.
Common size diameter 3m account
-Usually quite high
-Combined microwave stations to detect
long-distance
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Wave propagation characteristics
Frequency within the range from 1-40GHz
Transfer efficiency
attenuation
d is the distance
is the wavelength
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In order to convey away the amplification system from 10-
100Km
Downturn when it rains (especially at frequencies above 10GHz)
Overlapping microwave frequencies
attenuation
Allocation of frequencies strict rules
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Microwaves satellite
As a relay station amplifier microwave
The satellites have the same frequency is not
located close to each other
The number of satellites is limited
The satellites are geostationary satellites
Features
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Wave propagation characteristics
Optimal frequency bands for satellite TV in the range from 1
to 10 GHz
Under 1GHz noise (Natural and Artificial)
On 10GHz declined sharply (from atmospheric
absorption and precipitation)
5.925
to
6.425
GHz
3.7 to
4.2
GHz
A satellite can not transmit and receive on the same frequency
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TV Distribution
Long Distance Telephone Communications
Business Network
Global Positioning
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A common application is worth noting that
the navigation system NAVSTAR (Global
Positioning System - GPS)
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Radio wave
Description:
Unlike microwaves, radio waves transmit omnidirectional, so the antenna
does not need to be fixed parabolic or a place
Frequency of 30 MHz to 1GHz
include: FM radio
VHF & UHF TV
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Radio wave transmission
characteristics
Frequency range of 30 MHz to 1 GHz is suitable for
broadcast communications
Less decline when some rain and little else
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Infrared waves
Transmitted from one point to another
In the local applications and narrow range
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Infrared waves
Infrared communication is done by using the transmitter /
receiver
that adjust infrared light intermittent
The receiver must be within sight of each other
Other infrared microwave in that it is not through walls, and use it
do not need to register frequency
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Guided media wire
Consist of:
Copper
Fiber
Characteristics and quality of data transmission
is determined by the environment and the signal.
For wireline, greater environmental impact

Guided media wire
1. Copper
b) Two-wire open line
Insulation on each wire
Twisted together
Often bundles
Against interference
Guided media wire
1. Copper
b) Twisted-pair
Guided media wire
1. Copper
b) Twisted-pair
Environment the most common
transmission
Telephone network
Connection between the
buildings
LAN
Applications
Cheap
Easy installation and operation
Low-speed data
Short-range
Advantage-
disadvantages
Transmission characteristics
Analog
Need amplifier each 5km to 6km
Digital
Use the analog or digital signals
Need a repeater each 2km or 3km
The distance limit
Bandwidth limits (1MHz)
Speed limit data (100Mbps)
Susceptible to noise and the impact of the external environment
Guided media wire
1. Copper
b) Twisted-pair
Guided media wire
1. Copper
c) Coaxial
Guided media wire
1. Copper
c) Coaxial
Applications
The most flexible communications environment
Cable TV
Transmission distance phone
Connect the device proximity
LAN
Transmission characteristics
Skin effect
Analog
Digital

Guided media wire
1. Copper
c) Coaxial
Guided media wire
2. Fiber
a) Structure
Guided media wire
2. Fiber
b) Benefits
High capacity
Small size and weight
Attenuation of signal transmission in a low
Isolate electromagnetic field
The distance between the remote repeater
BER on the transmission line at about 10
9
10
12

Guided media wire
2. Fiber
c) Applications
LAN, WAN
Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks
Distance trunk lines
Urban Trunk
PBX trunks rural
Subscriber
Guided media wire
2. Fiber
d) Transmission characteristics
Wave propagation direction 10
14
10
15

Light Emitting Diode (LED)
Injection Laser Diode (ILD)
Wavelength Division Multiplexing
Guided media wire
2. Fiber
e) Transmission mode
Transmission characteristic points - points
Switching nodes are not
concerned with the
content of the data.

The collection of nodes is
a communications
network.
Switching technique
To transfer data over a local network, we use
intermediate switching nodes.
We always want to have
more than one path
through the network for
a pair of stations. This
enhances the reliability
of the network.
Switching technique
Data entering from a station is routed to the
destination by being switched from node to node.
Switching technique
There is a dedicated
communication path
between two stations
Circuit switching
There is a dedicated
communication path
between two stations
Circuit switching was first developed to handle
voice traffic .
But now, it also used for data traffic.
Circuit switching
Include 3 steps.
Circuit
establishment
Data
transfer
Circuit
disconnect
Before signals can
be transmitted, an
end-to-end circuit
must be established.
Transfer data from
source to destination.
Data may be analog or
digital.
The connection is full-
duplex
when data transmission
is completed, the
connection is terminated.
Step 1 Step 2 Step 3
Circuit switching
No congestion (fixed bandwidth)

Data is transmitted at a fixed data rate with no
delay.
Strong point:
Circuit switching
Weak point:
Channel capacity is reserved for connection time,
even there is no data need to transmit.

Take a period of time to establish a path before
transmit data.
Circuit switching: Space Division Switching
Developed for the analog environment.
and has been carried over into the digital environment.
Each connection is a
secluded physical path.
Each switch is a metallic
switch, or semiconductor
gate.
Circuit switching: Space Division Switching
Circuit switching: Space Division Switching
Circuit switching: Space Division Switching
The number of crosspoints is large. It
increases the cost price.

Only a small amount of the crosspoints
are engaged.

Loss a crosspoint, cause loss the
connection path whose lines intersect at
that crosspoint.
Crosspoint = Input x Output
Circuit switching: Space Division Switching
Circuit switching: Space Division Switching
The number of crosspoints is reduced.
There are many connection path
connect 2 stations. This enhances the
reliability of the network.




To confuse the control system.
It may be blocking.
Time Division Switching
Divide low-speed data into small frame to transmit.
Using digital signals.
Using digital TDM technique to establish and
maintain connection line.
Time Division Switching
Time Division Switching
Simple.
Wasteful in transmission capacity
Time Division Switching
Time Slot Interchange.
What does Packet Switching mean ?
The technique of Switching ?
Advantages of packet switching
X.25
What is Packet Switching
Network Switch
Node Packet
sent
received
What does Packet Switching mean ?
Packet switching is a digital network
transmission process in which data is broken
into suitably-sized pieces or blocks for fast
and efficient transfer via different network
devices
When a user attempts to send a file to another
user, the file is broken into packets so that it
can be sent across the network in the most
efficient way
These packets are then routed by
network devices to the destination.
Packet Switching
DATA
packet
Control information
(packet header)
divides data into packets
Principle of packet switching

A message is broken into small parts, called
packets.
each packet have the length 1000 bytes.
Each packet adds header, which include: index,
addresses of the source and the destination,
error control code
The packet is received, temporarily stored and
transmitted to the next node (store and forward )
Packet Switching
Packet Switching
Advantages of packet switching
Increased transmission efficiency
The package was received even when the
network is busy
Offers improved delay characteristics: because
there are no long messages in the queue
(maximum packet size is fixed). Packet can be
rerouted if there is any problem, such as, busy
or disabled links.
Packet switching enable the ability to prioritize
The technique of Switching ?
Station informed long divided into small packages

Each packet is sent to the network switching node

There are two types of packet switching,
datagram switching and virtual circuit switching :
Datagram
Virtual circuit

Datagram
Each packet is handled independently
Each package is called 1 datagram
The package can :
Take any appropriate route:
The path of the packets are not the same
Not in order to target posts
Missing or lost along the way:
An intermediate node temporarily damaged, the package
is waiting at the node that will be lost
Does the package to detect damage / loss and
corresponding processing

1
4
5
2
6
3
7
B
C
A
F
E
D
Datagram
Virtual Circuit
Roads are planned before sending the data packets
When the path has been set, the packets transmitted
between two machines only follow the given line.
Fixed path for each session.
Similarly switching circuit so-called virtual
circuit.
The control package is used to create connections
Each route is assigned an ID
Each packet contains the ID of the path rather than
the destination host address
No need to find a way for each package

1
4
5
2
6
3
7
B
C
A
F
E
D
Virtual Circuit
X.25 ?

X25 specify function of three Layer:
Physical layer
Link access layer
Packet layer

X.25 interface
User
process
packet
Link
access
physical
packet
Link
access

physical
Multi-channel
logical interface

DCE
to remote
user process

lap-B link-level
logical interface

DTE
X.21 physical
interface
OSI
The Physical Layer
perform physical communication between
workstation is connected to the (computer or
terminal equipment) and the connecting this
workstation with packet switching node
Data Terminal Equipment:(DTE) the user's device
Circuit terminating equipment:(DCE) network
node
Use the X.21 physical layer specification
(sometimes replaced by EIA-232)

X.25 interface
Link access layer
ability to provide reliable data transmission
through a physical connection
Data is transmitted in the form of sequence
of frames
Link Access Protocol Balanced (LAPB)
LAPB is the case subnet of HDLC
X.25 interface
Packet layer
Packet Layer is the network layer
(level 3) of X.25
provide a virtual circuit service, for
transmitting data from node to node
error handling, congestion control and
packet sequencing are functions of this
layer
X.25 interface
User data
Layer 3
header
LAPB
header
LAPB
trailer
User data into X.25 layer 3






X.25 additional control information (header)






then the entire package is passed down LAPB







I. The introduction of softswitching

First appeared around 1995
Support for multiple services, from telephone / fax,
video calls and messages ..
The switching system of software packages have made
calls
An important step development of switching technology

A. Softswitching

1. Concept
II. The concept of softswitching

The software performs the function call
processing system capable of switching
convey various types of information
with different protocols

2. Terminology
Switching function is performed by physical means port Media
Gateway (MG), and call processing function of the media gateway
controller Media Gateway Controller (MGC


III. The main components of
softswitching

The structure of softswitching
Media Gateway Controller
(MGC)
Signaling Gateway (SG)
Media Gateway (MG)
Media Server (MS)
Application Server(AS)
Feature Server(FS)


1.Media Gateway Controller (MGC)

The main function of the Media Gateway Controller
Call control, maintaining the status of each call on an MG.
Control and operational support of MG, SG.
Messages exchanged between base 2 MG-F.
Handling QoS related news.

a. The main function of the Media Gateway
Controller

To set up call: H.323, SIP.
Media Gateway Control: MGCP, MEGACO / H.248.
Signaling Gateway Controller: SIGTRAN (SS7).
To transmit information: RTP, RTCP.
b. The MGC protocol can use

2.Media Gateway (MG)
The structure of MG

MC functions


SG is the task of processing signaling information
SG has the following functions
Provide a physical connection to the SS7 signaling network
Communications signaling between MGC and SG via IP
network.
Provides voice, data and other information forms
3.Signalling Gateway (SG)
4.Media Server (MS)

The functionality of a Media Server:
Basic voice
mail
functionality
The ability
to recognize
speech (if
any).
The ability to
video
conference
(video
conference).
The ability to
transfer voice
to text (speech-
to-text).
IV. Essential activities of softswitch
Call processing flow chart of soft switching
Ability to attract customers
Time short of market access
New opportunities for revenue

Advantages

Use bandwidth efficiently....vv
V. Advantages and applications of
softswitching circuit

Applications

Historic perspective
1
MPLS basics 2
ATM LSR
3
MPLS (Multiprotocol Label Switching)
Outline
A historical Perspective
Overlay models create bottleneck from
the lack of segmentation and
reassembly (SAR) functionality on
interfaces faster than OC-48
What happened in mid-90s?
The problems with overlay models reveal themselves:
Overlay model results in an inefficient
use of network bandwidth due to the
traditional ATM cell tax
A historical Perspective
Classical IP over ATM requires the
deployment of n-squared routing
adjacencies.
What happened in mid-90s?
The problems with overlay models reveal themselves:
Overlay models increase complexity by
requiring providers to manage two
separate control planes and two
fundamentally different types of
networking equipment
A historical Perspective
No QoS for LANE and the IP Diffserv
approach to CoS does not map well to
the existing ATM QoS mechanims
What happened in mid-90s?
The problems with overlay models reveal themselves:
LANE requires a client-server model
in place, e.g., LEC, LECS, LES, and
BUS
A Historical Perspective (contd)
Multi-layer
switching solutions
in the spotlight
IP switching by Ipsilon/Nokia Tag switching by Cisco
Aggregate routing-
based IP switching
(ARIS) by IBM
Cell Switching
Router (CSR) by
Toshiba
IP Navigator by
Cascade/Ascend/L
ucent
MPLS Basics
MPLS switching concept:

IP ROUTER
ATM-LSR
ATM SWITCH
CONTROL
FORWARDING
IP Routing
Software
Longest
Prefix Match
IP Routing
Software
ATM Routing &
Signaling
Software
Label
Switching
Label
Switching
Signaling & label
binding
MPLS Basics (contd)
Generic label and label stacking:

LAYER-2
LAYER-3
Label
exp s TTL
20 3
1
1
0
0
8
MPLS Basics (contd)
ATM Based label and label stacking:
LAYER-2
LAYER-3
Label
exp s TTL
20 3
1
1
0
0
8
0 VPI/VCI +
MPLS Basics (contd)
1
2
3
distributes labels
based on routing
topology, i.e.,
label to FEC
binding where
FEC = IP prefix.

MPLS signaling protocols: distribute labels and
maintain connectivity of an LSP
Topology driven:
LDP
Using TCP and
maintaining
hard state.
No QoS.
MPLS Basics (contd)
1
2
3
MPLS signaling protocols: distribute labels and
maintain connectivity of an LSP
Policy driven:
RSVP-TE:
Widely
deployed
distributes
labels based on
source routing
Designed
for QoS
Using raw IP and
maintaining soft
state
MPLS Basics (contd)
1
2
3
MPLS signaling protocols: distribute labels and
maintain connectivity of an LSP
Policy driven:
CR-LDP: not
well accepted
distributes
labels based on
source routing
Designed
for QoS
Using raw IP and
maintaining hard
state
MPLS Basics (contd)
Label distribution mechanisms:
Downstream-on-demand (RSVP-TE, CR-LDP, LDP)



Unsolicited-downstream (LDP)


Upstream LSR
Label Request
Next Hop to FEC
Downstream LSR
Label Response
Upstream LSR
Next Hop to FEC
Downstream LSR
Unsolicited
Label Response
an upstream LSR maintains the received label
binding for an FEC only if the label binding is
received from the downstream LSR that the
upstream LSR has selected as the next-hop for
that FEC
MPLS Basics (contd)
Conservative
label
retention:
An upstream LSR maintains the received label
binding for an FEC even if the label binding is
received from a downstream LSR that the
upstream LSR has not selected as the next-hop for
that FEC
Liberal label
retention
Label retention modes:
Traditional shortest path based IP routing
protocols provide enough information for
LDP signaling
MPLS Basics (contd)
Policy driven signaling protocols set up
an LSP based on the policy:
A policy may enforce a manually configured
route
A policy may use a route found by a
constraint-based routing protocol
A policy may use a route found by a shortest-
path based routing protocol
Routing for MPLS
MPLS Basics (contd)
MPLS eliminates the potential for SAR bottlenecks by not
using ATM as a transport
MPLS eliminates the complexity of managing two separate
control planes and two fundamentally different types of
networking equipment.
MPLS eliminates the cell tax by not using ATM as a
transport
MPLS can support DiffServ CoS.
The peer-to-peer nature of IP routed MPLS eliminates the
need to manage a complex logical topology (n-squared
PVCs)
MPLS provides flexible traffic engineering features


MPLS Related Research Topics


MPLS multicasting
Pseudo-wire over MPLS
MPLS VPN
MPLS high availability
MPLS Traffic engineering
Some the concept of multiprotocol labe
switching:
a. Lable
b. Lable stack
c. Label Switch Forwording Table
d. LSR-Lable Switching Router
e. FEC-Forward Equivalence Class
f. LIB-Lable Information Base
g. LSP-Lable Switching Path

MULTIPROTOCOL LABEL
SWITCHING
MULTIPROTOCOL LABEL
SWITCHING
Routing and switching:
+Routing:
Using declared static paths or running the routing protocol in
order to identify the best paths to a certain destination.
+Switching:
Moving an information package from interface to another
interface in equipment.
MULTIPROTOCOL LABEL
SWITCHING
Basic information processing in MPLS:
1. A LSP is set between two LER by LDP or RSVP.
2. When IP information package goes to LER input, router will
check destination IP address and assign it a corresponding
label.As a result, this package is assigned a corresponding MPLS
before moved.
3.LSR core routers move information package that base on
ingress labels and egress labels without paying attention to IP
adress of information package.
4. The last LER will remove MPLS label, find destination of
information package in IP router table and push information
package to required port.
MULTIPROTOCOL LABEL
SWITCHING
Structure and components of a MPLS
MPLS network includes many buttons which have routing function and
connected transition together. Each button is corresponding to LSR
equipment ( Lable Switching Router).MPLS network can be divided into
two regions that are l MPLS core and MPLS Edge.There will be
corresponding equipment with each region.
MULTIPROTOCOL LABEL
SWITCHING
MOVI NG PACKAGE PATTERN
Information package is packed at here
and Paris and London are
destinations.Firstly,information
package is pushed to LSR ingress.
Ingress LSR identifies FEC, divides
label at here, and moves flow to Paris
through LSP yellow path and to
London through LSP red path. Traffic
will be assigned label at each LSR
transit in MPLS.
When information package goes to
Egress. LSR will remove MPLS
label, go on moving it that base on
destination address and move to
requiered destination.
MULTIPROTOCOL LABEL
SWITCHING
MPLS and Traffic Engineeing
2.1.1 Traffic Engineering Definition:
Traffic Engineering (TE) is traffic control engineering which contain
traffic through network. The aim is to improve the use of network
resource, avoid to congested network of an element while other
elements are not used out. In addition, It is also used to ensure the line
transmission with certain attributes, the available transmission
resources on the particular line transmission or identified flow it
priority when occurs disputes resources.
MPLS - MultiProtocol Label Switching creates LSP - Label Switched
Path in network in order to decrease traffic forwarding MPLS-TE
MULTIPROTOCOL LABEL
SWITCHING

+ MPLS-TE uses TE tunnel or tunnel traffic control in
order to control traffic on the line transmission to a
specific destination. MPLS-TE uses autoroute to create
routing table by LSP without fully information of
neighbor lines.MPLS-TE is also able to reserve
bandwidth for building this LSP. In general, this method
is more flexible than traffic engineering forwarding that
bases on destination address.
MULTIPROTOCOL LABEL
SWITCHING
Traffic engineering in MPLS environment establishes the targets
for 2 funtions:
+ Traffic orientation.
+ Environmental orientation

MPLS has a strategic meaning to traffic engineering beacause it
provides most of the valuable funtions is overlay model according
to integrated method with low expense.It is the most important
is that MPLS proposes the ability to automate traffic engineering
funtion.
MULTIPROTOCOL LABEL
SWITCHING
Traffic Math:
We consider a simple network as follow picture. Network includes routers
R1,R2,R3,R4,R5 that belongs to the same administrator domain.Routers are linked to each other
like the picture. Considering two traffic streams I-I,II-II input traffic stream R1 and output
traffic stream R5. According to picture, we can easily see that there are two paths for selection of
two traffic streams abvove:
- R1-R2-R3-R5
- R1-R4- R5
MULTIPROTOCOL LABEL
SWITCHING
Selection of using static routing
method

MULTIPROTOCOL LABEL
SWITCHING
Selection of using OSPF routing
method

MULTYPROTOCOL LABEL
SWITCHING
Selection of using RIP routing method