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How the total time of job is made

up

Total time of job = Basic work content +


Total ineffective time
Total time of
operation under
existing
conditions
Total
ineffective
time
Basic
work
contents
Basic work contents of
product and/or operation
ork contents added
b! poor product design or
materials utili"ation
ork contents added
b! inefficient methods of
manufacture or operation
#neffective time resulting
from human resources
contribution
ork $tud!
Work Study is the systematic
examination of the methods of carrying
on activities so as to improve the
effective use of resources and to set up
standards of performance for the
activities being carried out.
ork
$tud!
Higher
productivit!
%ethod $tud!
To simplif! the job
and develop more
economical
methods of doing it
ork
measurement
To determine how
long it should be
take to carr! out
Method Study
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o Simplify the !ob and
develop more economical
methods of doing it
he !ob to be studied" and
define its boundaries
he relevant facts about the !ob by direct
observation and collect such additional
data as may be needed from appropiate
source
he #ay the !ob is
being performed and
challenge its purpose"
place" se$uence and
method of
performance
he most practical" economic and
effective method" dra#ing on the
contributions of those concerned
results of different alternative solutions
ne# method and present it to management
ne# method and train persons in applying
it
and establish control procedures" to
prevent drifting back
$elect & here to 'ook

(oor use of resources

Bad la!out

Bottlenecks

#nconsistent )ualit!

High fatiguing work

*xcessive overtime

*mplo!ee+s complaints
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$elect & *conomic ,onsiderations

-e! profit. generating operations

-e! costl! operations

/epetitive work

'ong travels

*xcessive overtime
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Will it pay to begin, or continue, a method study
of this job?
$elect & Technical ,onsiderations

*xtensive paperwork

/epetitive work 0automation1

Ha"ardous work

#nconsistent )ualit!
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Desire to acquire more advanced technology
$elect & Human ,onsiderations

$atisfaction level

H$*
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Workers satisfaction/resentment
$elect & 'imiting the $cope

2ne operation or a se)uence

The whole operation or part

hich aspect3 worker4 materials4


e)uipment4 5 etc6
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Setting boundaries and determining content
$elect & (ossible /esults

#ncreased production rate

/educed cost

'ess labor4 materials4 or e)uipment

#mproved )ualit!

#mproved safet!

/educed scrap

#mproved standards of cleanliness


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$elect & (areto 7nal!sis
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/ecord. ,harts and 8iagrams
Indicating %rocess Se$uence
&utline %rocess 'hart
(lo# %rocess 'hart )Worker" Material" E$uipment*
+sing ime Scale
Simultaneous motion 'ycle 'hart
Multiple ,ctivity 'hart
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Indicating Movement
(lo# Diagram
/ecord. $!mbols
&peration )Make ready" Do" %ut a#ay*
Inspection
ransport
Delay
Storage
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/ecord. $!mbols
&peration )Make ready" Do" %ut a#ay*
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/ecord. $!mbols
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/ecord. $!mbols
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/ecord. $!mbols
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/ecord. $!mbols
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2utline (rocess ,hart

7n outline process chart is a process chart


giving an overall picture b! recording in
se)uence onl! the main operations and
inspections6

2nl! s!mbols for 92peration+ and


9#nspection+ are used6
Record- Example
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&utline 'hart
(ace" turn" cut
(ace opposite end
Dimension and finish
Straddle mill four flats
Remove burr
(inal inspection of machining
Degreasing
'admium plating
(inal check
(ace both sides
Drill hole
(inal check
,ssemble and drill
urn shank
Remove chip
Dimensions
Degreasing
'admium plating
(inal check
(it stop pin
(inal check
Switch Rotor
:low (rocess ,hart

7 process chart setting out the se)uence


of the flow of a product or a procedure b!
recording all events under review using
the appropriate process chart s!mbols6

; T!pes3
&
orker t!pe3 7 flow process chart which
records what the operator does
&
%aterial t!pe3 7 flow process chart which
records how material is handled or treated
&
*)uipment t!pe3 7 flow process chart which
records how the e)uipment is used
2(, <$ :(,
:(, 2(,
,ontain all activities 'imited to operation and
inspection
8etail process Bird+s & e!e
=suall! a single line ,over the whole process
*xamine. The >uestions
%urpose. What is actually done/
Why is it necessary/
%lace. Where/ Why/
Se$uence. When/ Why/
%erson. Who/ Why/
Means. 0o#/ Why/
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With a vie# to.
Eliminate
'ombine or Rearrange
Simplify

? sets of activities fall into @ main


categories3
&
Those in which something is actuall!
happening to the material or workpiece under
consideration
&
Those in which is not being touched4 being
either in storage or at a standstill owing of
dela!

:irst categor!3
&
%ake /ead! activities & re)uired to prepare
the material or workpiece and set it in position
read! to be worked on6
&
8o operations & in which a change is made in
the shape4 chemical composition or ph!sical
condition of the product6
&
(ut awa! activities & during which the work is
moved aside from the machine or workplace6
(ut awa! ma! be make read! for the next6

hat should be doneA

here should it be doneA

hen should it be doneA

ho should do itA

How should it be doneA


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Sometime the propose method clear-


cut

Revised method clearly defned

Consider all factors

Even not easily measurable


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Combination of scoring and weighting


Score Weighting (S W
Cost reduction! " !
#abor $e%ibility & ! '
(ncreased output " ! !
)otal "*

(nclude pro+ect report

Recommended course of action

Recommendations

Reasons for recommendations

Result e%pected from recommendation

,---C rule by ensuring the report

,CC.R,)E

-R(E/

C#E,R

0ew method should be strictly defned

1repare a written standard practice

2perative instruction sheet

Record improved method further


reference

E%plain new method to management

,n aid for training

)ime studies for setting standard


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/inal stage

3ost di4cult of all

5ivided into 6 stages7

8aining acceptance management

8aining acceptance departmental


supervision

8aining acceptance wor9er:their


representative

1repare ma9e changes

Controlling the change-over


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1reparation

1lan

,rrange

Rehearse

(nstallation

(mproved method may be are no


longer valid

;uman nature drift away if there is


no chec9

5epend on the nature


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