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Foundations of
Individual Behavior
Chapter TWO
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Ability, Intellect, and Intelligence
Ability
An individuals capacity to perform
the various tasks in a job.
Intellectual Ability
The capacity to do mental activities.
Multiple Intelligences
Intelligence contains four subparts:
cognitive, social, emotional, and cultural.
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Number aptitude
Verbal comprehension
Perceptual speed
Inductive reasoning
Deductive reasoning
Spatial visualization
Memory
Dimensions of
Intellectual Ability
E X H I B I T 21
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Physical Abilities
Physical Abilities
The capacity to do tasks
demanding stamina, dexterity,
strength, and similar
characteristics.
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Other Factors
7. Body coordination
8. Balance
9. Stamina
Nine Physical Abilities
Strength Factors
1. Dynamic strength
2. Trunk strength
3. Static strength
4. Explosive strength
Flexibility Factors
5. Extent flexibility
6. Dynamic flexibility
E X H I B I T 22
Source: Adapted from
HRMagazine published
by the Society for Human
Resource Management,
Alexandria, VA.
2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Ability-Job
Fit
The Ability-Job Fit
Employees
Abilities
Jobs Ability
Requirements
2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Biographical Characteristics
Biographical Characteristics
Personal characteristicssuch as age, gender,
race and tenurethat are objective and easily
obtained from personnel records.
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Learning
Learning
Involves change
Is relatively permanent
Is acquired through experience
Learning
Any relatively permanent change in behavior
that occurs as a result of experience.
2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Theories of Learning
Key Concepts
Unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned response
Conditioned stimulus
Conditioned response
Classical Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which an individual
responds to some stimulus that would not
ordinarily produce such a response.
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E X H I B I T 23
Source: The Far Side
by Gary Larson 1993
Far Works, Inc. All rights
reserved. Used with
permission.
2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Theories of Learning (contd)
Key Concepts
Reflexive (unlearned) behavior
Conditioned (learned) behavior
Reinforcement
Operant Conditioning
A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary
behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment.
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Theories of Learning (contd)
Key Concepts
Attentional processes
Retention processes
Motor reproduction processes
Reinforcement processes
Social-Learning Theory
People can learn through observation
and direct experience.
2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Theories of Learning (contd)
Key Concepts
Reinforcement is required to change behavior.
Some rewards are more effective than others.
The timing of reinforcement affects learning
speed and permanence.
Shaping Behavior
Systematically reinforcing each successive step that
moves an individual closer to the desired response.
2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Types of Reinforcement
Positive reinforcement
Providing a reward for a desired behavior.
Negative reinforcement
Removing an unpleasant consequence when the
desired behavior occurs.
Punishment
Applying an undesirable condition to eliminate an
undesirable behavior.
Extinction
Withholding reinforcement of a behavior to cause its
cessation.
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Schedules of Reinforcement
Continuous Reinforcement
A desired behavior is reinforced
each time it is demonstrated.
Intermittent Reinforcement
A desired behavior is reinforced
often enough to make the
behavior worth repeating but not
every time it is demonstrated.
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Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)
Fixed-Interval Schedule
Rewards are spaced at
uniform time intervals.
Variable-Interval Schedule
Rewards are initiated after a
fixed or constant number of
responses.
2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)
Fixed-ratio
E X H I B I T 24
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Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement
E X H I B I T 25
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Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (contd)
E X H I B I T 25 (contd)
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Behavior Modification
Five Step Problem-Solving Model
1. Identify critical behaviors
2. Develop baseline data
3. Identify behavioral consequences
4. Develop and apply intervention
5. Evaluate performance improvement
OB Mod
The application of reinforcement concepts
to individuals in the work setting.
2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter Checkup: Reinforcement Theory
When professors give random pop quizzes or
take random attendance, students often
complain that they are adults, old enough to
make their own decisions, and should therefore
not be required to come to class. How do you
reconcile this argument with what we know
about reinforcement theory? Discuss with a
classmate.

What kind of reinforcement schedule are these
professors using? Would a different schedule be
preferable? If so, which one?
2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter Checkup: Reinforcement Theory
Recall and write down the three criteria that
indicate learning has occurred. Do you think
that learning, according to these criteria, really
occurs as a result of a one semester college
class? Discuss with a neighbor.

What kinds of things would you recommend to a
college professor to increase the likelihood of
students learning all class material? Use theories
from the text to frame your answer.