Chapter 1- Cell Biology

Grade 11 University Biology

Outline
 Cell

Theory  Cell Structure  Cytoplasmic Organelles  Special Structures of Plant Cells

Cell Theory
 All

living things are made of one or more cells  The cell is the smallest entity that retains the properties of life  New cells arise only from cells that already exist

Cell Structure- Membrane

A structure that surrounds the cytoplasm of the cell and regulates the movement of materials in and out of the cell

Cell Structure- Protoplasm

The entire contents of the cell

Cell Structure- Nucleus
  

The control centre of the cell Contains hereditary information Bonded by a double membrane

Cell Structure- Cytoplasm

A fluid that contains all cellular parts enclosed inside the plasma membrane except the nucleus

Nucleus- Eukaryotic Cells

A type of cell that has a true nucleus with a membrane surrounding it

Nucleus- Prokaryotic Cell

A type of cell that does not have a true nucleus

Nucleus- Chromosomes

Thread like structures in the nucleus that contain genes Chromosomes are composed of nucleic acid (DNA) and protein

Nucleus- Genes

Sections of a chromosome, each of which contains one set of instructions

Nucleus- DNA

DNA: Deoxyribosenucleic acid A molecule that carries genetic information in cells

Nucleus- DNA

Before a cell divides, each strand of DNA is duplicated and each daughter cell receives a complete set of DNA molecules

Nucleus- Nucleolus
 

Dark sphere inside the nucleus Contains RNA (ribonucleic acids)

Nucleus- Nucleolus

rRNA directs formation of ribosomes mRNA Passes through pores in nulcear membrane Goes to ribosomes as a copy of DNA

Cell Membrane
 

Outer most boundary of the cell Composed of proteins and a double layer of lipids (fat) moleculres

Cell Membrane
  

Holds contents of the cell in place Controls movements in and out of the cell Selectively permeable membrane let’s some things in and keeps some out

Ribosomes

Structures in cytoplasm important for production of proteins

Flagella
 

Some small animals use flagella as tails Ex. Sperm

Cilia

Many short, hair-like structures, help with movement You can find them in the human nose and respiratory system

Electron Microscopes

Electron microscopes have allowed scientist to observe dead and non-living things DNA under a electron microscope

Cell Fractionation

 

Cell fractionation allows scientists to learn about the chemical reactions occuring in a cell Cell components are separated by a centrifuge www.freewebs.com

Cytoplasm OrganellesMitochondria

Function: Power house of the cell  provides energy during cellular respiration (sugar + oxygen  carbon dioxide and energy)

Cytoplasm OrganellesMitochondria
 

Oval-shaped with a double membrane. Inner membrane is folded with projections called cristae Enzymes (speed up reaction) are located on the cristae

Cytoplasm Organelles

Note: The more active the cell, the more mitochondria it will have. Ex. Muscle cells have more mitochondria than fat cells

Cytoplasm OrganellesRibosomes

Organelles on which proteins are synthesised Proteins are chains of small units called Amino Acids

Cytoplasm OrganellesRibosomes

Properties of proteins are determined by the sequence of amino acids Ribosomes bond together amino acids in the order the DNA instructs them to

Cytoplasm OrganellesRibosomes

Ribosomes are made of rRNA proteins They are very small organelles

Cytoplasm OrganellesEndoplasmic Reticulum

A network of interconnected canals that carry material through the cytoplasm Like the subway system of the cell

Cytoplasm OrganellesEndoplasmic Reticulum
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)  Has many ribosomes attached to it  Prominent in cells that secret protein

Cytoplasm OrganellesEndoplasmic Reticulum
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum  Has no ribosomes attached  In cells that synthesis fat (lipids)

Cytoplasm Organelles- Golgi Apparatus

Stores, modifies and packages proteins form the RER (Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum) Looks like a stack of pancakes, which are membranous sacs pilled on each other

Cytoplasm Organelles- Golgi Apparatus

Ends pinch off and form sacs full of proteins called vesicles Exocytosis vesicles empty their protein outside the cell Transport is the function of vesicles

Cytoplasm OrganellesLysosomes
  

Have a single membrane Formed by the Golgi Apparatus Contain enzymes that break down molecules and cell parts in the cytoplasm

Cytoplasm OrganellesLysosomes

Destroy harmful substances in the cell Pus is what is left over when the lysosomes in white blood cells engulf an invader bateria

Cytoplasm OrganellesLysosomes

Lysosomes breakdown dead or damaged cells

Cytoplasm OrganellesMicrofilaments
 

Microfilaments help provide shape and movement for the cells Muscle cells have my microfilaments

Cytoplasm OrganellesMicrotubules

Microtubles transport material throughout the cytoplasm They are found in cilia and flagella

Special Structures of Plant Cells

Plant cells have a some structures that are not found in animal cells Chloroplasts and cell cell walls are only in plant cells Plant cells also have larger vacuoles

Special Structures of Plant Cells

Plant cells do not have lysosomes which are found in animals cells The larger vaculoles help store sugar, minterals, proteins and water They also help keep the cell structure

Special Structures of Plant Cells

 

The larger vaculoles help store sugar, minterals, proteins and water They also help keep the cell structure Cell walls protect and support the cell

Special Structures of Plant CellsPlastids

Plant cells have Plastids, which allow them to make and store their own food (photosynthesis) They are chemical factories and storage for food and colour pigments

Special Structures of Plant CellsChloroplasts
   

Chloroplast Green pigment Photosynthesize Like mitochondira they contain their own DNA and ribosomes Self replicating during cell division

Special Structures of Plant CellsChromoplasts and Amyloplasts
    

Chromoplasts store orange pigment Amyloplasts: Store starch Colourless Found in tubers (roots)

Special Structures of Plant CellsCell Walls
   

Protech and support cells Plants can have 1 or 2 cell walls 1st: Primary cell wall 2nd: Secondary cell wall for extra strength and support (trees)

Special Structures of Plant CellsCell Walls
  

Middle Lamella: Layer between the cell walls Containing sticky fluid “pectin” that helps cells stick together

Cell Research in Medicine
 Independent

Reading and Note Taking

on p. 23-25  Question p.25 #1-3

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