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the loose term given to the succession of styles and movements in art

and architecture which dominated Western culture from 19th Century


up until the 1960s.
characterized by the artist's intent to portray a subject as it exists in
the world, according to his or her unique perspective and is typified by
a rejection of accepted or traditional styles and values.
includes artistic works produced during the period extending roughly
from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of
the art produced during that era.
rejects the past as a model for the art of the present and is
characterized by constant innovation
Defined by some commentators as a socially progressive trend of
thought that affirms the power of human beings to create, improve, and
reshape their environment with the aid of practical experimentation,
scientific knowledge, or technology.
Encouraged the re-examination of every aspect of existence, from
commerce to philosophy, with the goal of finding that which was
'holding back' progress, and replacing it with new ways of reaching the
same end
In general, includes the activities and creations of those who felt the
traditional forms of art, architecture, literature, religious faith,
philosophy, social organization, and activities of daily life were
becoming outdated in the new economic, social, and political
environment of an emerging fully industrialized world
A philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and
changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in
Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries
Rejected the certainty of Enlightenment thinking, and many
modernists rejected religious belief
A notable characteristic of which is self-consciousness, which often
led to experiments with form, along with the use of techniques that
drew attention to the processes and materials used in creating a
painting, poem, building, etc
Explicitly rejected the ideology of realism and makes use of the
works of the past by the employment of reprise, incorporation,
rewriting, recapitulation, revision and parody
Modern Art means the point at which artists ...
1. Felt free to trust their inner visions
2. Express those visions in their work
3. Use real life (social issues and images from modern life) as
a source of subject matter
4. Experiment and innovate as often as possible

Rejected previous Renaissance-based traditions, in favor of new forms
of artistic experimentation
Used new materials, new techniques of painting, and developed new
theories about how art should reflect the perceived world, and what
their functions as artists should be
Have strived to express their views of the world around them using
visual mediums
Experimented with the expressive use of color, non-traditional
materials, and new techniques and mediums
Prior to the 19th century, artists were most often commissioned to make
artwork by wealthy patrons, or institutions like the church. Much of this
art depicted religious or mythological scenes that told stories and were
intended to instruct the viewer. During the 19th century, many artists
started to make art about people, places, or ideas that interested them,
and of which they had direct experience.
Modern art embraces a wide variety of movements, theories, and
attitudes whose modernism resides particularly in a tendency to reject
traditional, historical, or academic forms and conventions in an effort to
create an art more in keeping with changed social, economic, and
intellectual conditions.


Vincent Willem van Gogh
He was a post-
Impressionist painter
of Dutch origin whose
work notable for its
rough beauty, emotional
honesty, and bold color
had a far-reaching
influence on 20th-century
art.


Starry Night, June 1889
Oscar-Claude Monet He was a founder of
French Impressionist pain
ting, and the most
consistent and prolific
practitioner of the
movement's philosophy
of expressing one's
perceptions before
nature. The term
"Impressionism" is
derived from the title of
his painting Impression,
soleil levant (Impression,
Sunrise).

Impression, Sunrise 1872 (Impression,
soleil levant).
Andy Warhol
He was an American artist
who was a leading figure
in the visual art
movement known as pop
art. His works explore the
relationship between
artistic expression,
celebrity culture and
advertisement that
flourished by the 1960s.

Campbells Soup Cans, 1962
Georges Pierre-Seurat
He was a French Post-
Impressionist painter
and draftsman and is
noted for his innovative
use of drawing media and
for devising the painting
techniques known
as chromoluminarism and
pointillism. His large-scale
work, A Sunday Afternoon
on the Island of La Grande
Jatte, altered the direction
of modern art by
initiating Neo-
impressionism.

A Sunday Afternoon on the Island
of La Grande Jatte, 1884-1886
Pablo Ruiz y Picasso
He was a Spanish painter,
sculptor, printmaker, cera
micist, stage designer,
poet and playwright who
spent most of his adult life
in France. As one of the
greatest and most
influential artists of the
20th century, he is known
for co-founding
the Cubist movement, the
invention of constructed
sculpture, the co-
invention of collage, and
for the wide variety of
styles that he helped
develop and explore.

Guernica, 1937
Frida Kahlo
She was a Mexican painter
who is best known for her
self-portraits. Her work has
been celebrated in Mexico
as emblematic of national
and indigenous tradition
and by feminists for its
uncompromising depiction
of the female experience
and form.

Self Portrait with Thorn Necklace and
Hummingbird, 1940
Paul Cezanne
He was a French panter,
often called the Father
of Modern Art, who
strove to develop an
ideal synthesis of
naturalistic
representation, personal
expression, and abstract
pictorial order.

Still Life with Apples, 1890
Paul Gauguin
He was a leading
French Post-
Impressionist artist who
was not well appreciated
until after his death. He
was later recognized for
his experimental use of
colors and synthetist style
that were distinguishably
different
from Impressionism.

Spirit of the Dead Watching, 1892
Edouard Manet
He was a French painter
and was one of the first
19th-century artists to
paint modern life, and a
pivotal figure in the
transition
from Realism to Impressi
onism. His early
masterworks, The
Luncheon on the Grass
and Olympia are
considered watershed
paintings that mark the
genesis of modern art.

Olympia, 1863
Edvard Munch
He was
a Norwegian painter and
printmaker whose
intensely evocative
treatment of
psychological themes
built upon some of the
main tenets of late 19th-
century Symbolism and
greatly influenced
German Expressionism in
the early 20th century.

The Sick Child, 1907

IMPRESSIONISM (1870-1890)
It is the name given to a colorful style of painting in France
at the end of the 19th century. The Impressionists searched for
a more exact analysis of the effects of color and light in
nature.
They sought to capture the atmosphere of a particular time of
day or the effects of different weather conditions. They often
worked outdoors and applied their paint in small brightly
colored strokes which meant sacrificing much of the outline and
detail of their subject.
Impressionism abandoned the conventional idea that the shadow of
an object was made up from its color with some brown or black
added. Instead, the Impressionists enriched their colors with
the idea that a shadow is broken up with dashes of its
complementary color.

CLAUDE MONET
'Rouen Cathedral in Full
Sunlight',1893-94 (oil on canvas)
POST IMPRESSIONISM (1885-1905)
It was the collective title given to the works of a
few independent artists at the end of the 19th
century, and was not a particulat style of painting.
The Post Impressionists rebelled against the
limitations of Impressionism to develop a range of
personal styles that influenced the development of
art in the 20th century.
The major artists associated with Post
Impressionism were Paul Czanne, Paul
Gauguin, Vincent Van Gogh and Georges Seurat.


VINCENT VAN GOGH

'Caf Terrace at Night', 1888
(oil on canvas)

FAUVISM (1905-1910)
It was a joyful style of painting that delighted
in using outrageously bold colors. It was
developed in France at the beginning of the 20th
century by Henri Matisse and Andr Derain.

The artists who painted in this style were known
as 'Les Fauves (the wild beasts), a title that
came from a sarcastic remark in a review by the
art critic Louis Vauxcelles.

HENRI MATISSE

'The Open Window, Collioure',
1905 (oil on canvas)

GERMAN EXPRESSIONISM (1905-1925)
It is a style of art that is charged with an
emotional or spiritual vision of the world. The
expressive paintings of Vincent Van Gogh and Edvard
Munch influenced the German Expressionists.

They also drew their inspiration from German Gothic
and 'primitive art'. The Expressionists were
divided into two factions: Die Brcke and Der Blaue
Reiter.

ERNST LUDWIG KIRCHNER
'The Red Tower at Halle', 1915
(oil on canvas)

ABSTRACT ART (1907 ONWARDS)
It is a generic term that describes two
different methods of abstraction: 'semi
abstraction' and 'pure abstraction'.

The word 'abstract' means to withdraw part of
something in order to consider it separately.

In Abstract art that 'something' is one or
more of the visual elements of a subject: its
line, shape, tone, pattern, texture, or form.

GEORGES BRAQUE

'Violin and Pitcher', 1910 (oil on
canvas)

CUBISM (1907-1915)
It was invented around 1907 in Paris by Pablo
Picasso and Georges Braque. It was the first
abstract style of modern art.
Cubist paintings ignore the traditions of
perspective drawing and show you many views of a
subject at one time.
The Cubists believed that the traditions of
Western art had become exhausted and to
revitalize their work, they drew on the
expressive energy of art from other cultures,
particularly African art.

PABLO PICASSO
'Ambroise Vollard', 1915 (oil
on canvas)
FUTURISM (1909-1914)
It was a revolutionary Italian movement that celebrated
modernity. The Futurist vision was outlined in a series of
manifestos that attacked the long tradition of Italian art in
favour of a new avant-garde.
They glorified industrialization, technology, and transport
along with the speed, noise and energy of urban life. The
Futurists adopted the visual vocabulary of Cubism to express
their ideas - but with a slight twist.
In a Cubist painting the artist records selected details of a
subject as he moves around it, whereas in a Futurist painting
the subject itself seems to move around the artist. The effect
of this is that Futurist paintings appear more dynamic than
their Cubist counterparts.


GIACOMO BALLA

The Rhythm of the Violinist',
1912 (oil on canvas)

SUPREMATISM (1915-1925)
It was developed in 1915 by the Russian artist
Kazimir Malevich. It was a geometric style of
abstract painting derived from elements
of Cubism and Futurism.

Malevich rejected any use of representational
images, believing that the non-representational
forms of pure abstraction had a greater
spiritual power and an ability to open the mind
to the supremacy of pure feeling.


KAZIMIR MALEVICH

'Suprematism', 1915 (oil on
canvas)

CONSTRUCTIVISM (1913-1930)
Used the same geometric language as Suprematism
but abandoned its mystical vision in favour of
their 'Socialism of vision' - a Utopian glimpse
of a mechanized modernity according to the ideals
of the October Revolution.

However, this was not an art that was easily
understood by the proletariat and it was
eventually repressed and replaced by Socialist
Realism. Tatlin, Rodchenko, El Lissitzky and Naum
Gabo were among the best artists associated with
Constructivism.

EL LISSITZKY
'The Red Wedge', 1919
(lithograph)

DE STIJL (1917-1931)
De Stijl was a Dutch 'style' of pure
abstraction developed by Piet Mondrian, Theo
Van Doesburg and Bart van der Leck.

Mondrian was the outstanding artist of the
group. He was a deeply spiritual man who was
intent on developing a universal visual
language that was free from any hint of the
nationalism that led to the Great War.


PIET MONDRIAN
'Composition with White and
Yellow', 1942 (oil on canvas)

DADA (1916-1922)
It was a form of artistic anarchy born out of disgust for the
social, political and cultural establishment of the time which
it held responsible for Europe's descent into World War.
Dadaism was an anti art stance as it was intent on destroying
the artistic values of the past. The aim of Dada was to create a
climate in which art was alive to the moment and not paralysed
by the corrupted traditions of the established order.
Dadas weapons in the war against the art establishment were
confrontation and provocation. They confronted the artistic
establishment with the irrationality of their collages and
assemblages and provoked conservative complacency with
outrageous actions at their exhibitions and meetings.

RAOUL HAUSMANN

'Tatlin at Home', 1920
(collage)

SURREALISM (1924-1939)
It was the positive response to Dada's negativity.
Its aim was to liberate the artist's imagination
by tapping into the unconscious mind to discover a
'superior' reality - a 'sur-reality'.

To achieve this the Surrealists drew upon the
images of dreams, the effects of combining
disassociated images, and the technique of 'pure
psychic automatism', a spontaneous form of drawing
without the conscious control of the mind.

REN MAGRITTE
'Time Transfixed', 1938 (oil on
canvas)

ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM (1946-1956)
Abstract Expressionism was the first American
art style to exert an influence on a global
scale. It drew upon the spiritual approach of
Kandinsky, the 'automatism' of the Surrealists,
and a range of dramatic painting techniques.

Abstract Expressionism was also known as
Action Painting, a title which implied that
the physical act of painting was as important
as the result itself.


JACKSON POLLOCK

'Full Fathom Five', 1947 (oil
with nails, coins, buttons,
cigarette etc. on canvas)

POP ART (1954-1970)
Pop Art was the art movement that characterized a sense
of optimism during the post war consumer boom of the
1950's and 60's. It coincided with the globalization of
pop music and youth culture, personified by Elvis and
The Beatles.

Pop Art was brash, colorful, young, fun and hostile to
the artistic establishment. It included different styles
of painting and sculpture from various countries, but
what they all had in common was an interest in popular
culture.


ANDY WARHOL

'Campbell's Soup 1 (Tomato)',
1968 (silkscreen on canvas)

OP ART (1964-1970)
Op Art is short for 'optical art'. It was an abstract
style that emerged in the 1960's based on the
illusionistic effects of line, shape, pattern and color.

Although Op Art images are static they generate the
illusion of movement with perceptual tricks that create
an unstable picture surface. The effects of this can be
so strong that you have to look away for fear of losing
your balance or hurting your eyes. Needless to say that
the fairground fun aspect of Op Art was very popular with
the public and was quickly commercialized by the design
and fashion industries.


VICTOR VASARELY

'Gestalt 4', 1970
(serigraph )

MINIMALISM (1960-1975)
Minimalism was not only a reaction
against the emotionally charged
techniques of Abstract Expressionism but
also a further refinement of pure
abstraction. It was an attempt to
discover the essence of art by reducing
the elements of a work to the basic
considerations of shape, surface and
materials.


FRANK STELLA
'Jarmolince III', 1973
(relief assemblage)


Modern Art in the Philippines
It has evolved into wide variety of expressions and
medium turning the country into a situation of creative
upheavals.

Modernists were influenced by the western art styles.



According to Emmanuel Torres, two characteristics
can be perceived in an artwork of local painters:
1. They expressed sensuousness through loud clash of
colors and curving shapes. These are seen in the
works of Ocampo, Malang, Manansala, and Tabuena.
2. They avoid too open display of emotions. Painters
favor the witty, and the refined rather than the brutal
or the monumental.


Jose T. Joya
Became the National
Artist in Visual Arts, 2003
Pioneered abstract
expressionism in the
Philippines.
His canvases were
characterized by
"dynamic spontaneity"
and "quick gestures" of
action painting.


Granadean Arabesque
- featured variously colored
sand and impastos that
were swiped on boldly or
tossed onto the surface in
lumps.
Vicente Manansala
Cubist aspect rests largely
on the geometric faceting
of forms and in the
shifting and overlapping
of planes
His canvases were
described as masterpieces
that brought the cultures
of the barrio and the city
together.
Manansala
developed transparent
cubism, wherein the
"delicate tones, shapes,
and patterns of figure and
environment are
masterfully superimposed"

Give Us This Day our Daily
Bread
- invested each human figure
with inner fortitude, making
each one a stoic figure of
human dignity

Napoleon Abueva
Foremost modern
sculptor today
He produced
towering abstract in
metal , steel and
wood.
"Father of Modern
Philippine
Sculpture"

Allegorical
Harpoon
Carlos Botong Francisco
Foremost Filipino
Muralist
He contributed towards
developing a Filipino
imagery drawing
inspiration from customs
and traditions of the
people
According to restorer
Helmuth Josef Zotter,
Francisco's art "is a prime
example of linear
painting where lines and
contours appear like
cutouts."


First Mass at
Limasawa
Mauro Malang Santos
Started his career as
illustrator-cartoonist
for Manila Chronicle
He shows highly
original approach to
figurative paintings


Barrio Fiesta
Hernando R. Ocampo
National Artist, Visual
Arts, 1991
As a neorealist, he
aimed to de-emphasize
a life-like
representation with the
natural world.
His art is described to
be "abstract
compositions of
biological forms that
seemed to oscillate,
quiver, inflame and
multiply" like mutations.


Genesis
- he developed into the visual
melody period in which he
brought back tonalities into his'
abstract designs of organic
shapes, creating a richer form of
abstraction

Prudencio L. Lamarroza
Hyperrealist and
surrealistic landscape
paintings

He is different from the
artist of his generation
because of his
intellectual
detachment amid all
the-ill effects of
technology on the
world environment


Amburayan Queen
Cesar Legaspi
Remembered for his
singular achievement of
refining cubism in the
Philippine context

His distinctive style and
daring themes
contributed significantly
to the advent and
eventual acceptance of
modern art in the
Philippines


Man and Woman
Romeo Tabuena
He is best known for
his Watercolors, at
times in a vertical
format influenced
by Chinese Painting



These near-monochromatic
watercolor landscapes of nipa huts,
farmers, and carabaos are done in
an exquisite style, with attenuated
figures spread out in large tonal
areas suggesting early morning fog
Victorio C. Edades
"Father of Modern
Philippine Painting

Painting distorted human
figures in rough, bold
impasto strokes, and
standing tall and singular
in his advocacy


The Artist and the Model
Fernando Amorsolo
Fernando Amorsolo
painted and sketched
more than ten thousand
pieces over his lifetime
using natural and
backlighting
techniques. His most
known works are of the
dalagang Filipina,
landscapes of his
Philippino homeland,
portraits and WWII war
scenes.



Planting Rice
Arturo Luz
Luz was much admired by
his fellow painters, one of
whom, Fernando Zobel
de Ayala, called him "a
painter's painter" and
noted that, when a Luz
painting was offered for
sale, which was seldom
because of
the painstaking nature of
the artist's work, the
buyer was often another
painter. His works
are characterized by
simplicity of line and
geometry of form.



Rajasthani Palace
Anita Magsaysay-Ho She is a Philippine
painter, considered by
many to be one of the
most important and
gifted Philippine
modernists. Magsaysay-
Hos best known
canvases, which often
have both realist and
stylized aspects,
celebrate the beauty of
Philippine women
engaged in everyday
tasks.

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