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# SIGNAL FLOW GRAPH

REPRESENTATION

 EESHAN DEOSTHALE 111020015
 PRANAY SHAH 111020012
 SAMAY SHAH 111020010
 DIVESH JUMANI 111020013
 PRAMOD PAWAR 111020014
1. BACKGROUND
2. PROPERTIES
3. TERMINOLOGIES
4. METHODS TO OBTAIN SFG
5. BLOCK DIAGRAM AND SFG
COMPARISON
6. MASON’S GAIN FORMULA
7. EXAMPLES

BACKGROUND
1. Alternative method to presenting set of equations describing
system developed by S.J.Mason
2. The graphical representation of the variables of a set of linear
algebraic equations representing the system is called signal
flow graph representation.
3. Consider example
V=IR
I R V
4. Each node represents a separate variable.
5. Lines joining nodes are branches.
6. Branches are always unidirectional.
7. The arrow in the branch denotes the direction of the signal
flow.

PROPERTIES
1. Applicable to only to linear time invariant
system.
2. Signal flows along the branches along
3. Signal gets multiplied by Branch Gain.
4. Value represented by node is algebraic sum
of all signals entering at node.
5. Value represented by each node is available
to all branches leaving node.
6. Signal flow graph is not unique property of
system.

TERMINOLOGY
• An input node or source contain only the outgoing branches. i.e., X
1
• An output node or sink contain only the incoming branches. i.e., X
4
• A path is a continuous, unidirectional succession of branches along which
no node is passed more than ones. i.e.,

• A forward path is a path from the input node to the output node. i.e.,
X
1
to X
2
to X
3
to X
4
, and X
1
to X
2
to X
4
, are forward paths.
• A feedback path or feedback loop is a path which originates and terminates
on the same node. i.e.; X
2
to X
3
and back to X
2
is a feedback path
 A self-loop is a feedback loop consisting of a single branch. i.e.; A
33
is a
self loop.
 The gain of a branch is the transmission function of that branch.

 The path gain is the product of branch gains encountered in traversing
a path. i.e. the gain of forwards path X
1
to X
2
to X
3
to X
4
is A
21
A
32
A
43
 The loop gain is the product of the branch gains of the loop. i.e., the
loop gain of the feedback loop from X
2
to X
3
and back to X
2
is A
32
A
23.

 Two loops, paths, or loop and a path are said to be non-touching if they
have no nodes in common.

a) Input node.
b) Output node.
c) Forward paths.
d) Feedback paths (loops).
e) Determine the loop gains of the feedback loops.
f) Determine the path gains of the forward paths.
g) Non-touching loops

CONSIDER THE SIGNAL FLOW GRAPH BELOW AND
IDENTIFY THE FOLLOWING
There are two forward path
gains:
There are four loops:
Nontouching loop
gains:
METHODS TO OBTAIN SFG
 Two methods to obtain SFG:
1. From given system equations
2. From block diagram
FROM SYSTEM EQUATIONS
1. Represent each variable by separate
node.
2. Use property that that the value of
variable represented by a node is the
algebraic sum of all signals entering at
that node.
3. Represent coefficients of variables in
equations as branch gains.
4. Show input output variables separately.

FROM SYSTEM
EQUATIONS
3 4
2 0 3
3 1 2
2 1 0 1
hx x
gx fx x
ex dx x
cx bx ax x

 
 
  
b
x
4
x
3
x
2
x
1
x
0
f
e
d
c
a g h
FROM BLOCK DIAGRAM
1. Name all the summing points and take off
points in the block diagram.
2. Represent each take off point and summing
point by separate node in SFG.
3. Connect by branches indicating block
transfer functions as gains of corresponding
branches.
4. Show input and output nodes separately.
G
1
G4 G3
FROM BLOCK DIAGRAM

C(s) R(s)
G
1
G
2
H
2
H
1
G
4
G
3
H
3
E(s)
X
1
X
2
X
3
R(s) C(s)
－H
2
－H
1
－H
3
X
1
X
2
X
3
E(s)
1 G
2
COMPARISON BETWEEN
BLOCK DIAGRAM AND SFG
BLOCK DIAGRAM SIGNAL FLOW GRAPH
 Basic importance is given to the
elements & their transfer
functions.
 Each element is represented by a
block.

 T.F. is shown inside
corresponding block.

 Summing and take off points are
separate.

 Basic importance is given to the
variables of the system.

 Each variable is represented by a
node.

 T.F. is shown along branches
connecting the nodes.

 Summing & take off points are
absent. A node can have any
number of incoming & outgoing
branches.
BLOCK DIAGRAM SIGNAL FLOW GRAPH
 Feedback path is from
o/p to i/p.
 Block diagram reduction
rules can be used to
obtain the T.F.
 Concept of self loop
does not exist.
 Applicable only to linear
time invariant systems.

 Various feedback loops
are considered
 The Mason’s gain
formula can be used
directly get resultant T.F.
 Self loops can exist.

 Applicable to linear time
invariant systems.
MASON’S GAIN FORMULA
• The block diagram reduction technique requires successive
application of fundamental relationships in order to arrive at
the system transfer function.
• On the other hand, Mason’s rule for reducing a signal-flow
graph to a single transfer function requires the application of
one formula.
• The formula was derived by S. J. Mason when he related the
signal-flow graph to the simultaneous equations that can be
written from the graph.
Mason’s Rule:
• The transfer function, C(s)/R(s), of a system represented by a signal-
flow graph is;

Where

n = number of forward paths.
T
K
= the K
th
forward-path gain.
∆ = Determinant of the system

K
= Determinant of the K
th
forward path

• ∆ is called the signal flow graph determinant or characteristic function.
Δ
Δ T
R(s)
C(s)
n
1 K
K K

Mason’s Rule:

∆ = 1- (sum of all individual loop gains) + (sum of the products of the
gains of all possible two loops that do not touch each other) – (sum
of the products of the gains of all possible three loops that do not
touch each other) + … and so forth with sums of higher number of
non-touching loop gains

K
= value of Δ for the part of the block diagram that does not touch
the K-th forward path (Δ
K
= 1 if there are no non-touching loops to
the K-th path.)

n
K
K K T
s R
s C
1
) (
) (
Systematic approach

1. Calculate forward path gain P
k
for each
forward path k.
2. Calculate all loop transfer functions
3. Consider non-touching loops 2 at a time
4. Consider non-touching loops 3 at a time
5. Calculate Δ from steps 2,3,4.
6. Calculate Δ
k
as portion of Δ not touching
forward path k
21

  

2 2 1 1
P P
R
C
Therefore,
2 4 3 1 3 2 4 2 1 2 1 4 1 1
H G G G L H G G G L H G G L      , ,
There are three feedback loops
EXAMPLE
∆ = 1- (sum of all individual loop gains)
There are no non-touching loops, therefore
 
3 2 1
1 L L L     
 
2 4 3 1 2 4 2 1 1 4 1
1 H G G G H G G G H G G     

1
= 1- (sum of all individual loop gains)+...
Eliminate forward path-1

1
= 1

2
= 1- (sum of all individual loop gains)+...
Eliminate forward path-2

2
= 1
x 2s y 3
-4
z 2
-3
s
-5
u w 1
Y=(2s)x-(4)z-(5)u
Z= (3)y-(3)w
W=(2)z
U=(1)w+(s)z
OBTAIN BLOCK DIAGRAM FROM SFG
2s
Y X
4
5
From z
From u
Y=(2s)x-(4)z-(5)u
Z= (3)y-(3)w
W=(2)z
3
3
z
From w
y
2
z w
U=(1)w+(s)z
w
s
From z
u
+
2s
3 2
x
y z w
u
5
3
s
4
+