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You are on page 1of 31

REPRESENTATION

EESHAN DEOSTHALE 111020015

PRANAY SHAH 111020012

SAMAY SHAH 111020010

DIVESH JUMANI 111020013

PRAMOD PAWAR 111020014

1. BACKGROUND

2. PROPERTIES

3. TERMINOLOGIES

4. METHODS TO OBTAIN SFG

5. BLOCK DIAGRAM AND SFG

COMPARISON

6. MASON’S GAIN FORMULA

7. EXAMPLES

BACKGROUND

1. Alternative method to presenting set of equations describing

system developed by S.J.Mason

2. The graphical representation of the variables of a set of linear

algebraic equations representing the system is called signal

flow graph representation.

3. Consider example

V=IR

I R V

4. Each node represents a separate variable.

5. Lines joining nodes are branches.

6. Branches are always unidirectional.

7. The arrow in the branch denotes the direction of the signal

flow.

PROPERTIES

1. Applicable to only to linear time invariant

system.

2. Signal flows along the branches along

arrowheads.

3. Signal gets multiplied by Branch Gain.

4. Value represented by node is algebraic sum

of all signals entering at node.

5. Value represented by each node is available

to all branches leaving node.

6. Signal flow graph is not unique property of

system.

TERMINOLOGY

• An input node or source contain only the outgoing branches. i.e., X

1

• An output node or sink contain only the incoming branches. i.e., X

4

• A path is a continuous, unidirectional succession of branches along which

no node is passed more than ones. i.e.,

• A forward path is a path from the input node to the output node. i.e.,

X

1

to X

2

to X

3

to X

4

, and X

1

to X

2

to X

4

, are forward paths.

• A feedback path or feedback loop is a path which originates and terminates

on the same node. i.e.; X

2

to X

3

and back to X

2

is a feedback path

A self-loop is a feedback loop consisting of a single branch. i.e.; A

33

is a

self loop.

The gain of a branch is the transmission function of that branch.

The path gain is the product of branch gains encountered in traversing

a path. i.e. the gain of forwards path X

1

to X

2

to X

3

to X

4

is A

21

A

32

A

43

The loop gain is the product of the branch gains of the loop. i.e., the

loop gain of the feedback loop from X

2

to X

3

and back to X

2

is A

32

A

23.

Two loops, paths, or loop and a path are said to be non-touching if they

have no nodes in common.

a) Input node.

b) Output node.

c) Forward paths.

d) Feedback paths (loops).

e) Determine the loop gains of the feedback loops.

f) Determine the path gains of the forward paths.

g) Non-touching loops

CONSIDER THE SIGNAL FLOW GRAPH BELOW AND

IDENTIFY THE FOLLOWING

There are two forward path

gains:

There are four loops:

Nontouching loop

gains:

METHODS TO OBTAIN SFG

Two methods to obtain SFG:

1. From given system equations

2. From block diagram

FROM SYSTEM EQUATIONS

1. Represent each variable by separate

node.

2. Use property that that the value of

variable represented by a node is the

algebraic sum of all signals entering at

that node.

3. Represent coefficients of variables in

equations as branch gains.

4. Show input output variables separately.

FROM SYSTEM

EQUATIONS

3 4

2 0 3

3 1 2

2 1 0 1

hx x

gx fx x

ex dx x

cx bx ax x

b

x

4

x

3

x

2

x

1

x

0

f

e

d

c

a g h

FROM BLOCK DIAGRAM

1. Name all the summing points and take off

points in the block diagram.

2. Represent each take off point and summing

point by separate node in SFG.

3. Connect by branches indicating block

transfer functions as gains of corresponding

branches.

4. Show input and output nodes separately.

G

1

G4 G3

FROM BLOCK DIAGRAM

－

－

－

C(s) R(s)

G

1

G

2

H

2

H

1

G

4

G

3

H

3

E(s)

X

1

X

2

X

3

R(s) C(s)

－H

2

－H

1

－H

3

X

1

X

2

X

3

E(s)

1 G

2

COMPARISON BETWEEN

BLOCK DIAGRAM AND SFG

BLOCK DIAGRAM SIGNAL FLOW GRAPH

Basic importance is given to the

elements & their transfer

functions.

Each element is represented by a

block.

T.F. is shown inside

corresponding block.

Summing and take off points are

separate.

Basic importance is given to the

variables of the system.

Each variable is represented by a

node.

T.F. is shown along branches

connecting the nodes.

Summing & take off points are

absent. A node can have any

number of incoming & outgoing

branches.

BLOCK DIAGRAM SIGNAL FLOW GRAPH

Feedback path is from

o/p to i/p.

Block diagram reduction

rules can be used to

obtain the T.F.

Concept of self loop

does not exist.

Applicable only to linear

time invariant systems.

Various feedback loops

are considered

The Mason’s gain

formula can be used

directly get resultant T.F.

Self loops can exist.

Applicable to linear time

invariant systems.

MASON’S GAIN FORMULA

• The block diagram reduction technique requires successive

application of fundamental relationships in order to arrive at

the system transfer function.

• On the other hand, Mason’s rule for reducing a signal-flow

graph to a single transfer function requires the application of

one formula.

• The formula was derived by S. J. Mason when he related the

signal-flow graph to the simultaneous equations that can be

written from the graph.

Mason’s Rule:

• The transfer function, C(s)/R(s), of a system represented by a signal-

flow graph is;

Where

n = number of forward paths.

T

K

= the K

th

forward-path gain.

∆ = Determinant of the system

∆

K

= Determinant of the K

th

forward path

• ∆ is called the signal flow graph determinant or characteristic function.

Δ

Δ T

R(s)

C(s)

n

1 K

K K

Mason’s Rule:

∆ = 1- (sum of all individual loop gains) + (sum of the products of the

gains of all possible two loops that do not touch each other) – (sum

of the products of the gains of all possible three loops that do not

touch each other) + … and so forth with sums of higher number of

non-touching loop gains

∆

K

= value of Δ for the part of the block diagram that does not touch

the K-th forward path (Δ

K

= 1 if there are no non-touching loops to

the K-th path.)

n

K

K K T

s R

s C

1

) (

) (

Systematic approach

1. Calculate forward path gain P

k

for each

forward path k.

2. Calculate all loop transfer functions

3. Consider non-touching loops 2 at a time

4. Consider non-touching loops 3 at a time

5. Calculate Δ from steps 2,3,4.

6. Calculate Δ

k

as portion of Δ not touching

forward path k

21

2 2 1 1

P P

R

C

Therefore,

2 4 3 1 3 2 4 2 1 2 1 4 1 1

H G G G L H G G G L H G G L , ,

There are three feedback loops

EXAMPLE

∆ = 1- (sum of all individual loop gains)

There are no non-touching loops, therefore

3 2 1

1 L L L

2 4 3 1 2 4 2 1 1 4 1

1 H G G G H G G G H G G

∆

1

= 1- (sum of all individual loop gains)+...

Eliminate forward path-1

∆

1

= 1

∆

2

= 1- (sum of all individual loop gains)+...

Eliminate forward path-2

∆

2

= 1

x 2s y 3

-4

z 2

-3

s

-5

u w 1

Y=(2s)x-(4)z-(5)u

Z= (3)y-(3)w

W=(2)z

U=(1)w+(s)z

OBTAIN BLOCK DIAGRAM FROM SFG

2s

Y X

4

5

From z

From u

Y=(2s)x-(4)z-(5)u

Z= (3)y-(3)w

W=(2)z

3

3

z

From w

y

2

z w

U=(1)w+(s)z

w

s

From z

u

+

2s

3 2

x

y z w

u

5

3

s

4

+

ANSWER:

THANK YOU

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