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# ANALOG

COMMUNICATIONS
EE721

by H Chan, Mohawk College
MAIN TOPICS
¯Introduction to Communication Systems
@Amplitude Modulation
)AM Transmitters
gSuppressed-Carrier AM Systems
¡ Test #1: 4th week; Test #2: 7th week

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Elements of a Communication System
Communication involves the transfer of
information or intelligence from a source to
a recipient via a channel or medium.
Basic block diagram of a communication
system:

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Brief Description
Source: analogue or digital
Transmitter: transducer, amplifier,
modulator, oscillator, power amp., antenna
Channel: e.g. cable, optical fibre, free space
oscillator, power amplifier, transducer
Recipient: e.g. person, speaker, computer

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Modulation
Modulation is the process of impressing
information onto a high-frequency carrier
for transmission.
Reasons for modulation:
– to prevent mutual interference between stations
– to reduce the size of the antenna required
Types of modulation: AM, FM, and PM

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Information and Bandwidth
Bandwidth required by a modulated signal
depends on the baseband frequency range
(or data rate) and the modulation scheme.
Hartley‟s Law: I = k t B
where I = amount of information
k = a constant of the system
t = time available
B = channel bandwidth

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Frequency Bands
BAND Hz
ELF 30 - 300
AF 300 - 3 k
VLF 3 k - 30 k
LF 30 k - 300 k
MF 300 k - 3 M
HF 3 M - 30 M

BAND Hz
VHF 30M-300M
UHF 300M - 3 G
SHF 3 G - 30 G
EHF 30 G - 300G

•Wavelength, l = c/f

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Types of Signal Distortion
Types of distortion in communications:
harmonic distortion
intermodulation distortion
nonlinear frequency response
nonlinear phase response
noise
interference

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Time and Frequency Domains
Time domain: an oscilloscope displays the
amplitude versus time
Frequency domain: a spectrum analyzer
displays the amplitude or power versus
frequency
Frequency-domain display provides
information on bandwidth and harmonic
components of a signal

by H Chan, Mohawk College

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Non-sinusoidal Waveform
Any well-behaved periodic waveform can be
represented as a series of sine and/or cosine waves
plus (sometimes) a dc offset:
e(t)=C
o
+SA
n
cos nw t + SB
n
sin nw t (Fourier series)

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Effect of Filtering
Theoretically, a non-sinusoidal signal
would require an infinite bandwidth; but
practical considerations would band-limit
the signal.
Channels with too narrow a bandwidth
would remove a significant number of
frequency components, thus causing
distortions in the time-domain.
· A square-wave has only odd harmonics

by H Chan, Mohawk College
External Noise
Equipment / Man-made Noise is generated
by any equipment that operates with
electricity
Atmospheric Noise is often caused by
lightning
Space Noise is strongest from the sun and,
at a much lesser degree, from other stars

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Internal Noise
Thermal Noise is produced by the random
motion of electrons in a conductor due to
heat. Noise power, P
N
= kTB
where T = absolute temperature in
o
K
k = Boltzmann‟s constant, 1.38x10
-23
J/K
B = noise power bandwidth in Hz
Noise voltage, kTBR 4 V
N

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Internal Noise (cont‟d)
Shot Noise is due to random variations in
current flow in active devices.
Partition Noise occurs only in devices
where a single current separates into two or
more paths, e.g. bipolar transistor.
Excess Noise is believed to be caused by
variations in carrier density in components.
Transit-Time Noise occurs only at high f.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Noise Spectrum of Electronic Devices
Device
Noise
Shot and Thermal Noises
Excess or
Flicker Noise
Transit-Time
Noise
1 kHz f
hc

f

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Signal-to-Noise Ratio
An important measure in communications
is the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR or S/N). It
is often expressed in dB:

N
S
N
S
V
V
log 20
P
P
log 10 dB) (
N
S
 
is usually used instead of SNR.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Noise Figure
Noise Figure is a figure of merit that
indicates how much a component, or a stage
degrades the SNR of a system:
NF = (S/N)
i
/ (S/N)
o

where (S/N)
i
= input SNR (not in dB)
and (S/N)
o
= output SNR (not in dB)
NF(dB)=10 log NF = (S/N)
i
(dB) - (S/N)
o
(dB)

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Equivalent Noise Temperature
The equivalent noise temperature is very
useful in microwave and satellite receivers.
T
eq
= (NF - 1)T
o

where T
o
is a ref. temperature (often 290
o
K)
When two or more stages are cascaded:

...
A A
1 NF
A
1 NF
NF NF
2 1
3
1
2
1 T
+

+

+ 

by H Chan, Mohawk College
High-Frequency Effects
Stray reactances of components (including
the traces on a circuit board) can result in
parasitic oscillations / self resonance and
other unexpected effects in RF circuits.
Care must be given to the layout of
components, wiring, ground plane,
shielding and the use of bypassing or
decoupling circuits.

by H Chan, Mohawk College

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Narrow-band RF Amplifiers
Many RF amplifiers use resonant circuits to limit
their bandwidth. This is to filter off noise and
interference and to increase the amplifier‟s gain.
The resonant frequency (f
o
)

, bandwidth (B), and
quality factor (Q), of a parallel resonant circuit
are:
L
L o
o
X
R
Q
Q
f
B
LC
f    ; ;
2
1

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Narrowband Amplifier (cont‟d)
In the CE amplifier, both the input and
output sections are transformer-coupled to
reduce the Miller effect. They are tapped
for impedance matching purpose. R
C
and
C
2
decouple the RF from the dc supply.
The CB amplifier is quite commonly used
at RF because it provides high input
impedance and also avoids the Miller effect.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Wideband RF Amplifiers
frequently used for amplifying baseband or
intermediate frequency (IF) signals.
The circuits are similar to those for
narrowband amplifiers except no tuning
circuits are employed.
Another method of designing wideband
amplifiers is by stagger-tuning.

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Stagger-Tuned IF Amplifiers

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Amplifier Classes
An amplifier is classified as:
Class A if it conducts current throughout
the full input cycle (i.e. 360
o
). It operates
linearly but is very inefficient - about 25%.
Class B if it conducts for half the input
cycle. It is quite efficient (about 60%) but
would create high distortions unless
operated in a push-pull configuration.

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Class B Push-Pull RF Amplifier

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Class C Amplifier
Class C amplifier operates for less than half
of the input cycle. It‟s efficiency is about
75% because the active device is biased
beyond cutoff.
It is commonly used in RF circuits where a
resonant circuit must be placed at the output
in order to keep the sine wave going during
the non-conducting portion of the input
cycle.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Class C Amplifier (cont‟d)

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Frequency Multipliers
º One of the applications of class C amplifiers
is in “frequency multiplication”. The basic
block diagram of a frequency multiplier:
High
Distortion
Device +
Amplifier
Tuning
Filter
Circuit
Input
f
i

Output
N x f
i

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Principle of Frequency Multipliers
A class C amplifier is used as the high
distortion device. Its output is very rich in
harmonics.
A filter circuit at the output of the class C
amplifier is tuned to the second or higher
harmonic of the fundamental component.
Tuning to the 2nd harmonic doubles f
i
;
tuning to the 3rd harmonic triples f
i
; etc.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Waveforms for Frequency Multipliers

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Neutralization
At very high frequencies, the junction
capacitance of a transistor could introduce
sufficient feedback from output to input to
cause unwanted oscillations to take place in
an amplifier.
Neutralization is used to cancel the
oscillations by feeding back a portion of the
output that has the opposite phase but same
amplitude as the unwanted feedback.

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Hazeltine Neutralization

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Rice Neutralization

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Transformer-Coupled Neutralization

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Inductive Neutralization

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Oscillators
Barkhausen criteria
for sustained
oscillations:
*The closed-loop gain,
|BA
V
| = 1.
-The loop phase shift =
0
o
or some integer
multiple of 360
o
at the
operating frequency.

A
V
= open-loop gain
B = feedback factor/fraction
A
V

B
Output

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Hartley Oscillators
2 1
1
;
2
1
L L L
C L
f
T
T
o
+  

1
2 1
L
L L
B
+

1
2
L
L
B 

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Colpitts Oscillator
2 1
2 1
2
1
2
1
C C
C C
C ;
LC
f ;
C
C
B
T
T
o
+
  

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Clapp Oscillator
The Clapp oscillator is a variation of the Colpitts circuit. C
4
is
added in series with L in the tank circuit. C
2
and C
3
are chosen
large enough to “swamp” out the transistor‟s junction capacitances
for greater stability. C
4
is often chosen to be << either C
2
or C
3
,
thus making C
4
the frequency determining element, since C
T
= C
4
.
4 3 2
3 2
2
1 1 1
1
2
1
;
C C C
C
LC
f
C C
C
B
T
T
o
+ +

+

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Voltage-Controlled Oscillator
VCOs are widely used in electronic circuits
for AFC, PLL, frequency tuning, etc.
The basic principle is to vary the
capacitance of a varactor diode in a resonant
circuit by applying a reverse-biased voltage
across the diode whose capacitance is
approximately:
b
o
V
V
C
C
2 1+

by H Chan, Mohawk College

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Crystals
For high frequency stability in oscillators, a
crystal (such as quartz) has to be used.
Quartz is a piezoelectric material:
deforming it mechanically causes the crystal
to generate a voltage, and applying a
voltage to the crystal causes it to deform.
Externally, the crystal behaves like an
electrical resonant circuit.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Packaging, symbol, and
characteristic of crystals

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Crystal-Controlled Oscillators
Pierce
Colpitts

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Mixers
A mixer is a nonlinear circuit that combines
two signals in such a way as to produce the
sum and difference of the two input
frequencies at the output.
A square-law mixer is the simplest type of
mixer and is easily approximated by using a
diode, or a transistor (bipolar, JFET, or
MOSFET).

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Dual-Gate MOSFET Mixer
Good dynamic range and fewer unwanted o/p frequencies.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Balanced Mixers
A balanced mixer is one in which the input
frequencies do not appear at the output.
Ideally, the only frequencies that are
produced are the sum and difference of the
input frequencies.

Circuit symbol:
f
1

f
2

f
1
+ f
2

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Equations for Balanced Mixer
Let the inputs be v
1
= sin w
1
t and v
2
= sin w
2
t.
A balanced mixer acts like a multiplier. Thus
its output, v
o
= Av
1
v
2
= A sin w
1
t sin w
2
t.
Since sin X sin Y = 1/2[cos(X-Y) - cos(X+Y)]
Therefore, v
o
= A/2[cos(w
1
-w
2
)t-cos(w
1
+w
2
)t].
4The last equation shows that the output of
the balanced mixer consists of the sum and
difference of the input frequencies.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Balanced Ring Diode Mixer
Balanced mixers are also called balanced modulators.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Phase-Locked Loop
The PLL is the basis of practically all
modern frequency synthesizer design.
The block diagram of a simple PLL:
Phase
Detector
LPF
Loop
Amplifier
VCO
f
r
f
o

V
p

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Operation of PLL
*Initially, the PLL is unlocked, i.e.,the VCO
is at the free-running frequency, f
o
.
-Since f
o
is probably not the same as the
reference frequency, f
r
, the phase detector
will generate an error/control voltage, V
p
.
4V
p
is filtered, amplified, and applied to the
VCO to change its frequency so that f
o
= f
r
.
The PLL will then remain in phase lock.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
PLL Frequency Specifications
Free-Running
Frequency
Capture Range
Lock Range
f
o
f
LC
f
LL
f
HC
f
HL

f
There is a limit on how far apart the free-running
VCO frequency and the reference frequency can be
for lock to be acquired or maintained.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
PLL Frequency Synthesizer
For output frequencies in the VHF range and higher,
a prescaler is required. The prescaler is a fixed divider
placed ahead of the programmable divide by N counter.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
AM Waveform
e
c
= E
c
sin w
c
t
e
m
= E
m
sin w
m
t
AM signal:
e
s
= (E
c
+ e
m
) sin w
c
t

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Modulation Index
The amount of amplitude modulation in a
signal is given by its modulation index:
min max
min max
E E
E E
or
E
E
m
c
m
+

When E
m
= E
c
, m =1 or 100% modulation.
Over-modulation, i.e. E
m
>E
c
, should be avoided
because it will create distortions and splatter.
where, E
max
= E
c
+ E
m
; E
min
= E
c
- E
m
(all pk values)

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Effects of Modulation Index
m = 1 m > 1
In a practical AM system, it usually contains many
frequency components. When this is the case,
2 2
2
2
1
...
n T
m m m m + + + 

by H Chan, Mohawk College
AM in Frequency Domain
The expression for the AM signal:
e
s
= (E
c
+ e
m
) sin w
c
t
can be expanded to:
e
s
= E
c
sin w
c
t + ½ mE
c
[cos (w
c
-w
m
)t-cos (w
c
+w
m
)t]
The expanded expression shows that the
AM signal consists of the original carrier, a
lower side frequency, f
lsf
= f
c
-f
m
, and an
upper side frequency, f
usf
= f
c
+f
m
.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
AM Spectrum
f
f
c

E
c

f
usf

mE
c
/2
mE
c
/2
f
lsf

f
m
f
m

f
usf
= f
c
+ f
m
; f
lsf
= f
c
- f
m
; E
sf
= mE
c
/2
Bandwidth, B = 2f
m

by H Chan, Mohawk College
AM Power
Total average (i.e. rms) power of the AM
signal is: P
T
= P
c
+ 2P
sf
, where
P
c
= carrier power; and P
sf
= side-frequency
power
If the signal is across a load resistor, R,
then: P
c
= E
c
2
/(2R); and P
sf
= m
2
P
c
/4. So,

)
2
1 (
2
m
P P
c T
+ 

by H Chan, Mohawk College
AM Current
The modulation index for an AM station
can be measured by using an RF ammeter
and the following equation:
2
1
2
m
I I
o
+ 
where I is the current with modulation and
I
o
is the current without modulation.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Complex AM Waveforms
For complex AM signals with many
frequency components, all the formulas
encountered before remain the same, except
that m is replaced by m
T
. For example:
2
1 );
2
1 (
2 2
T
o
T
C T
m
I I
m
P P +  + 

by H Chan, Mohawk College
¯ability to tune to a specific signal
gamplify the signal that is picked up
@extract the information by demodulation
jamplify the demodulated signal
sensitivity and selectivity

by H Chan, Mohawk College
that meets all the basic requirements.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
·Difficulty in tuning all the stages to exactly
the same frequency simultaneously.
Very high Q for the tuning coils are
required for good selectivity C BW=f
o
/Q.
Selectivity is not constant for a wide range
of frequencies due to skin effect which
causes the BW to vary with Ef
o
.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Block diagram of basic superhet receiver:

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Antenna and Front End
The antenna consists of an inductor in the
form of a large number of turns of wire
around a ferrite rod. The inductance forms
part of the input tuning circuit.
Low-cost receivers sometimes omit the RF
amplifier.
Main advantages of having RF amplifier:
improves sensitivity and image frequency
rejection.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Mixer and Local Oscillator
The mixer and LO frequency convert the
input frequency, f
c
, to a fixed f
IF
:
High-side injection: f
LO
= f
c
+ f
IF

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Autodyne Converter
Sometimes called a self-excited mixer, the
autodyne converter combines the mixer and LO
into a single circuit:

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IF Amplifier, Detector, & AGC

by H Chan, Mohawk College
IF Amplifier and AGC
Most receivers have two or more IF stages
to provide the bulk of their gain (i.e.
sensitivity) and their selectivity.
Automatic gain control (AGC) is obtained
from the detector stage to adjusts the gain of
the IF (and sometimes the RF) stages
inversely to the input signal level. This
enables the receiver to cope with large
variations in input signal.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Diode Detector Waveforms

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Diagonal Clipping Distortion
Diagonal clipping distortion is more pronounced at
high modulation index or high modulation frequency.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Sensitivity and Selectivity
Sensitivity is expressed as the minimum
input signal required to produce a specified
output level for a given (S+N)/N ratio.
Selectivity is the ability of the receiver to
reject unwanted or interfering signals. It
may be defined by the shape factor of the IF
filter or by the amount of adjacent channel
rejection.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Shape Factor
dB
dB
B
B
SF
6
60

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Image Frequency
One of the problems with the superhet
receiver is that an image frequency signal
could interfere with the reception of the
desired signal. The image frequency is
given by: f
image
= f
sig
+ 2f
IF

where f
sig
= desired signal.
An image signal must be rejected by tuning
circuits prior to mixing.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Image Frequency Rejection
For a tuned circuit with a quality factor of
Q, then the image frequency rejection is:
image
sig
sig
image
f
f
f
f
x
where x Q IR
 
+  , 1
2 2
In dB, IR (dB) = 20 log IR

by H Chan, Mohawk College
IF Transformers
The transformers used in the IF stages can
be either single-tuned or double-tuned.
Single-tuned
Double-tuned

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Loose and Tight Couplings
For single-tuned transformers, tighter
coupling means more gain but broader
bandwidth:

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Under, Over, & Critical Coupling
Double-tuned transformers can be over,
under, critically, or optimally coupled:

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Coupling Factors
Critical coupling factor k
c
is given by:
s p
c
Q Q
k
1

where Q
p
, Q
s
= prim. & sec. Q, respectively.
IF transformers often use the optimum coupling
factor, k
opt
= 1.5k
c
, to obtain a steep skirt and
flat passband. The bandwidth for a double-tuned
IF amplifier with k = k
opt
is given by B = kf
o
.
Overcoupling means k>k
c
; undercoupling, k< k
c

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Piezoelectric Filters
For narrow bandwidth (e.g. several kHz),
excellent shape factor and stability, a crystal
lattice is used as bandpass filter.
Ceramic filters, because of their lower Q,
are useful for wideband signals (e.g. FM
Surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) filters are
ideal for high frequency usage requiring a
carefully shaped response.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Block Diagram of AM TX

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Transmitter Stages
Crystal oscillator generates a very stable
sinewave carrier. Where variable frequency
operation is required, a frequency
synthesizer is used.
Buffer isolates the crystal oscillator from
any load changes in the modulator stage.
Frequency multiplier is required only if HF
or higher frequencies is required.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Transmitter Stages (cont‟d)
RF voltage amplifier boosts the voltage
level of the carrier. It could double as a
modulator if low-level modulation is used.
RF driver supplies input power to later RF
stages.
RF Power amplifier is where modulation is
applied for most high power AM TX. This
is known as high-level modulation.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Transmitter Stages (cont‟d)
High-level modulation is efficient since all
previous RF stages can be operated class C.
Microphone is where the modulating signal
is being applied.
AF amplifier boosts the weak input
modulating signal.
AF driver and power amplifier would not
be required for low-level modulation.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
AM Modulator Circuits

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Impedance Matching Networks
Impedance matching networks at the output
of RF circuits are necessary for efficient
transfer of power. At the same time, they
serve as low-pass filters.
Pi network
T network

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Trapezoidal Pattern
Instead of using the envelope display to
look at AM signals, an alternative is to use
the trapezoidal pattern display. This is
obtained by connecting the modulating
signal to the x input of the „scope and the
modulated AM signal to the y input.
Any distortion, overmodulation, or non-
linearity is easier to observe with this
method.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Trapezoidal Pattern (cont‟d)
Improper
phase
-V
p
>+V
p

min max
min max
V V
V V
m
+

m<1 m=1 m>1

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Suppressed-Carrier AM Systems
Full-carrier AM is simple but not efficient
in terms of transmitted power, bandwidth,
and SNR.
Using single-sideband suppressed-carrier
(SSBSC or SSB) signals, since P
sf
= m
2
P
c
/4,
and P
t
=P
c
(1+m
2
/2

), then at m=1, P
t
= 6 P
sf
.
SSB also has a bandwidth reduction of half,
which in turn reduces noise by half.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Generating SSB - Filtering Method
The simplest method of generating an SSB
signal is to generate a double-sideband
suppressed-carrier (DSB-SC) signal first
and then removing one of the sidebands.
BPF or
AF
Input
Balanced
Modulator
Carrier
Oscillator
DSB-SC
USB
LSB

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Waveforms for Balanced Modulator
V
1
, f
c

V
2
, f
m
V
o

f
f
c
+f
m

f
c
-f
m

by H Chan, Mohawk College
LIC Balanced Modulator 1496

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Filter for SSB
Filters with high Q are needed for
suppressing the unwanted sideband.
f
a
= f
c
- f
2

f
b
= f
c
- f
1

f
d
= f
c
+ f
1

f
e
= f
c
+ f
2

f
dB X anti f
Q
c

4
) 20 / log(
where X = attenuation of
sideband, and ³f = f
d
- f
b

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Typical SSB TX using Filter Method

by H Chan, Mohawk College
SSB Waveform

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Generating SSB - Phasing Method
This method is based on the fact that the lsf and
the usf are given by the equations:
cos(+
c
-+
m
)t = ½(cos +
c
t cos +
m
t + sin +
c
t sin +
m
t)
cos(+
c
++
m
)t = ½(cos +
c
t cos +
m
t - sin +
c
t sin +
m
t)
The RHS of the 1st equation is just the sum of two
products: the product of the carrier and the
modulating signal, and the product of the same
two signals that have been phase shifted by 90
o
.
The 2nd equation is similar except for the (-) sign.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Diagram for Phasing Method

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Phasing vs Filtering Method
·No high Q filters are required.
Therefore, lower f
m
can be used.
SSB at any carrier frequency can be
generated in a single step.
Difficult to achieve accurate 90
o
phase shift
across the whole audio range.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Peak Envelope Power
SSB transmitters are usually rated by the
peak envelope power (PEP) rather than the
carrier power. With voice modulation, the
PEP is about 3 to 4 times the average or rms
power.
L
p
R
V
PEP
2
2

where V
p
= peak signal voltage
and R
L

by H Chan, Mohawk College
Block Diagram of SSB RX

by H Chan, Mohawk College
The input SSB signal is first mixed with the
LO signal (low-side injection is used here).
The filter removes the sum frequency
components and the IF signal is amplified.
Mixing the IF signal with a reinserted
carrier from a beat frequency oscillator
(BFO) and low-pass filtering recovers the
audio information.

by H Chan, Mohawk College
SSB RX (cont‟d)
The product detector is often just a
balanced modulator operated in reverse.
Frequency accuracy and stability of the
BFO is critical. An error of a little more
than 100 Hz could render the received
signal unintelligible.
In coherent or synchronous detection, a
pilot carrier is transmitted with the SSB
signal to synchronize the BFO.