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Analysis: Machining Economics

How can we optimize the machining of a part ?


Identify the objective, formulate a model, solve for optimality
Typical objectives: maximum production rate, and/or minimum cost

Are these objectives compatible (satisfied simultaneously) ?
Formulating model: observations hypothesis theory model
Analysis: Machining Economics..
Formulating model: observations hypothesis theory model
Observation:
A given machine, tool, workpiece combination has finite max MRR
Hypothesis:
Total volume to cut is minimum Maximum production rate
Model objective:
Find minimum volume stock for a given part

-- Near-net shape stocks (use casting, forging, )
-- Minimum enclosing volumes of 3D shapes
Models:
- minimum enclosing cylinder for a rotational part
- minimum enclosing rectangular box for a milled part

Solving:
-- requires some knowledge of computational geometry
Analysis: Machining Economics..
Model objective:
Find optimum operations plan and tools for a given part
Model: Process Planning
- Machining volume, tool selection, operations sequencing

Solving:
- in general, difficult to optimize
Example:


or
or
??
Analysis: process parameters optimization
Model objective:
Find optimum feed, cutting speed to [maximize MRR]/[minimize cost]/
Feed:
Higher feed higher MRR
Finish cutting:

surface roughness feed
Given surface finish, we can find maximum allowed feed rate
Process parameters optimization: feed
Rough cutting:
MRR cutting speed, V
MRR feed, f
cannot increase V and f arbitrarily
V MRR;
Tool temperature V, f;
For a given increase in MRR: V lower tool life than f
Optimum feed: maximum allowed for tool [given machine power, tool strength]
Process parameters optimization: Speed
provided upper limits, but not optimum
Need a relation between tool life and cutting speed (other parameters being constant)
Model objective:
Given optimum feed, what is the optimum cutting speed
Taylors model (empirically based): V t
n
= constant
Process parameters optimization: Speed
One batch of large number, N
b
, of identical parts
Replace tool by a new one whenever it is worn
Total non-productive time = N
b
t
l
t
l
= time to (load the stock + position the tool + unload the part)
N
b
be the total number of parts in the batch.
Total machining time = N
b
t
m
t
m
= time to machine the part
Total tool change time = N
t
t
c
t
c
= time to replace the worn tool with a new one
N
t
= total number tools used to machine the entire batch.
Cost of each tool = C
t
,
Cost per unit time for machine and operator = M.
Average cost per item:
t
b
t
c
b
t
m l pr
C
N
N
t
N
N
M Mt Mt C + + + =
Process parameters optimization: Speed
Average cost per item:
t
b
t
c
b
t
m l pr
C
N
N
t
N
N
M Mt Mt C + + + =
Let: total length of the tool path = L
V
L
t
m
=
1
= MLV
V
L
M
t = tool life N
t
= (N
b
t
m
)/t N
t
/ N
b
= t
m
/ t
Taylors model Vt
n
= C t = C
1/n
/ V
1/n
= C/V
1/n

C
V L
C
V
V
L
t
t
N
N
n n n
m
b
t
/ ) 1 ( / 1
= = =
Process parameters optimization: Speed
Average cost per item:
t
b
t
c
b
t
m l pr
C
N
N
t
N
N
M Mt Mt C + + + =
1
= MLV
V
L
M
C
V L
N
N
n n
b
t
/ ) 1 (
=
n n
t c l pr
V C t M
C
L
MLV Mt C
/ ) 1 ( 1
) (

+ + + =
Process parameters optimization: Speed
n n
t c l pr
V C t M
C
L
MLV Mt C
/ ) 1 ( 1
) (

+ + + =
n n
t c
pr
V
n
n
C t M
C
L
MLV
dV
dC
/ ) 2 1 ( 2
) 1 (
) ( 0


+ + = =
Optimum speed (to minimize costs)
n
t c
n
n
C t M
MC
V
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
) 1 ( ) (
*
Optimum speed (to minimize time)
c
b
t
m l pr
t
N
N
t t t + + =
Average time to produce part:
Process parameters optimization: Speed
Optimum speed (to minimize costs)
n
t c
n
n
C t M
MC
V
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=
) 1 ( ) (
*
Optimum speed (to minimize time)
c
b
t
m l pr
t
N
N
t t t + + =
Average time to produce part:
load/unload time
machining time
tool change time
V
L
t
m
=
c
b
t
m l pr
t
N
N
t t t + + =
C
V L
N
N
n n
b
t
/ ) 1 (
=
Substitute, differentiate, solve for V*