You are on page 1of 54

Anggaran kas

Anggaran yang merencanakan secara


lebih terperinci tentang kas beserta
perubahan-perubahannya dari waktu-
kewaktu selama periode yang datang,
baik perubahan yang berupa penerimaan
kas, maupun perubahan yang berupa
pengeluaran kas
Aliran Kas

Operasi Pendanaan Investasi

Kegiatan yang Kegiatan yang dapat


Kegiatan yang bersifat berkaitan dengan meningkatkan aset
rutin dan terus kegiatan dan modal yang lancar yang
menerus dilakukan sendiri digunakan perusahaan
(menjual/membeli (seperti menerima (membeli / menjual
barang dagang) uang dalam bentuk surat berharga /
utang atau melakukan menjual atau membeli
pembayaran utang) Aktiva Tetap)
• Penyusunan anggaran kas bagi suatu
perusahaan sangatlah penting artinya
bagi penjagaan likuiditasnya.
• Dengan menyusun anggaran kas akan
dapat diketahui kapan perusahaan dalam
keadaan defisit kas atau surplus kas
karena operasi perusahaan.
tujuan utama budget kas

 Memberikan taksiran posisi kas akhir


setiap periode sebagai akibat dari
operasional perusahaan.
 Mengetahui kelebihan atau kekurangan
kas pada waktunya, sekaligus untuk
menentukan kebutuhan pembiayaan atas
kelebihan kas mengangsur untuk
investasi.
CASH BUDGET

 Listing of firm’s anticipated cash inflows


and outflows over a specific period
 Use to plan the short-term borrowing and
the timing of expenditure
 Details of cash collection and
disbursement
 Cash balance and borrowing needs
Sektor Penerimaan kas
(cash collections)

 Penjualan tunai barang jadi yang


diproduksi
 Penagihan Piutang
 Penjualan Aktiva tetap
 Penerimaan lain-lain (Non Operating),
seperti misalnya penghasilan bunga,
penghasilan sewa, penghasilan
dividend, dan sebagainya
tergantung perusahaan dan industrinya
Sektor Pengeluaran kas
(cash disbursements)
Berupa pengeluaran untuk biaya-biaya,
baik biaya-biaya utama (operating),
maupun biaya-biaya bukan utama (non
Operating) , contoh :
 Pembelian tunai bahan mentah
 Pembayaran utang
 Pembayaran upah tenaga kerja langsung
 Pembayaran biaya pabrik tidak langsung

tergantung perusahaan dan industrinya


Faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi
penerimaan kas
 Anggaran penjualan
 Keadaan persaingan di pasar.
 Posisi perusahaan
 Kebijakan perusahaan dalam penagihan piutang.
 Budget perubahan aktiva tetap, khususnya rencana
tentang pengurangan (penjualan) aktiva tetap.
 Rencana-rencana perusahaan tentang penerimaan-
penerimaan kas dari sumber lain-lain (non Operating),

tergantung perusahaan dan industrinya


Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi
Pengeluaran Kas
 Budget pembelian bahan mentah
 Keadaan persaingan para supplier bahan mentah
 Posisi perusahaan terhadap pihak supplier bahan mentah.
 Syarat pembayaran yang ditawarkan oleh supplier bahan mentah.
 Budget upah tenaga kerja langsung.
 Budget biaya pabrik tidak langsung.
 Budget biaya administrasi.
 Budget perusahaan aktiva tetap, khususnya rencana tentang
penambahan aktiva tetap.
 Rencana-rencana perusahaan tentang pengeluaran-pengeluaran
kas untuk keperluan lain-lain (Non perating), seperti misalnya untuk
biaya bunga, biaya sewa, dan sebagainya.

tergantung perusahaan dan industrinya


Relevansi Dengan Budget Lainnya
(Pada Perusahaan Pabrikasi)

Sales
Budget

Ending Selling and


Production
Inventory Administrative
Budget
Budget Budget

Direct Direct Manufacturing


Materials Labou Overhead
Budget r Budget
Budge
t
Cash
Budget
Cash Budgeting Example

 Royal Company is preparing budgets for the


quarter ending June 30.
 Budgeted sales for the next five months are:
April 20,000 units
May 50,000 units
June 30,000 units
July 25,000 units
August 15,000 units.
 The selling price is $10 per unit.
The Sales Budget

April May June


Budgeted
sales (units) 20,000 50,000 30,000
Selling price
per unit
Total sales
The Sales Budget

April May June


Budgeted
sales (units) 20,000 50,000 30,000
Selling price
per unit $ 10 $ 10 $ 10
Total sales $200,000 $500,000 $300,000
Expected Cash Collections
 All
 All sales
sales are
are on
on account.
account.
 Royal’s
 Royal’s collection
collection pattern
pattern is:
is:
70%
70% collected
collected in
in the
the month
month ofof sale,
sale,
25%
25% collected
collected in
in the
the month
month following
following sale,
sale,
5%
5% is
is uncollectible.
uncollectible. (take
(take careful
careful note
note of
of treatment
treatment no
no
cash
cash expected
expected to to be
be collected
collected –– no
no inflow)
inflow)
 The
 The March
March 31
31 accounts
accounts receivable
receivable balance
balance of
of
$30,000
$30,000 will
will be
be collected
collected in
in full.
full.
 Note
 Note any
any “cash
“cash sales”
sales” would
would result
result in
in immediate
immediate
cash
cash inflow
inflow at
at the
the time
time of
of sale
sale
Expected Cash Collections
Expected Cash Collections

From
From sales
sales
budget
budget
Expected Cash Collections
Expected Cash Collections
The Production Budget
 Royal Company wants ending inventory to
be equal to 10% of the following month’s
budgeted unit required

 On March 31, 4,000 units were on hand.

Let’s prepare the production budget.


The Direct Materials Budget

April May June Quarter


Production 26,000 46,000 29,000 101,000
Materials per unit 5 5 5 5
Production needs 130,000 230,000 145,000 505,000
Add desired
ending inventory 23,000 14,500 11,500 11,500
Total needed 153,000 244,500 156,500 516,500
Less beginning
inventory 13,000 23,000 14,500 13,000
Materials to be
purchased 140,000 221,500 142,000 503,500
Expected Cash Disbursement for Materials

Royal
 Royal pays
pays $0.40
$0.40 per
per kilogram
kilogram for
for its
its
materials.
materials.
One-half
 One-half of
of aa month’s
month’s purchases
purchases are
are
paid
paid for
for in
in the
the month
month of of purchase;
purchase; the
the
other
other half
half is
is paid
paid in
in the
the following
following month.
month.
The
 The March
March 31
31 accounts
accounts payable
payable balance
balance
is
is $12,000.
$12,000.
Let’s
Let’s calculate
calculate expected
expected cash
cash
disbursements.
disbursements.
Expected Cash Disbursement for Materials

April May June


Accounts pay. 3/31 $ 12,000
April purchases

May purchases

June purchases

Total cash
disbursements
Expected Cash Disbursement for Materials

April May June


Accounts pay. 3/31 $ 12,000
April purchases
50% x $56,000 28,000
50% x $56,000 $ 28,000
May purchases

June purchases

Total cash
140,000 kgs. × $.40/kg.$=40,000
disbursements $56,000
Expected Cash Disbursement for Materials

April May June


Accounts pay. 3/31 $ 12,000
April purchases
50% x $56,000 28,000
50% x $56,000 $ 28,000
May purchases
50% x $88,600 44,300
50% x $88,600 $ 44,300
June purchases

Total cash
disbursements $ 40,000 $ 72,300
Expected Cash Disbursement for Materials

April May June


Accounts pay. 3/31 $ 12,000
April purchases
50% x $56,000 28,000
50% x $56,000 $ 28,000
May purchases
50% x $88,600 44,300
50% x $88,600 $ 44,300
June purchases
50% x $56,800 28,400
Total cash
disbursements $ 40,000 $ 72,300 $ 72,700
The Direct Labour Budget

 At
 At Royal,
Royal, each
each unit
unit of
of product
product requires
requires 0.05
0.05 hours
hours of
of
direct
direct labour.
labour.
 The
 The Company
Company has has aa “no
“no layoff”
layoff” policy
policy so
so all
all employees
employees
will
will be
be paid
paid for
for 40
40 hours
hours of of work
work each
each week
week minimum.
minimum.
 In
 In exchange
exchange for for the
the “no
“no layoff”
layoff” policy,
policy, workers
workers agreed
agreed to
to
aa wage
wage rate
rate of
of $10
$10 per
per hour
hour regardless
regardless of of the
the hours
hours
worked
worked (No(No overtime
overtime pay pay premium).
premium).
 For
 For the
the next
next three
three months,
months, the the direct
direct labour
labour workforce
workforce
will
will be
be paid
paid for
for aa minimum
minimum of of 1,500
1,500 hours
hours perper month.
month.
Let’s
Let’s prepare
prepare the
the direct
direct labour
labour budget.
budget.
The Direct Labour Budget

From production
budget
The Direct Labour Budget
The Direct Labour Budget

Higher
Higher ofof labour
labour hours
hours required
required
or
or labour
labour hours
hours guaranteed.
guaranteed.
The Direct Labour Budget
Manufacturing Overhead Budget

 Royal Company uses a variable


manufacturing overhead rate of $1 per unit
produced.
produced
 Fixed manufacturing overhead is $50,000 per
month and includes $20,000 of non-cash
costs (primarily depreciation of plant assets).

Let’s prepare the manufacturing


overhead budget.
Manufacturing Overhead Budget

April May June


Production in units 26,000 46,000 29,000
Variable mfg. OH rate $ 1 $ 1 $ 1
Variable mfg. OH costs $ 26,000 $ 46,000 $ 29,000
Fixed mfg. OH costs
Total mfg. OH costs
Less noncash costs
Cash disbursements From production
for manufacturing OH budget
Manufacturing Overhead Budget

April May June


Production in units 26,000 46,000 29,000
Variable mfg. OH rate $ 1 $ 1 $ 1
Variable mfg. OH costs $ 26,000 $ 46,000 $ 29,000
Fixed mfg. OH costs 50,000 50,000 50,000
Total mfg. OH costs 76,000 96,000 79,000
Less noncash costs
Cash disbursements
for manufacturing OH
Manufacturing Overhead Budget

April May June


Production in units 26,000 46,000 29,000
Variable mfg. OH rate $ 1 $ 1 $ 1
Variable mfg. OH costs $ 26,000 $ 46,000 $ 29,000
Fixed mfg. OH costs 50,000 50,000 50,000
Total mfg. OH costs 76,000 96,000 79,000
Less noncash costs 20,000 20,000 20,000
Cash disbursements
for manufacturing OH $ 56,000 $ 76,000 $ 59,000
Depreciation
Depreciation is
is aa non-cash
non-cash charge.
charge.
Selling and Administrative Expense
Budget

 At
 At Royal,
Royal, variable
variable selling
selling and
and administrative
administrative
expenses
expenses are
are $0.50
$0.50 per
per unit
unit sold.
sold.
 Fixed
 Fixed selling
selling and
and administrative
administrative expenses
expenses are
are
$70,000
$70,000 per
per month.
month.
 The
 The fixed
fixed selling
selling and
and administrative
administrative expenses
expenses
include
include $10,000
$10,000 in
in costs
costs –– primarily
primarily depreciation
depreciation ––
that
that are
are not
not cash
cash outflows
outflows ofof the
the current
current month.
month.

Let’s
Let’s prepare
prepare the
the company’s
company’s selling
selling and
and
administrative
administrative expense
expense budget.
budget.
Selling and Administrative Expense
Budget

April May June


Budgeted sales 20,000 50,000 30,000
Variable selling
and admin. rate $ 0.50 $ 0.50 $ 0.50
Variable expense $10,000 $25,000 $15,000
Fixed selling and
admin. expense 70,000 70,000 70,000
Total expense 80,000 95,000 85,000
Less noncash
expenses
Cash disburse-
ments for
selling & admin.
Selling and Administrative Expense
Budget

April May June


Budgeted sales 20,000 50,000 30,000
Variable selling
and admin. rate $ 0.50 $ 0.50 $ 0.50
Variable expense $10,000 $25,000 $15,000
Fixed selling and
admin. expense 70,000 70,000 70,000
Total expense 80,000 95,000 85,000
Less noncash
expenses 10,000 10,000 10,000
Cash disburse-
ments for
selling & admin. $70,000 $85,000 $75,000
The Cash Budget

Royal:

●Maintains
Maintains aa 16%
16% open
open line-of-credit
line-of-credit for
for $75,000.
$75,000.

●Maintains
Maintains aa minimum
minimum cashcash balance
balance of
of $30,000.
$30,000.

●Borrows
Borrows on
on the
the first
first day
day of
of the
the month
month and
and repays
repays
loans
loans on
on the
the last
last day
day of
of the
the month.
month.

●Pays
Pays aa cash
cash dividend
dividend of
of $49,000
$49,000 in
in April.
April.

●Purchases
Purchases $143,700
$143,700 of
of equipment
equipment in
in May
May and
and
$48,300
$48,300 in
in June
June paid
paid in
in cash.
cash.

●Has
Has an
an April
April 11 cash
cash balance
balance ofof $40,000.
$40,000.
The Cash Budget
April May June Quarter
Beginning cash balance $ 40,000
Add cash collections 170,000
Total cash available 210,000
Less disbursements
Materials 40,000
Direct labour
Mfg. overhead
Selling and admin.
Equipment purchase Schedule
Schedule of
of Expected
Expected
Dividends Cash
Cash Disbursements
Disbursements
Total disbursements
Excess (deficiency) of
cash available over Schedule
Schedule of
of Expected
Expected
disbursements Cash
Cash Collections
Collections
The Cash Budget
April May June Quarter
Beginning cash balance $ 40,000
Add cash collections 170,000 Direct Labour
Total cash available 210,000 Budget
Less disbursements
Materials 40,000
Direct labour 15,000
Mfg. overhead 56,000
Manufacturing
Selling and admin. 70,000 Overhead Budget
Equipment purchase
Dividends
Total disbursements
Excess (deficiency) of
Selling and Administrative
cash available over
disbursements Expense Budget
The Cash Budget
April May June Quarter
Beginning cash balance $ 40,000
Add cash collections 170,000
Total cash available 210,000
Less disbursements
Materials 40,000 Because Royal maintains
Direct labour 15,000 a cash balance of $30,000,
Mfg. overhead 56,000 the company must
Selling and admin. 70,000 borrow on its
Equipment purchase -
Dividends 49,000
line-of-credit.
Total disbursements 230,000
Excess (deficiency) of
cash available over
disbursements $ (20,000)
Financing and Repayment

April May June


Excess (deficiency)
of Cash available
over disbursements $ (20,000)
Financing:
Borrowing 50,000
Repayments -
Interest -
Total financing 50,000
Ending cash balance $ 30,000 $ 30,000 $ -
Ending cash balance for April
is the beginning May balance.
The Cash Budget
April May June Quarter
Beginning cash balance $ 40,000 $ 30,000
Add cash collections 170,000 400,000
Total cash available 210,000 430,000
Less disbursements
Materials 40,000 72,300
Direct labour 15,000 23,000
Mfg. overhead 56,000 76,000
Selling and admin. 70,000 85,000
Equipment purchase - 143,700
Dividends 49,000 -
Total disbursements 230,000 400,000
Excess (deficiency) of
cash available over
disbursements $ (20,000) $ 30,000
Financing and Repayment

April May June


Excess (deficiency)
of Cash available
over disbursements $ (20,000) $ 30,000
Financing:
Borrowing 50,000 -
Repayments - -
Interest - -
Total financing 50,000 -
Ending cash Because
balance the ending
$ 30,000cash balance
$ 30,000 is
exactly $30,000, Royal will not repay
the loan this month.
The Cash Budget
April May June Quarter
Beginning cash balance $ 40,000 $ 30,000 $ 30,000 $ 40,000
Add cash collections 170,000 400,000 335,000 905,000
Total cash available 210,000 430,000 365,000 945,000
Less disbursements
Materials 40,000 72,300 72,700 185,000
Direct labour 15,000 23,000 15,000 53,000
Mfg. overhead 56,000 76,000 59,000 191,000
Selling and admin. 70,000 85,000 75,000 230,000
Equipment purchase - 143,700 48,300 192,000
Dividends 49,000 - - 49,000
Total disbursements 230,000 400,000 270,000 900,000
Excess (deficiency) of
cash available over
disbursements $ (20,000) $ 30,000 $ 95,000 $ 45,000
The Cash Budget
April May June Quarter
Beginning cash balance $ 40,000 $ 30,000 $ 30,000 $ 40,000
Add cash collections 170,000 400,000 335,000 905,000
Total cash available 210,000 430,000 365,000 945,000
Less disbursements
Materials 40,000 72,300 72,700 185,000
Direct labour 15,000 23,000 15,000 53,000
Mfg. overhead 56,000 76,000 59,000 191,000
Selling and admin. 70,000 85,000 75,000 230,000
At the end of June, Royal
At the end of- June,143,700
Equipment purchase
has enough
Royal has48,300 cash
enough192,000
cash
Dividends to to repay
repay the $50,000
$50,000 loan
the49,000 loan- plus
plus interest
interest
- at 16%.
at49,000
16%.
Total disbursements 230,000 400,000 270,000 900,000
Excess (deficiency) of
cash available over
disbursements $ (20,000) $ 30,000 $ 95,000 $ 45,000
Financing and Repayment

April May June


Excess (deficiency)
of Cash available
over disbursements $ (20,000) $ 30,000 $ 95,000
Financing:
Borrowing 50,000 - -
Repayments - - (50,000)
Interest - - (2,000)
Total financing 50,000 - (52,000)
Ending cash balance $ 30,000 $ 30,000 $ 43,000
$50,000 × 16% × 3/12 = $2,000
Borrowings on April 1 and
repayment of June 30.
SOAL
 Data data yang dimiliki PT. Abang Didi , sebuah perusahaan di bidang dalam
pembuatan dan penjualan produk peralatan olahraga , pada semester I tahun 2008
adalah sebagai berikut (dalam satuan Rp.) :
 Data dari bagian penjualan :

Bulan
Januari
 Penjualan tunai adalah sebanyak 50%, sedangkan 30% merupakan penjualan
kredit satu bulan, dan sisanya kredit dengan pelunasan dilakukan 2 bulan setelah
transaksi. Untuk penjualan tunai perusahaan memberikan potongan penjualan
kepada pembeli sebesar 15%

Februari
lanjutan
 Data dari bagian pembelian bahan baku :

Bula
Pembelian bahan baku dilakukan tunai sebanyak 20%, 30% secara kredit yang
dibayar pada periode discount, 40% kredit dengan pembayaran satu bulan

Januari
kemudian, dan sisanya dilakukan pembayaran dua bulan berikutnya. Term of
Payment yang diberikan oleh supplier adalah, 10/20, n/30
 Perusahaan membayar gaji dan upah perbulan sebesar 10% dari
budget penjualan bulan-bulan bersangkutan.
 Biaya depresiasi sebesar Rp. 15.000/ bulan

Februari
 Biaya listrik setiap bulan sebesar 6.000
 Penghasilan bunga deposito tiga bulanan (Maret dan Juni) sebesar
2.500 setiap penerimaan, dan penghasilan sewa perbulan sebesar
5.000
 Pengeluaran lainnya adalah ; Biaya promosi sebesar 15.000 (bulan
Juni) , Pajak dibayar sebesar 40.000 pada bulan Maret dan dua kali

Maret
lipatnya pada bulan Juni.
lanjutan
 Pembayaran Utang beserta bunga ke perusahaan leasing pada bulan
Mei sebesar 30.000
 Aktiva Tetap ditambah sebesar 60.000 (bulan Maret) , dimana
pembayarannya dilakukan 50% pada bulan pembelian dan sisanya
satu bulan kemudian.

 Informasi lain :
 Sisa kas akhir bulan Februari adalah 50.000
 Kebijakan safety cash perusahaan adalah sebesar 45.000
perbulannya
 Jika safety cash tidak tercapai , maka kebijakan perusahaan adalah
melakukan utang jangka pendek sebesar 50.000 (pada bulan Maret) .
Pembayaran utang plus bunga dilakukan 2 bulan kemudian (bunga
perbulan adalah sebesar 2%).

Buatlah BUDGET KAS untuk PT. Abang Didi untuk bulan Maret –
Juni 2008
Transaksi Yang Tidak Mempengaruhi Kas

1 2 3
Beban penyusutan Dividen dalam Aset dinilai kembali
(depresiasi, bentuk saham atau (revaluasi aset)
penghapusan, dan bonus dalam bentuk
amortisasi) saham
Budget Piutang
Bulan Piutang Awal Tambahan Jumlah Pelunasan Piutang Akhir
Piutang Piutang Piutang

ke penerimaan
kas

Budget Utang
Bulan Utang Awal Tambahan Jumlah Utang Pelunasan Utang Akhir
Utang Utang
ke pengeluaran
kas