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Quantum Model

of the Atom

Electrons in Atoms
Lets review Bohr Model electron configs:
Try
40
18
Ar
P, N, E?
P=18, N =22, E = 18
EC: 2-8-8
Try
39
19
K
P, N, E?
P=19, N =20, E = 19
EC: 2-8-9
Look on Periodic Table 2-8-8-1 HUH????
The Bohr Model of the atom
works very well in assigning
electrons for elements 1-18
but becomes inappropriate
with elements of atomic #19
and above.
That is where the Modern Model takes
over and is a better explanation for
atomic structure
We will learn to write
1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
6
4s
1
for K
Instead of 2-8-8-1 for potassium
Lets start to lay the foundation
for this type of advanced
electron configuration
Quantum Mechanics
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Impossible to know both the velocity
and position of an electron at the same
time
Quantum Numbers
UPPER LEVEL
Four Quantum Numbers:
Specify the address of each electron
in an atom
Quantum Numbers
1
st
: Principal Quantum Number ( n )
principle energy level the e- is in
values 1-7, ex: n=3
2n
2
= # of e needed to fill each
energy level, 2(3)(3)=18
Quantum Numbers
s p d f
2
nd
: Azimuthal Quantum # ( l = n-1)
sublevel w/in the PEL that the e is in
values s, p ,d, f
Shape of the orbital
smart people dont forget
So far, we have PEL and sublevel
1
st
pel has 1 sublevel : 1s
2
nd
pel has 2 sublevels: 2s, 2p
3
rd
pel has 3 sublevels: 3s, 3p, 3d
4
th
pel has 4 sublevels: 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f
3
rd
: Magnetic Quantum Number ( m
l
)
orbital w/in the sublevel
each orbital can contain a max of 2 es
orbitals w/in s sublevel ___
orbitals w/in p sublevel __ __ __
orbitals w/in d sublevel __ __ __ __ __
orbitals w/in f sublevel __ __ __ __ __ __ __
Quantum Mechanics
Radial Distribution Curve Orbital
Orbital (electron cloud)
Region in space where there is 90%
probability of finding an e
-

Quantum Numbers
n = # of sublevels per principle energy level
n
2
= # of orbitals per principle energy level
p
x

p
z

p
y

Orbitals combine to form a spherical
shape.
2s
2p
z

2p
y

2p
x

Quantum Numbers
4
th
: Spin Quantum Number ( m
s
)
spin of electron w/in orbital
+, - or
An orbital can hold only 2 electrons that
spin in opposite directions.
Quantum Numbers
1. Principal #
2. Azimuthal #
3. Magnetic #
4. Spin #
energy level (1-7)
sublevel (s,p,d,f)
orbital (1,3,5,7)
electron ()
Pauli Exclusion Principle: No two
electrons in an atom can have the same
4 quantum numbers.
Each e
-
has a unique address:
Feeling overwhelmed?
Read
Section 5.1!
Mrs. Ward
Summary
the existence of sublevels
accounts for the abundance of
lines (energy emittance) in the
light spectrum of atom. Bohrs
model could not explain these
spectra partly because the model
has only principle energy levels.
Notation for Advanced EC
Includes the principle energy level, the type
of sublevel and the number of electrons in
that sublevel
Ex. 1s
2




Write Bohr and Advanced EC for:
12
6
C
Bohr EC: 2-4
Adv EC: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
2

PEL
sublevel
# es in sublevel
Notation for Advanced EC
Write Bohr and Advanced EC for:
24
12
Mg
Bohr EC: 2-8-2
Adv EC: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2


Write Bohr and Advanced EC for:
32
16
S
Bohr EC: 2-8-6
Adv EC: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
2
3p
4 = 16 electrons
Adv EC excited state: 1s
2
2s
2
2p
6
3s
1
3p
5 = 16