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# Lecture 22 - Biaxial

Columns Design
July 30, 2003
CVEN 444
Lecture Goals
Short Column Biaxial Design
Slender Column Design
Biaxial Bending and Axial
Ref. PCA Notes on ACI 318-95

Unaxial bending
Biaxial Bending and Axial
Ref. PCA Notes on ACI 318-95

## The biaxial bending moments

Mx = P*ey
My = P*ex
Approximate Analysis
Methods
Use Reciprocal Failure
surface S2 (1/Pn,ex,ey)
The ordinate 1/Pn on the
surface S2 is
approximated by
ordinate 1/Pn on the
plane S’2 (1/Pn ex,ey)
Plane S2 is defined by
points A,B, and C.
Approximate Analysis
Methods
P0 = Axial Load Strength under pure axial compression
(corresponds to point C ) Mnx = Mny = 0
P0x = Axial Load Strength under uniaxial eccentricity, ey
(corresponds to point B ) Mnx = Pney
P0y = Axial Load Strength under uniaxial eccentricity, ex
(corresponds to point A ) Mny = Pnex
Approximate Analysis
Methods
Design: Pu Muy , Mux Pu, Puex, Puey
Approximate Analysis
Methods
1 1 1 1 1
≈ = + −
Pn Pn′ P0x P0y P0
1
⇒ Pn ≈
1 1 1
+ −
P0x P0y P0
Pn = Nominal axial load strength at eccentricities, ex
& ey Limited to cases when Pn ≥ 0.1 f c Ag
Biaxial Bending in Short
Columns
Bresler’s Formula:
1 1 1 1
≅ + −
Pn P0x P0y P0
Steps:
1) Calculate P0
2) Calculate P0y ( Pn for e = ex, ey = 0 )
3)Calculate P0x ( Pn for ex= 0, e = ey )
4) Calculate Pn (from Bresler’s Formula )
Biaxial Bending in Short
Columns

Pu ≤ φ Pn
where, φ = 0.65
Biaxial Column Example
The section of a short tied
column is 16 x 24 in. and is
reinforced with 8 #10 bars as
shown. Determine the
the section φ Pn if its acts at
ex = 8 in. and ey = 12 in. Use
fc = 5 ksi and fy = 60 ksi.
Biaxial Column Example
Compute the P0 load, compression with no moments
Ast = 8 ( 1.27 in 2 ) = 10.16 in 2
P0 = 0.85 f c ( Ag − Ast ) + Ast f y
= 0.85 ( 5 ksi ) ( ( 24.0 in.) ( 24.0 in.) − 10.16 in 2 )
+ ( 10.16 in 2 ) ( 60 ksi )
= 2198.4 k
Pn0 = rP0 = 0.8 ( 2198.4 k ) = 1758.7 k
Biaxial Column Example
Compute Pnx , by starting with ey term and assume
that compression controls. Check by
2 2
ey = 12 in. ≤ d = ( 21.5 in.) = 14.33 in.
3 3

## Compute the nominal load, Pnx and assume second

compression steel does not contribute
assume small
Pn = Cc + Cs1 + Cs2 − T
Biaxial Column Example
The components of the equilibrium equation are:

## Cc = 0.85 ( 5 ksi ) ( 16 in.) ( 0.8c ) = 54.4 c

Cs1 = 3.81 in 2 ( 60 ksi − 0.85 ( 5 ksi ) ) = 212.4 kips
T = 3.81 in 2
( fs )
d   21.5 in. 
fs =  − 1 ( 29000 ksi ) ( 0.003) =  − 1 ( 87 ksi)
c   c 
Use similar triangles to find the stress in the steel, fs
Biaxial Column Example
Compute the moment about the tension steel:
 β1c 
Pn e′ = Cc  d −  + Cs1 ( d − d ′)
 2 
where
e′ = 9.5 in. + 12 in. = 21.5 in.
Pn ( 21.5 in.) = 54.4c ( 21.5 in. − 0.4c )
+ 212.4 k ( 21.5 in. − 2.5 in.)
The resulting equation is:

## Pn = 54.4c − 1.01c 2 + 187.7

Biaxial Column Example
Combine the two equations and solve for Pn using an
iterative solution
Pn = 54.4c + 212.4 − 3.81 fs

## Pn = 54.4c − 1.01c 2 + 187.7

Set the two equation equal to one another and sole for fs
fs = 0.265c 2 + 6.483

## and the definition:  21.5 in. 

fs = 87  − 1
 c 
Biaxial Column Example
Combine the two equations and solve for c using
an iterative technique
 21.5 in. 
87  − 1 = 0.265c 2 + 6.483
 c 

## You are solving a cubic equation

c (in.) fs (ksi) RHS
15 37.7 66.12819
10 100.05 32.99194
13 56.88462 51.28315
13.3 53.6391 53.37471
13.315 53.48066 53.48054
Biaxial Column Example
Check the assumption that Cs2 is close to zero
 12 in.   12 in. 
f s2 = 1 −  ( 87 ksi ) = 1 −  ( 87 ksi )
 c   13.315 in. 
= 8.59 ksi
Cs2 = 2.54 in 2 ( 8.59 ksi − 0.85 ( 5 ksi ) )
= 11.0 kips

## This value is small relative to the others

Biaxial Column Example
This Cs2 = 11 kips relatively small verses the

## Pn = 54.4c + 212.4 − 3.81 fs

= 54.4 ( 13.315 in.) + 212.4 k − 3.81( 53.48 ksi )
= 733.0 k

## So Pnx = 733.0 kips

Biaxial Column Example
controls.
2 2
ex = 8.0 in. ≤ d = ( 13.5 in.) = 9 in.
3 3
Compute the nominal load, Pny and assume second
compression steel does not contribute
assume small
Pn = Cc + Cs1 + Cs2 − T
Biaxial Column Example
The components of the equilibrium equation are:

## Cc = 0.85 ( 5 ksi ) ( 24 in.) ( 0.8c ) = 81.6 c

Cs1 = 3.81 in 2 ( 60 ksi − 0.85 ( 5 ksi ) ) = 212.4 kips
T = 3.81 in 2 ( f s )
d   13.5 in. 
f s =  − 1 ( 29000 ksi ) ( 0.003) =  − 1 ( 87 ksi )
c   c 
Biaxial Column Example
Compute the moment about the tension steel:
 β1c 
Pn e′ = Cc  d −  + Cs1 ( d − d ′)
 2 
where
e′ = 5.5 in. + 8 in. = 13.5 in.
Pn ( 13.5 in.) = 81.6c ( 13.5 in. − 0.4c )
+ 212.4 k ( 13.5 in. − 2.5 in.)
The resulting equation is:
Pn = 81.6c − 2.42c 2 + 173.07
Biaxial Column Example
Combine the two equations and solve for Pn using an
iterative solution
Pn = 81.6c + 212.4 − 3.81 f s

## Pn = 81.6c − 2.42c 2 + 173.07

Set the two equation equal to one another and sole for fs
fs = 0.634c 2 + 10.324

## and the definition:  13.5 in. 

fs = 87  − 1
 c 
Biaxial Column Example
Combine the two equations and solve for c using an
iterative technique
 13.5 in. 
87  − 1 = 0.634c 2 + 10.324
 c 

## You are solving a cubic equation

c (in.) fs (ksi) RHS
10 30.45 73.76371
8 59.8125 50.92531
8.5 51.17647 56.15911
8.3 54.50602 54.02753
8.31735 54.21084 54.21043
Biaxial Column Example
Check the assumption that Cs2 is close to zero
 8 in. 
fs2 = 1 −  ( 87 ksi )
 8.317 in. 
= 3.32 ksi
Cs2 = 2.54 in 2 ( 3.32 ksi − 0.85 ( 5 ksi ) )
= −2.10 kips

## This value is negative so it does not contribute

Biaxial Column Example
This Cs2 = - 2.1 kips relatively small verses the

## Pn = 81.6c + 212.4 − 3.81 f s

= 81.6 ( 8.317 in.) + 212.4 k − 3.81( 54.21 ksi )
= 684.6 k

## So Pnx = 684.6 kips

Biaxial Column Example

1 1 1 1
= + −
Pn Pnx Pny Pn0
1 1 1
= + −
733.0 k 684.6 k 1758.7 k

## Pn = 443.2 k ⇒ Pu = φ Pn = 0.65 ( 443.2 k ) = 288.1 k

Biaxial Column Example
Note: the Pnx & Pny include the
corner steel bars in both
calculations a more
conservative solution would be
to use 1/2 the steel in each
direction so As= 2(1.27 in2)
which would reduce Pu .
(Remember fs can not be
greater than 60 ksi, so that Pnx
= 620.3 k and Pny = 578.4 k Pn =
360.7 k and Pu= 234.5 k )
Slender Columns
Columns
Slenderness ratio =
klu
r
Long with a relatively high slenderness
ratio where lateral or shear walls are
required
Long with a medium slenderness ration
that will cause a reduction in strength
Short where the slenderness ratio is small
“Long” Columns
Slender Columns

## Slender = Column with a significant reduction in

Column axial load capacity due to moments
resulting from lateral deflections of the
column (ACI Code: significant
reduction ≥ 5%)
“Long” Columns
Less than 10 % of columns in “braced” or “non-sway”
frames and less than half of columns in “unbraced” or
“sway” frames would be classified as “slender”
following ACI Code Procedure.
Effective Length
The effective length - klu
lu - It measures the clear distance between floors.
k - a factor, which represents the ratio of the distance
between points of zero moments in the columns
K Factor

ψ= ∑ EI / l of columns
u

∑ EI / l of beams
u

## Ψ A and Ψ B are the top and bottom factors of the

column. For a hinged end Ψ is infinite or 10 and
for a fixed end Ψ is zero or 1
K Factor
For a Braced Frame:(Non-sway)

## k = 0.70 + 0.05 ( Ψ A + Ψ B ) ≤ 1.0

k = smaller of 
 k = 0.85 + 0.05Ψ min ≤ 1.0
Ψ A and Ψ B are the top and bottom factors of the
column.
K Factor
For a Sway Frame:
a) Restrained @both ends
 20 − Ψ m 
if Ψ m = Ψ avg < 2.0 : k =   1 + Ψm
 20 
if Ψ m ≥ 2.0 : k = 0.9 1 + Ψ m
b) One hinged or free end
k = 2.0 + 0.3Ψ
Non-sway frames: 0 ≤ k ≤ 1.0
Sway frames: 1.0 ≤ k ≤ ∞ ( typically k=1.5)
K Factor
The general assumptions are
- Structure consists of symmetric rectangular frames
- The girder moment at a joint is distributed to columns
according to their relative stiffness
- All columns reach their critical loads at the same time
General Formulation
Modulus of Elasticity
Ec = 33w 1.5
fc

= 57000 f c
Reinforced Moment (ACI 10.11.1)
I = 0.35 I g for a beam
I = 0.70 I g for a column
General Formulation
Area
A = Ag
Moment of inertia shall be divided by (1 + β d)

## Max. factored sustain lateral load

β d=
K Factor
Use the Ψ values
to obtain the K
factors for the
columns.
“Long” Column

Lateral deflection -
increases moment

M = P*( e + ∆ )
“Long” Column

## ∆ o = first-order deflection due to Mo

∆ a = second-order deflection due to Po
“Long” Column

## OA - curve for end moment

OB - curve for maximum
column moment @ mid-
height)
Axial capacity is reduced
from A to B due to increase
in maximum moment due to
∆ ’s (slenderness effects)
“Long” Columns
From ACI Sec. 12.10.2 , the slenderness effects may
be neglected if
kLu M 
= 34 − 12 1 
 
r
  M2 
slenderness ratio

## k = effective length factor (function of end restraints)

Non-sway frames 0.5 ≤ k ≤ 1.0
Sway frames 1. 0 ≤ k ≤ ∞
“Long” Column -
Slenderness Ratio
Slenderness Ratio for
columns

(a) Pinned-Pinned
Connection
(b) Fixed-Fixed
Connection
“Long” Column -
Slenderness Ratio
Slenderness Ratio for
columns

(c) Fixed-Pinned
Connection
(d) Partial restrained
Connection
“Long” Column -
Slenderness Ratio
Slenderness Ratio for columns in frames
“Long” Column -
Slenderness Ratio
Slenderness Ratio for columns in frames
“Long” Column
lu = Unsupported height of column from top of
floor to bottom of beams or slab in floor

I
r = Radius of gyration =
A
= 0.3* overall depth of rectangular columns
= 0.25* overall depth of circular columns
“Long” Column
M1/M2 = Ratio of moments at two column ends, where
M2 > M1 (-1 to 1 ⇒ range)

M1 M1
>0 <0
M2 M2

## singular curvature double curvature

“Long” Columns
M1/M2 = Ratio of moments at two column ends
where M2 > M1 (-1.0 to 1.0 range)
- single curvature
- double curvature
M1 
= 0 .5 
M2  is typically conservative

 (non-sway frames)
and k = 1.0
Note Code (10.12.2) M1/M2 ≥ -0.5 non-sway frames
“Long” Column

M1 
= +0.5
M2  is typically conservative ( non - sway frames)
and k = 1.0
M1
Note: Code 10.12.2 ≥ −0.5 (non-sway frames)
M2
klu
Possible range of = 22 to 40
r
Moment Magnification
in Non-sway Frames
If the slenderness effects need to be considered. The
non-sway magnification factor, δ ns , will cause an
increase in the magnitude of the design moment.
M c = δ ns M 2
where
Cm
δ ns = ≥ 1.0
 Pu 
1−  
 0.75Pc 
Moment Magnification
in Non-sway Frames

π EI 2
Pc =
( klu )
2

## and the stiffness, EI is taken as

0.2 Ec I g + Es I se 0.4 Ec I g
EI = ⇒
{ EI =
1 + βd conservatively 1 + βd
Moment Magnification in
Non-sway Frames

## A coefficient factor relating the actual moment

diagram to the equivalent uniform moment diagram.
 M1 
Cm = 0.6 + 0.4   ≥ 0.4
 M2 
For other conditions, such as members with transverse
loads between supports, Cm = 1.0
Moment Magnification
in Non-sway Frames

## The sway frame uses a similar technique, see the text

on the components.
Design of Long Columns-
Example
A rectangular braced column of a multistory frame
building has floor height lu =25 ft. It is subjected to
M1=2500 k-in. at the bottom. The service live load
and a service axial live-load PL = 350 k. Design the
cross section size and reinforcement for this column.
Given Ψ A = 1.3 and Ψ B = 0.9. Use a d’=2.5 in. cover
with an sustain load = 50 % and fc = 7 ksi and fy = 60
ksi.
Design of Long Columns-
Example
Compute the factored loads and moments are 80% of
Pu = 1.2 PD + 1.6 PL = 1.2 ( 200 k ) + 1.6 ( 350 k )
= 800 k
M 1u = 1.2 M D + 1.6 M L = 1.2 ( 2500 k-in ) + 1.6 ( 0.8 ) ( 2500 k-in )
= 6200 k-in.
M 2u = 1.2 M D + 1.6 M L = 1.2 ( 3500 k-in ) + 1.6 ( 0.8 ) ( 3500 k-in )
= 8680 k-in.
Design of Long Columns-
Example
Compute the k value for the braced compression
members
k = 0.7 + 0.05 ( Ψ A + Ψ B ) = 0.7 + 0.05 ( 1.3 + 0.9 )
= 0.81 ≤ 1.0
k = 0.85 + 0.05Ψ min = 0.85 + 0.05 ( 0.9 )
= 0.895 ≤ 1.0

## Therefore, use k = 0.81

Design of Long Columns-
Example
Check to see if slenderness is going to matter. An
initial estimate of the size of the column will be an
inch for every foot of height. So h = 25 in.

## kln 0.81( 25 ft ) ( 12 in./ft )

= = 32.4
r 0.3 ( 25 in.)
 6200 k-in. 
32.4 ≥ 34 − 12   = 25.43
 8680 k-in. 
Design of Long Columns-
Example
So slenderness must be considered. Since frame has
no side sway, M2 = M2ns , δ s =0 Minimum M2

## M 2,min = Pu ( 0.6 + 0.03h ) = 800 k ( 0.6 + 0.03 ( 25 in.) )

= 1080 k-in. ⇒ M 2 = 8680 k-in.
Design of Long Columns-
Example
Compute components of concrete
f c = 33 ( 150 )
1.5
Ec = 33w 1.5
7000
= 5.07x106 psi → 5.07x103 ksi

## The moment of inertia is

( 25 in.) ( 25 in.)
3 3
bh
Ig = =
12 12
= 32552 in 4
Design of Long Columns-
Example
Compute the stiffness

## 0.4 Ec I g 0.4 ( 5.07x103 ksi ) ( 32552 in 4 )

EI = =
1 + βd 1 + 0.5
= 4.4x10 k-in 7 2
Design of Long Columns-
Example

## π EI2 π 2 ( 4.4x107 k-in 2 )

Pc = =
( klu )  0.81 25 ft  12 in.  
2 2

 ( ) 
  ft  
= 7354.3 k
Design of Long Columns-
Example
Compute the coefficient

 M1 
Cm = 0.6 + 0.4  
 M2 
 6200 k-in. 
= 0.6 + 0.4   = 0.89 ≥ 0.4
 8680 k-in. 
Design of Long Columns-
Example

## The magnification factor

Cm 0.89
δ ns = =
 Pu   800 k 
1−   1−  
 0.75Pc   0.75 ( 7354.3 k ) 
= 1.04 ≥ 1.0
Design of Long Columns-
Example
The design moment is

## Pc = 800 k & M c = 9027.2 k-in.

9027.2 k-in.
e = = 11.28 in.
800 k
Design of Long Columns-
Example
Assume that the ρ = 2.0 % or 0.020

2 2

## Use 14 # 9 bars or 14 in2

As = 7.0 in 2

Acs = 7.0 in 2
Design of Long Columns-
Example
The column is compression controlled so c/d > 0.6.
Check the values for c/d = 0.6

## c = 0.6d = 0.6 ( 22.5 in.) = 13.5 in.

a = β1c = 0.7 ( 13.5 in.) = 9.45 in.
Design of Long Columns-
Example

steel.

##  c − d′   13.5 in. − 2.5 in. 

ε s1 =   ε cu =   0.003
 c   13.5 in. 
= 0.00244
f cs1 = Esε s1 = ( 29000 ksi ) ( 0.00244 )
= 70.76 ksi ⇒ f cs1 = 60 ksi
Design of Long Columns-
Example
The tension steel

##  d −c  22.5 in. − 13.5 in. 

εs =   ε cu =   0.003 = 0.002
 c   13.5 in. 
fs = Esε s = ( 29000 ksi ) ( 0.002 )
= 58 ksi
Design of Long Columns-
Example
Combined forces

## Cc = 0.85 fc ba = 0.85 ( 7 ksi ) ( 25 in.) ( 9.45 in.)

= 1405.7 k
Cs1 = Acs ( f cs − 0.85 fc ) = ( 7 in 2 ) ( 60 ksi − 0.85 ( 7 ksi ) )
= 378.35 k
T = As f s = ( 7 in 2 ) ( 58 ksi )
= 406.0 k
Design of Long Columns-
Example
Combined force

Pn = Cc + Cs1 − T
= 1405.7 k + 378.35 k − 406.0 k
= 1378.05 k
Design of Long Columns-
Example
Moment is
h a h   h
M n = Cc  −  + Cs1  − d ′  + T  d − 
 2 2 2   2
 9.45 in. 
= 1405.7 k 12.5 in. − 
 2 
+378.35 k ( 12.5 in. − 2.5 in.)
+406.0 k ( 22.5 in. − 12.5 in.)
= 18773 k-in
Design of Long Columns-
Example
The eccentricity is

M n 18773 k-in
e= =
Pn 1378.05 k
= 13.62 in.

Since the e = 11.28 in. < 13.62 in. The section is in the
compression controlled region φ = 0.65. You will
want to match up the eccentricity with the design.
Design of Long Columns-
Example
Check the values for c/d = 0.66

## c = 0.66d = 0.66 ( 22.5 in. ) = 14.85 in.

a = β1c = 0.7 ( 14.85 in.) = 10.395 in.
Design of Long Columns-
Example
Check the strain in the tension steel and compression
steel.
 c − d′   14.85 in. − 2.5 in. 
ε s1 =   ε cu =   0.003
 c   14.85 in. 
= 0.00249
f cs1 = Esε s1 = ( 29000 ksi ) ( 0.00249 )
= 72.35 ksi ⇒ f cs1 = 60 ksi
Design of Long Columns-
Example
The tension steel

##  d −c  22.5 in. − 14.85 in. 

εs =   ε cu =   0.003
 c   14.85 in. 
= 0.00155
fs = Esε s = ( 29000 ksi ) ( 0.00155 )
= 44.82 ksi
Design of Long Columns-
Example
Combined forces

## Cc = 0.85 f cba = 0.85 ( 7 ksi ) ( 25 in.) ( 10.395 in.)

= 1545.26 k
Cs1 = Acs ( f cs − 0.85 fc ) = ( 7 in 2 ) ( 60 ksi − 0.85 ( 7 ksi ) )
= 378.35 k
T = As fs = ( 7 in 2 ) ( 44.82 ksi )
= 313.74 k
Design of Long Columns-
Example
Combined force

Pn = Cc + Cs1 − T
= 1546.26 k + 378.35 k − 313.74 k
= 1610.9 k
Design of Long Columns-
Example
Moment is
h a h   h
M n = Cc  −  + Cs1  − d ′  + T  d − 
 2 2 2   2
 10.395 in. 
= 1545.26 k 12.5 in. − 
 2 
+378.35 k ( 12.5 in. − 2.5 in.)
+313.74 k ( 22.5 in. − 12.5 in.)
= 18205.2 k-in
Design of Long Columns-
Example
The eccentricity is
M n 18205.2 k-in
e= =
Pn 1610.9 k
= 11.30 in.

## Since the e ≅ 11.28 in. The reduction factor is equal to

φ = 0.65. Compute the design load and moment.
Design of Long Columns-
Example

## The design conditions are

Pu = φ Pn = 0.65 ( 1610.9 k )
= 1047.1 k > 800 k OK!
M u = φ M n = 0.65 ( 18205.2 k-in )
= 11833.4 k-in. > 9027.2 k-in. OK!
Design of Long Columns-
Example
Design the ties
Provide #3 ties, spacing will be the minimum of:
48dstirrup = 48 ( 0.375 in.) = 18 in.

s = smallest  16d bar = 16 ( 1.128 in. ) = 18 in. ⇐ controls
 h = 25 in.

Therefore, provide #3 ties @ 18 in. spacing.
Using Interaction
Diagrams
Determine eccentricity. Select steel sizes.
Estimate column size Design ties by ACI
required base on axial code