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Columns Design

July 30, 2003

CVEN 444

Lecture Goals

Short Column Biaxial Design

Slender Column Design

Biaxial Bending and Axial

Load

Ref. PCA Notes on ACI 318-95

Unaxial bending

about y-axis

Biaxial Bending and Axial

Load

Ref. PCA Notes on ACI 318-95

Mx = P*ey

My = P*ex

Approximate Analysis

Methods

Use Reciprocal Failure

surface S2 (1/Pn,ex,ey)

The ordinate 1/Pn on the

surface S2 is

approximated by

ordinate 1/Pn on the

plane S’2 (1/Pn ex,ey)

Plane S2 is defined by

points A,B, and C.

Approximate Analysis

Methods

P0 = Axial Load Strength under pure axial compression

(corresponds to point C ) Mnx = Mny = 0

P0x = Axial Load Strength under uniaxial eccentricity, ey

(corresponds to point B ) Mnx = Pney

P0y = Axial Load Strength under uniaxial eccentricity, ex

(corresponds to point A ) Mny = Pnex

Approximate Analysis

Methods

Design: Pu Muy , Mux Pu, Puex, Puey

Approximate Analysis

Methods

1 1 1 1 1

≈ = + −

Pn Pn′ P0x P0y P0

1

⇒ Pn ≈

1 1 1

+ −

P0x P0y P0

Pn = Nominal axial load strength at eccentricities, ex

& ey Limited to cases when Pn ≥ 0.1 f c Ag

Biaxial Bending in Short

Columns

Analysis Procedure: Reciprocal Load Method

Bresler’s Formula:

1 1 1 1

≅ + −

Pn P0x P0y P0

Steps:

1) Calculate P0

2) Calculate P0y ( Pn for e = ex, ey = 0 )

3)Calculate P0x ( Pn for ex= 0, e = ey )

4) Calculate Pn (from Bresler’s Formula )

Biaxial Bending in Short

Columns

Pu ≤ φ Pn

where, φ = 0.65

Biaxial Column Example

The section of a short tied

column is 16 x 24 in. and is

reinforced with 8 #10 bars as

shown. Determine the

allowable ultimate load on

the section φ Pn if its acts at

ex = 8 in. and ey = 12 in. Use

fc = 5 ksi and fy = 60 ksi.

Biaxial Column Example

Compute the P0 load, compression with no moments

Ast = 8 ( 1.27 in 2 ) = 10.16 in 2

P0 = 0.85 f c ( Ag − Ast ) + Ast f y

= 0.85 ( 5 ksi ) ( ( 24.0 in.) ( 24.0 in.) − 10.16 in 2 )

+ ( 10.16 in 2 ) ( 60 ksi )

= 2198.4 k

Pn0 = rP0 = 0.8 ( 2198.4 k ) = 1758.7 k

Biaxial Column Example

Compute Pnx , by starting with ey term and assume

that compression controls. Check by

2 2

ey = 12 in. ≤ d = ( 21.5 in.) = 14.33 in.

3 3

compression steel does not contribute

assume small

Pn = Cc + Cs1 + Cs2 − T

Biaxial Column Example

The components of the equilibrium equation are:

Cs1 = 3.81 in 2 ( 60 ksi − 0.85 ( 5 ksi ) ) = 212.4 kips

T = 3.81 in 2

( fs )

d 21.5 in.

fs = − 1 ( 29000 ksi ) ( 0.003) = − 1 ( 87 ksi)

c c

Use similar triangles to find the stress in the steel, fs

Biaxial Column Example

Compute the moment about the tension steel:

β1c

Pn e′ = Cc d − + Cs1 ( d − d ′)

2

where

e′ = 9.5 in. + 12 in. = 21.5 in.

Pn ( 21.5 in.) = 54.4c ( 21.5 in. − 0.4c )

+ 212.4 k ( 21.5 in. − 2.5 in.)

The resulting equation is:

Biaxial Column Example

Combine the two equations and solve for Pn using an

iterative solution

Pn = 54.4c + 212.4 − 3.81 fs

Set the two equation equal to one another and sole for fs

fs = 0.265c 2 + 6.483

fs = 87 − 1

c

Biaxial Column Example

Combine the two equations and solve for c using

an iterative technique

21.5 in.

87 − 1 = 0.265c 2 + 6.483

c

c (in.) fs (ksi) RHS

15 37.7 66.12819

10 100.05 32.99194

13 56.88462 51.28315

13.3 53.6391 53.37471

13.315 53.48066 53.48054

Biaxial Column Example

Check the assumption that Cs2 is close to zero

12 in. 12 in.

f s2 = 1 − ( 87 ksi ) = 1 − ( 87 ksi )

c 13.315 in.

= 8.59 ksi

Cs2 = 2.54 in 2 ( 8.59 ksi − 0.85 ( 5 ksi ) )

= 11.0 kips

Biaxial Column Example

This Cs2 = 11 kips relatively small verses the

overall load, which is

= 54.4 ( 13.315 in.) + 212.4 k − 3.81( 53.48 ksi )

= 733.0 k

Biaxial Column Example

Start with ex term and assume that compression

controls.

2 2

ex = 8.0 in. ≤ d = ( 13.5 in.) = 9 in.

3 3

Compute the nominal load, Pny and assume second

compression steel does not contribute

assume small

Pn = Cc + Cs1 + Cs2 − T

Biaxial Column Example

The components of the equilibrium equation are:

Cs1 = 3.81 in 2 ( 60 ksi − 0.85 ( 5 ksi ) ) = 212.4 kips

T = 3.81 in 2 ( f s )

d 13.5 in.

f s = − 1 ( 29000 ksi ) ( 0.003) = − 1 ( 87 ksi )

c c

Biaxial Column Example

Compute the moment about the tension steel:

β1c

Pn e′ = Cc d − + Cs1 ( d − d ′)

2

where

e′ = 5.5 in. + 8 in. = 13.5 in.

Pn ( 13.5 in.) = 81.6c ( 13.5 in. − 0.4c )

+ 212.4 k ( 13.5 in. − 2.5 in.)

The resulting equation is:

Pn = 81.6c − 2.42c 2 + 173.07

Biaxial Column Example

Combine the two equations and solve for Pn using an

iterative solution

Pn = 81.6c + 212.4 − 3.81 f s

Set the two equation equal to one another and sole for fs

fs = 0.634c 2 + 10.324

fs = 87 − 1

c

Biaxial Column Example

Combine the two equations and solve for c using an

iterative technique

13.5 in.

87 − 1 = 0.634c 2 + 10.324

c

c (in.) fs (ksi) RHS

10 30.45 73.76371

8 59.8125 50.92531

8.5 51.17647 56.15911

8.3 54.50602 54.02753

8.31735 54.21084 54.21043

Biaxial Column Example

Check the assumption that Cs2 is close to zero

8 in.

fs2 = 1 − ( 87 ksi )

8.317 in.

= 3.32 ksi

Cs2 = 2.54 in 2 ( 3.32 ksi − 0.85 ( 5 ksi ) )

= −2.10 kips

Biaxial Column Example

This Cs2 = - 2.1 kips relatively small verses the

overall load, which is

= 81.6 ( 8.317 in.) + 212.4 k − 3.81( 54.21 ksi )

= 684.6 k

Biaxial Column Example

Compute the nominal load

1 1 1 1

= + −

Pn Pnx Pny Pn0

1 1 1

= + −

733.0 k 684.6 k 1758.7 k

Biaxial Column Example

Note: the Pnx & Pny include the

corner steel bars in both

calculations a more

conservative solution would be

to use 1/2 the steel in each

direction so As= 2(1.27 in2)

which would reduce Pu .

(Remember fs can not be

greater than 60 ksi, so that Pnx

= 620.3 k and Pny = 578.4 k Pn =

360.7 k and Pu= 234.5 k )

Slender Columns

Columns

Slenderness ratio =

klu

r

Long with a relatively high slenderness

ratio where lateral or shear walls are

required

Long with a medium slenderness ration

that will cause a reduction in strength

Short where the slenderness ratio is small

“Long” Columns

Slender Columns

Column axial load capacity due to moments

resulting from lateral deflections of the

column (ACI Code: significant

reduction ≥ 5%)

“Long” Columns

Less than 10 % of columns in “braced” or “non-sway”

frames and less than half of columns in “unbraced” or

“sway” frames would be classified as “slender”

following ACI Code Procedure.

Effective Length

The effective length - klu

lu - It measures the clear distance between floors.

k - a factor, which represents the ratio of the distance

between points of zero moments in the columns

K Factor

ψ= ∑ EI / l of columns

u

∑ EI / l of beams

u

column. For a hinged end Ψ is infinite or 10 and

for a fixed end Ψ is zero or 1

K Factor

For a Braced Frame:(Non-sway)

k = smaller of

k = 0.85 + 0.05Ψ min ≤ 1.0

Ψ A and Ψ B are the top and bottom factors of the

column.

K Factor

For a Sway Frame:

a) Restrained @both ends

20 − Ψ m

if Ψ m = Ψ avg < 2.0 : k = 1 + Ψm

20

if Ψ m ≥ 2.0 : k = 0.9 1 + Ψ m

b) One hinged or free end

k = 2.0 + 0.3Ψ

Non-sway frames: 0 ≤ k ≤ 1.0

Sway frames: 1.0 ≤ k ≤ ∞ ( typically k=1.5)

K Factor

The general assumptions are

- Structure consists of symmetric rectangular frames

- The girder moment at a joint is distributed to columns

according to their relative stiffness

- All columns reach their critical loads at the same time

General Formulation

Modulus of Elasticity

Ec = 33w 1.5

fc

= 57000 f c

Reinforced Moment (ACI 10.11.1)

I = 0.35 I g for a beam

I = 0.70 I g for a column

General Formulation

Area

A = Ag

Moment of inertia shall be divided by (1 + β d)

with sustain lateral loads

β d=

Max. factored axial load

K Factor

Use the Ψ values

to obtain the K

factors for the

columns.

“Long” Column

Eccentrically loaded pin-ended column.

Lateral deflection -

increases moment

M = P*( e + ∆ )

“Long” Column

Eccentrically loaded pin-ended column.

∆ a = second-order deflection due to Po

“Long” Column

Eccentrically loaded pin-ended column.

OB - curve for maximum

column moment @ mid-

height)

Axial capacity is reduced

from A to B due to increase

in maximum moment due to

∆ ’s (slenderness effects)

“Long” Columns

From ACI Sec. 12.10.2 , the slenderness effects may

be neglected if

kLu M

= 34 − 12 1

r

M2

slenderness ratio

Non-sway frames 0.5 ≤ k ≤ 1.0

Sway frames 1. 0 ≤ k ≤ ∞

“Long” Column -

Slenderness Ratio

Slenderness Ratio for

columns

(a) Pinned-Pinned

Connection

(b) Fixed-Fixed

Connection

“Long” Column -

Slenderness Ratio

Slenderness Ratio for

columns

(c) Fixed-Pinned

Connection

(d) Partial restrained

Connection

“Long” Column -

Slenderness Ratio

Slenderness Ratio for columns in frames

“Long” Column -

Slenderness Ratio

Slenderness Ratio for columns in frames

“Long” Column

lu = Unsupported height of column from top of

floor to bottom of beams or slab in floor

I

r = Radius of gyration =

A

= 0.3* overall depth of rectangular columns

= 0.25* overall depth of circular columns

“Long” Column

M1/M2 = Ratio of moments at two column ends, where

M2 > M1 (-1 to 1 ⇒ range)

M1 M1

>0 <0

M2 M2

“Long” Columns

M1/M2 = Ratio of moments at two column ends

where M2 > M1 (-1.0 to 1.0 range)

- single curvature

- double curvature

M1

= 0 .5

M2 is typically conservative

(non-sway frames)

and k = 1.0

Note Code (10.12.2) M1/M2 ≥ -0.5 non-sway frames

“Long” Column

M1

= +0.5

M2 is typically conservative ( non - sway frames)

and k = 1.0

M1

Note: Code 10.12.2 ≥ −0.5 (non-sway frames)

M2

klu

Possible range of = 22 to 40

r

Moment Magnification

in Non-sway Frames

If the slenderness effects need to be considered. The

non-sway magnification factor, δ ns , will cause an

increase in the magnitude of the design moment.

M c = δ ns M 2

where

Cm

δ ns = ≥ 1.0

Pu

1−

0.75Pc

Moment Magnification

in Non-sway Frames

load for pin-end column

π EI 2

Pc =

( klu )

2

0.2 Ec I g + Es I se 0.4 Ec I g

EI = ⇒

{ EI =

1 + βd conservatively 1 + βd

Moment Magnification in

Non-sway Frames

diagram to the equivalent uniform moment diagram.

For members without transverse loads

M1

Cm = 0.6 + 0.4 ≥ 0.4

M2

For other conditions, such as members with transverse

loads between supports, Cm = 1.0

Moment Magnification

in Non-sway Frames

on the components.

Design of Long Columns-

Example

A rectangular braced column of a multistory frame

building has floor height lu =25 ft. It is subjected to

service dead-load moments M2= 3500 k-in. on top and

M1=2500 k-in. at the bottom. The service live load

moments are 80% of the dead-load moments. The

column carries a service axial dead-load PD = 200 k

and a service axial live-load PL = 350 k. Design the

cross section size and reinforcement for this column.

Given Ψ A = 1.3 and Ψ B = 0.9. Use a d’=2.5 in. cover

with an sustain load = 50 % and fc = 7 ksi and fy = 60

ksi.

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Compute the factored loads and moments are 80% of

the dead loads

Pu = 1.2 PD + 1.6 PL = 1.2 ( 200 k ) + 1.6 ( 350 k )

= 800 k

M 1u = 1.2 M D + 1.6 M L = 1.2 ( 2500 k-in ) + 1.6 ( 0.8 ) ( 2500 k-in )

= 6200 k-in.

M 2u = 1.2 M D + 1.6 M L = 1.2 ( 3500 k-in ) + 1.6 ( 0.8 ) ( 3500 k-in )

= 8680 k-in.

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Compute the k value for the braced compression

members

k = 0.7 + 0.05 ( Ψ A + Ψ B ) = 0.7 + 0.05 ( 1.3 + 0.9 )

= 0.81 ≤ 1.0

k = 0.85 + 0.05Ψ min = 0.85 + 0.05 ( 0.9 )

= 0.895 ≤ 1.0

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Check to see if slenderness is going to matter. An

initial estimate of the size of the column will be an

inch for every foot of height. So h = 25 in.

= = 32.4

r 0.3 ( 25 in.)

6200 k-in.

32.4 ≥ 34 − 12 = 25.43

8680 k-in.

Design of Long Columns-

Example

So slenderness must be considered. Since frame has

no side sway, M2 = M2ns , δ s =0 Minimum M2

= 1080 k-in. ⇒ M 2 = 8680 k-in.

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Compute components of concrete

f c = 33 ( 150 )

1.5

Ec = 33w 1.5

7000

= 5.07x106 psi → 5.07x103 ksi

( 25 in.) ( 25 in.)

3 3

bh

Ig = =

12 12

= 32552 in 4

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Compute the stiffness

EI = =

1 + βd 1 + 0.5

= 4.4x10 k-in 7 2

Design of Long Columns-

Example

The critical load is

Pc = =

( klu ) 0.81 25 ft 12 in.

2 2

( )

ft

= 7354.3 k

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Compute the coefficient

M1

Cm = 0.6 + 0.4

M2

6200 k-in.

= 0.6 + 0.4 = 0.89 ≥ 0.4

8680 k-in.

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Cm 0.89

δ ns = =

Pu 800 k

1− 1−

0.75Pc 0.75 ( 7354.3 k )

= 1.04 ≥ 1.0

Design of Long Columns-

Example

The design moment is

9027.2 k-in.

e = = 11.28 in.

800 k

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Assume that the ρ = 2.0 % or 0.020

2 2

As = 7.0 in 2

Acs = 7.0 in 2

Design of Long Columns-

Example

The column is compression controlled so c/d > 0.6.

Check the values for c/d = 0.6

a = β1c = 0.7 ( 13.5 in.) = 9.45 in.

Design of Long Columns-

Example

steel.

ε s1 = ε cu = 0.003

c 13.5 in.

= 0.00244

f cs1 = Esε s1 = ( 29000 ksi ) ( 0.00244 )

= 70.76 ksi ⇒ f cs1 = 60 ksi

Design of Long Columns-

Example

The tension steel

εs = ε cu = 0.003 = 0.002

c 13.5 in.

fs = Esε s = ( 29000 ksi ) ( 0.002 )

= 58 ksi

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Combined forces

= 1405.7 k

Cs1 = Acs ( f cs − 0.85 fc ) = ( 7 in 2 ) ( 60 ksi − 0.85 ( 7 ksi ) )

= 378.35 k

T = As f s = ( 7 in 2 ) ( 58 ksi )

= 406.0 k

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Combined force

Pn = Cc + Cs1 − T

= 1405.7 k + 378.35 k − 406.0 k

= 1378.05 k

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Moment is

h a h h

M n = Cc − + Cs1 − d ′ + T d −

2 2 2 2

9.45 in.

= 1405.7 k 12.5 in. −

2

+378.35 k ( 12.5 in. − 2.5 in.)

+406.0 k ( 22.5 in. − 12.5 in.)

= 18773 k-in

Design of Long Columns-

Example

The eccentricity is

M n 18773 k-in

e= =

Pn 1378.05 k

= 13.62 in.

Since the e = 11.28 in. < 13.62 in. The section is in the

compression controlled region φ = 0.65. You will

want to match up the eccentricity with the design.

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Check the values for c/d = 0.66

a = β1c = 0.7 ( 14.85 in.) = 10.395 in.

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Check the strain in the tension steel and compression

steel.

c − d′ 14.85 in. − 2.5 in.

ε s1 = ε cu = 0.003

c 14.85 in.

= 0.00249

f cs1 = Esε s1 = ( 29000 ksi ) ( 0.00249 )

= 72.35 ksi ⇒ f cs1 = 60 ksi

Design of Long Columns-

Example

The tension steel

εs = ε cu = 0.003

c 14.85 in.

= 0.00155

fs = Esε s = ( 29000 ksi ) ( 0.00155 )

= 44.82 ksi

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Combined forces

= 1545.26 k

Cs1 = Acs ( f cs − 0.85 fc ) = ( 7 in 2 ) ( 60 ksi − 0.85 ( 7 ksi ) )

= 378.35 k

T = As fs = ( 7 in 2 ) ( 44.82 ksi )

= 313.74 k

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Combined force

Pn = Cc + Cs1 − T

= 1546.26 k + 378.35 k − 313.74 k

= 1610.9 k

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Moment is

h a h h

M n = Cc − + Cs1 − d ′ + T d −

2 2 2 2

10.395 in.

= 1545.26 k 12.5 in. −

2

+378.35 k ( 12.5 in. − 2.5 in.)

+313.74 k ( 22.5 in. − 12.5 in.)

= 18205.2 k-in

Design of Long Columns-

Example

The eccentricity is

M n 18205.2 k-in

e= =

Pn 1610.9 k

= 11.30 in.

φ = 0.65. Compute the design load and moment.

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Pu = φ Pn = 0.65 ( 1610.9 k )

= 1047.1 k > 800 k OK!

M u = φ M n = 0.65 ( 18205.2 k-in )

= 11833.4 k-in. > 9027.2 k-in. OK!

Design of Long Columns-

Example

Design the ties

Provide #3 ties, spacing will be the minimum of:

48dstirrup = 48 ( 0.375 in.) = 18 in.

s = smallest 16d bar = 16 ( 1.128 in. ) = 18 in. ⇐ controls

h = 25 in.

Therefore, provide #3 ties @ 18 in. spacing.

Using Interaction

Diagrams

Determine eccentricity. Select steel sizes.

Estimate column size Design ties by ACI

required base on axial code

load.

Design sketch

Determine e/h and

required φ Pn/Ag

Determine which chart

to use.

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