International Institute of Business Analysis

Vision: The world's leading association for Business Analysis professionals” Mission: To develop and maintain standards for the practice of business analysis and for the certification of its practitioners


Business Analysis: the Next Step Towards Project Success

Dave Wirick, PMP, CMA

Copyright © BabSim, LLC 2007

Workshop Overview
     Describe the importance of requirements management and business analysis and the challenges of them Introduce participants to the emerging profession of business analysis with a focus on project requirements definition Describe the role of the BABOK and the International Association of Business Analysts (IIBA) Describe the roles of business analysis and the requirements cycle Describe training options for increasing the skills of business analysts and for achieving better project outcomes

The IT Professional Outlook: Where do we go from here?
 By 2010, IT Professionals will need to possess expertise in multiple domains.  Technical aptitude alone will no longer be enough.  IT professionals must prove they can understand business realities- industry, core processes, customer bases, regulatory environment
 And contribute real business value to their enterprise.

Consider These Statistics:
 66% of software projects aren't expected to finish on time or on budget  56% of project defects originate in the requirements phase of the project  Completed projects have only 52% of proposed functionality  75-80% of IT project failures are the result of requirements problems

What the Experts are saying about BA!!
 "What CIOs increasingly demand is a business analyst-someone who can use a rich knowledge of the business end of things to develop applications that actually work well for the business." "The New IT
Department: The Top Three Positions You Need” CIO Magazine, January 1, 2006

 "As part of its annual skills and salary survey, Foote Partners listed the hot jobs most likely to withstand offshoring. If you're starting out or seeking a change, consider these disciplines: Business analysts; Data modelers; Project managers.””A Tale of Three Studies"
Certification Magazine, March 2006

What is Business Analysis?
 The set of tasks, knowledge, and techniques required to identify business needs and determine solutions to business problems (BABOK Version 1.6)

What Is a Business Analyst? (1)
Business Analysts are responsible for identifying the business needs of their clients and stakeholders to help determine solutions to business problems. The Business Analyst is responsible for requirements development and requirements management. Specifically, the Business Analyst elicits, analyzes, validates and documents business, organizational and/or operational requirements. Solutions are not predetermined by the Business Analyst, but are driven solely by the requirements of the business. Solutions often include a systems development component, but may also consist of process improvement or organizational change. Source: IIBA,

What Is a Business Analyst? (2)
The Business Analyst is a key facilitator within an organization, acting as a bridge between the client, stakeholders and the solution team. Business analysis is distinct from financial analysis, project management, quality assurance, organizational development, testing, training and documentation development. However, depending on an organization, an individual Business Analyst may perform some or all of these related functions.

Source: IIBA

Roles of the Business Analyst
     Gather requirements Document processes Identify improvement opportunities Document business requirements Act as the liaison between users and architects

Metaphors for the Business Analyst
 Watchdog (over business objectives in projects)  Translator  Entrepreneur  Archivist  Detective  Diplomat  Storyteller  Economist  Vendor manager

The Business Analyst and Knowledge Management
 The BA gathers data (which is unstructured and unusable-comments from users)  Converts that data into information (which has structure-requirements)  And then converts that information into knowledge (which is structured and usable by those who will build the application-requirements analysis and modeling)

Business Analysis as a Profession
 IIBA intends to achieve that goal by:
      Creating and developing awareness and recognition of the value and contribution of the Business Analyst Defining the Body of Knowledge Providing a forum for knowledge sharing and contribution to the Body of Knowledge Identifying the required skills and competencies of a qualified Business Analyst Defining training and professional development standards Publicly recognizing and certifying qualified Business Analysts

Challenges of Good Business Analysis
 Pressures on an organization to assign existing resources to a project (resources which may not have the skills necessary for adequate and effective analysis)  The lack of advance planning  The lack of training for Business Analysts  Gap between what Business Analysts are assigned to do and what they should be assigned to do  The ad hoc and irregular deployment of business analysts  Outsourcing and relying on external contractors to perform major roles in system development  Organizational impatience with the planning process

Business Requirements
 “A condition or capability needed by a stakeholder to solve a problem…” (BABOK Version 1.6)  Focus on a particular business process or processes  Describe the business need or problem and address all the functions associated with the accomplishment of these processes  In project terms, are the detailed items necessary to accomplish the goals of the project which are documented in the scope statement

Business Requirements (2)
 Should focus only on the “What” of the project
    What functions and features must be included? What other systems, organizations or projects will impact this project? What people will be using the product of the project? What people will influence the project’s completion?

 Not simply a list of functions and features
 Should also prioritize these business needs and address in specific terms the details of each  Should not include specifics on how these processes will be accomplished, which is the role of the systems analyst.

Good Requirements
    Necessary Verifiable Attainable Clear

Source: Ivy F. Hooks and Kristin A. Farry, Customer Centered Products (AMACOM, 2001)

The Requirements Cycle
The Requirements Cycle
Enterprise Analysis : -Define the problem -Define the solution scope Requirements Planning and Management -Plan the requirements process

Requirements Elicitation -Gather the requirements

Requirements Communication -Present models -Create consensus -Refine requirements

Requirements Analysis and Documentation -Apply analysis models -Identify gaps -Refine requirements

Solution Assessment and Validation -Ensure that the project meets the requirements

The Difference between many current BA courses and Premier Knowledge Solutions BA?
A major difference between current courses and ours is the inclusion of the most current BABOK, which is becoming the standard for best practices for business analysis. Either now or in the future, teaching a BA course without basing it on the BABOK may become like teaching a non-PMBOK PM course or a non– authorized Microsoft Course.

What is the BA BOK?
Business Analysis is the set of tasks, knowledge & techniques required to identify business needs & determine solutions to business problems

The Business Analysis Body of Knowledge • Captures the sum of knowledge within the profession of Business Analysis – Areas of knowledge – Associated activities & tasks – Skills necessary to be effective • Reflects what is currently accepted practices • Owned & enhanced by the professionals who apply it

BA BOK Knowledge Areas
Requirements Planning & Management Enterprise Analysis Requirements Analysis & Documentation

Requirements Elicitation

Requirements Communications

Six Knowledge Areas

Solution Assessment and validation

Business Analyst Roles in Leading Enterprise Analysis
 Provide management with the information they need  Work with other stakeholders to collect the necessary information to inform decision making that takes into account cross-organizational impacts  Focuses at the enterprise level to ensure that inter-project dependencies and system interfaces are adequately factored into decision making.  Need to balance the cost of information gathering with the amount of information required

Requirements Planning Is Necessary So That…
 Stakeholders have a common understanding of the process  The most appropriate activities are performed  The requirements work effort is coordinated  The requirements team understands its role and the activities they will perform  The business analyst can react appropriately to changes  Supporting tools and resources are available to the requirements team when they are needed  Changes are managed so that the objectives of the project are met

Requirements Traceability
 Link products to the purpose for which they were created  Confirm that requirements gathering is done  Ensure that work outside scope is not performed  Ensure stakeholder notification of changes  Increase quality  Facilitate the change control process

Document Requirements (1)
 May use a common format and may include:
     A vision document Business process description Business requirements document Request for proposal/quotation Software requirements specification

Data and Behavior Models
 Static models (i.e., they show the model at a point in time)  Include:
       Business rules Class models CRUD matrices Data dictionaries Data transformation and mapping Entity relationship diagrams Metadata definitions

Process-Flow Models
       Activity diagrams Data flow diagrams Event identification Flowcharts Sequence diagrams State machine diagrams Workflow models

Usage Models
 Illustrate the interaction of a user with a solution  Allow a focus on the analysis of the requirements from the point of view of that user, who will play a major role in determining the success of the system.  7 usage models:
       Prototyping Storyboards or screen flows Use case descriptions Use case diagrams User interface designs User profiles User stories

Create Requirements Package
 Determine which components of the overall comprehensive requirements document should be grouped together Assess the audience to whom the requirements will be presented Evaluate the documentation required based on the type of project Package the requirements for presentation

  

Ensure the Usability of the Solution
 The business analyst can support the efforts to create a usable solution by keeping the team focused on the requirements  The business analyst can also serve as an advocate for the interests of users as a counter-balance to the interests of the technical team.

Support the Implementation of the Solution
 The business analyst may have the best and most thorough knowledge of the users of the solution  Can provide effective insight to the implementation team and assist in their communications with the users.

Business Analyst “The Pivotal IT Role of the Future”

skills are relatively easy to outsource, but organizations cannot abdicate control of their business requirements in virtually every organization, the pivotal leadership role of the business analyst is beginning to shape the future of IT” Kathleen B. Hass, PMP

Babbage Simmel ® and IIBA + PMI
• • • • • For over 24 years, Babbage Simmel has been a leader in business processes; including PM, BA, organizational development and advanced technology training and consulting PMI® Global Registered Education Provider (PMI® R.E.P.) IIBA – Charter member (EEP) Endorsed Education Provider and sits on the IIBA Advisory Council Courses aligned with PMI’s® Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK®) and IIBA BABOK Babbage Simmel is a Four Tier Microsoft Gold Partner

Babbage Simmel’s BA Program is recognized for…
 A strong curricula, based upon the IIBA methodology that is becoming the standard BA Methodology for BA Certification.  An unequaled delivery platform that consists of curriculum created by industry subject matter experts and delivery by those same experts.  BS facilitators are recognized for their ability to provide instruction of theory and their ability to ground the theory in real life application!

Learning Objectives for BA Training
 Reduce requirements development time and improve market responsiveness  Control costs  Generate greater customer satisfaction  Increase morale and team building  Enhance productivity  Organizational effectiveness and project success

Babbage Simmel BA Courses
 Two-, three, four-, and five-day intro to BA  Five-day intense workshops leading to International Institute of Business Analysts (IIBA) certification  Two and three-day focused workshops.  Those workshops can also be combined into a ten-day comprehensive professional certificate series.  The Babbage Simmel business analysis suite of workshops conforms to the IIBA Business Analysis Body of Knowledge (the BABOK™).


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