Chapter 1 - 7

Semester-End Review

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Computer Networking: A Top Down Approach Featuring the Internet,
2nd edition. Jim Kurose, Keith Ross Addison-Wesley, July 2002.
Review R-1

Internet protocol stack
 application: supporting network

applications
r

 transport: host-host data transfer r TCP, UDP  network: routing of datagrams from

FTP, SMTP, HTTP

application transport network link physical

source to destination
r

 link: data transfer between
r

IP, addressing, routing, forwarding

neighboring network elements
Error Checking, MAC, Ethernet

 physical: bits “on the wire”

Review

R-2

Logical communication: Application Layer
 Take instructions

User Proc

from user or server application application processes transport  Form messages network  Define how application link physical processes interact
r r r r

Messages types Message formats Message ordering Application dependent

Reply Request network link physical

application transport network link physical

Server Proc

 Send messages to the

other party at the application layer  Wait for returning messages

application transport network link physical

application application
transport network link physical
Review

R-3

Logical communication: Transport Layer
 Take messages from

application layer  Form segments  Define how transport-layer components interact
r r

mesg application transport transport network link physical application transport network link physical ack segt network link physical mesg application transport transport network link physical

Segment formats In case of TCP

• Reliability check • Congestion control

 Send segments to

the other party at the transport layer  Wait for acknowledgement

application transport network link physical

Review

R-4

Logical communication: Network Layer
 Take segments from

transport layer  Form datagrams  Define how networklayer components interact application
r r r

segt application transport network network link physical dgrm

network network link physical dgrm

Datagram formats Routing Forwarding

transport network link physical

 Send datagram to

the other party at the network layer  …

application transport network link physical

application segt transport network network link physical

Review

R-5

Logical communication: Link Layer
 Take datagrams

from network layer  Form frames  Define how link-layer components interact
r r r r

Frame formats Error detection and/or correction Multi-Access Control Link-layer technology dependent

application dgrm transport network link physical application transport network link physical frame

dgrm dgrm network link link link physical frame application transport network link physical application transport dgrm network link link physical

 Send frame to the

other party(ies) at the link layer  … might wait for returning frames

Review

R-6

Physical communication
data application transport network link physical application transport network link physical network link physical data application transport network link physical
Review R-7

application transport network link physical

Protocol layering and data
Each layer takes data from above  adds header information to create new data unit  passes new data unit to layer below source
M Ht M Hn Ht M Hl Hn Ht M

destination application Ht transport Hn Ht network Hl Hn Ht link physical
M M M M message segment datagram frame

application transport network link physical

Review

R-8

Why layering?
Dealing with complex systems:
 explicit structure allows identification,

relationship of complex system’s pieces r layered reference model for discussion  modularization eases maintenance, updating of system r change of implementation of layer’s service transparent to rest of system r e.g., change in gate procedure doesn’t affect rest of system

Review

R-9

The network edge:
 end systems (hosts):
r r r

 client/server model
r r

run application programs e.g. Web, email at “edge of network”

 peer-peer model:
r r

client host requests, receives service from always-on server e.g. Web browser/server; email client/server minimal (or no) use of dedicated servers e.g. Gnutella, KaZaA
Review R-10

The Network Core
 mesh of interconnected

routers  the fundamental question: how is data transferred through net? r circuit switching: dedicated circuit per call: telephone net r packet-switching: data sent thru net in discrete “chunks”
Review R-11

End-to-end vs. Hop-by-hop
 Between the end systems  Application layer
r r

 Transport layer
r

HTTP, FTP, SMTP, DNS Content Distribution UDP and TCP:

 Between the routers (hop)  Network layer
r r

Routing Principles: IPv4
• • • • • DV vs. LS

r

TCP
• • • • •

• Multiplexing • Demultiplexing • checksuming Reliable data transfer Congestion control Flow control Connection management RTT and Timeout estimation

r

IP Routing

Addressing Forwarding Fragmentation ICMP, DHCP, NAT

r r

 Link layer

Router Architecture IPv6, Multicast

• Intra-domain (Intra-AS) routing: RIP, OSPF • Inter-domain (Inter-AS) routing: BGP

Review

R-12

End-to-end vs. Hop-by-hop
 Between the end systems  Application layer
r r

 Between the routers

 Transport layer
r

HTTP, FTP, SMTP, DNS P2P UDP and TCP:

(hop)  Network layer  Link layer
r

Principles:

r

TCP
• • • • •

• Multiplexing • Demultiplexing • checksuming
r

Reliable data transfer Congestion control Flow control Connection management RTT and Timeout estimation

LAN

• Error detection and correction • MAC • Address and ARP • Ethernet – CSMA/CD • Hubs vs. switches
Review

R-13

End-to-end vs. Hop-by-hop
 Between the end systems  Application layer
r r

 Between the routers

 Transport layer
r

HTTP, FTP, SMTP, DNS P2P UDP and TCP:

(hop)  Network layer  Link layer
r

r

TCP
• • • • •

• Multiplexing • Demultiplexing • checksuming Reliable data transfer Congestion control Flow control Connection management RTT and Timeout estimation

Principles:
• Error detection and correction • MAC

r

LAN
• Address and ARP • Ethernet • Hubs, switches
Review R-14

Uni-media Networking
 Data transferred over Web HTTP, FTP,

SMTP, DNS
r

Mostly text r Some static pictures r Few short sound clip
 What other forms of data we’d like to

communicate through the Internet?
Human voice conversations r TV broadcast r Box movies
r

Review

R-15

Multi-media Networking
 Human voice conversations, TV broadcast, box

movies
r r r

 Internet works for all these? r Not really!
But we tried

Audio and video stream Some playback, some live Some interactive, some non-interactive

• Network layer – Scheduling, IntServ, RSVP, DiffServ • Application layer – RTSP, Internet Phone • Transport layer – RTP/RTCP, SIP
Review R-16

r

6 Chapters in a Semester
1. Overview 2. Application Layer 3. Transport Layer 4. Network Layer 5. Link Layer 6. Wireless and Mobile Networking 7. Multimedia Networking

Review

R-17

The Exam Problems
 A number of problems  Each problem contains a number of questions,

from easier to more difficult
r

Easier ones are to explain terms
• Ex. What is parity check and how does it work?

r

Intermediate ones are to solve problems based on the rules
• Ex. Given a 2-dimensional matrix of 0’s and 1’s with parity row and column, can you tell if any bit in there is corrupted?

r

Difficult ones are to compare different mechanisms
• Ex. Compare parity check with CRC in terms of computation complexity and error detection rate

Review

R-18

Keywords: Chapter 1
 Taxonomy
r

 Structure
r

Packet switching vs. Circuit switching r Statistical Multiplexing r Datagram network vs. Virtual circuit network ISP r NAP vs. Private peering

 Nodal delay  Layered reference model  Payload vs. header
Review R-19

Keywords: Chapter 2
 Intro
r r r r r r

 Web and HTTP
r r r r r r

Application vs. applicationlayer protocol Client-server vs. peer-topeer paradigm Socket IP address and port number QoS TCP vs. UDP Web page vs. web object URL HTTP 1.0 vs. 1.1 Cookies vs. privacy HTTP client-side caching Why Web caching

 FTP
r

Out-of-band control SMTP vs. HTTP POP3 vs. IMAP Root, local, authoritative servers Iterated query Caching Centralized directory vs. decentralized directory
Review R-20

 EMail
r r

 DNS
r

r r

 P2P system
r

Keywords: Chapter 3
 Common functionality
r

 TCP connection

r

Multiplexing and demultiplexing Checksum rdt 3.0 Stop-and-wait vs. pipelined rdt GBN vs. selective repeat SampleRTT vs. EstimatedRTT vs. DevRTT Fast retransmit

management
r

Three-way handshake

 Reliable data transfer
r r

 Congestion control
r

End-to-end vs. networkassisted congestion control AIMD Slow start 3 duplicate acks Conservative after timeout events
Review R-21

r

 TCP error recovery
r

 TCP congestion control
r r r r

r

Keywords: Chapter 4
 Virtual circuit vs. datagram  Routing
r r

 LS
r

Global vs. decentralized information Static vs. dynamic Oscillation problem

 AS r Gateway routers r Intra-AS vs. Inter-AS routing  IPv4
r r r r r r

 DV
r r r

 LS vs. DV

Iterative, asynchronous, distributed Good news travel fast vs. Bad news travel slow Count to infinity problem

IP address vs. interface vs. network Class-ful vs. CIDR addressing Fragmentation vs. reassembly MTU DHCP NAT
Review R-22

Keywords: Chapter 4
 IP routing
r

 IPv6
r r

r r r r r

Stub AS vs. multi-homed AS vs. transit AS Two-level routing IGP vs. EGP RIP vs. OSPF vs. IGRP BGP Path Vector Input port vs. output port HOL blocking Memory vs. bus vs. crossbar

Changes from IPv4 to IPv6 Transition from IPv4 to IPv6: dual stack vs. tunneling Multicast vs. unicast IGMP v1 vs. v2 Source-specific vs. groupshared tree Reverse path forwarding DVMRP PIM dense mode vs. sparse mode
Review

 Multicast routing
r r r

 Router architecture
r r r

r r r

R-23

Keywords: Chapter 5
 EDC
r r r

 MAC
r

Error detection vs. error correction EDC vs. D bits Parity checking vs. Internet checksum vs. CRC Channel partitioning vs. random access vs. taking turns TDMA vs. FDMA vs. CDMA Slotted Aloha vs. pure Aloha vs. CSMA vs. CSMA/CD Polling vs. token passing

 LAN, physical, MAC,

Ethernet address
r r r r

 Ethernet
r r r r r

IP vs. LAN address ARP vs. DNS ARP query vs. ARP reply ARP cache CSMA/CD Jam signal Bit time Exponential backoff 10Base2 vs. 10BaseT vs. 100BaseT vs. Gbit Ethernet Manchester encoding
Review R-24

r r

r

r

Keywords: Chapter 6
 WLAN r 802.11b vs. 802.11a vs. 802.11g r Base station vs. ad hoc mode r AP vs. BSS mode r Hidden terminal problem r CSMA/CA r Binary backoff r RTS, CTS, Data, Ack  Mobility r Mobility with indirect routing vs. direct routing r Care-of address r Triangle routing r Mobile IP r Cell phone net mobility

Review

R-25

Keywords: Chapter 7
 Application r Multimedia application r QoS r Stored A/V vs. live A/V vs. interactive A/V r Delay sensitive, loss tolerant r Delay jitter  Streaming
r r

 Internet phone
r r r r

 Transport
r r r r r

Talk spurt Network loss vs. delay loss Fixed playout delay vs. adaptive playout delay FEC simple vs. FEC piggybacking vs. interleaving RTP vs. RTCP RTCP bandwidth scaling SIP 5060 SIP registrar vs. SIP proxy
Review R-26

HTTP vs. RTSP FTP vs. RTSP

Keywords: Chapter 7
 How CDN works  Next generation  IntServ r Guaranteed vs. controlled load service  DiffServ
r

Internet
r r

RSVP IntServ vs. DiffServ

 Scheduling r FIFO vs. priority vs. round robin vs. weighted fair scheduling r Token bucket vs. leaky bucket

r

In-profile vs. outprofile Expedited vs. assured forwarding

Review

R-27

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