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Basic Needs

Of Human
Food
Shelter
Air
Water
To breathe
To protect from
danger
extreme weather
sun & rain
Give energy
Grow
Stay healthy
Drinks
Grow
Stay healthy
1.1 Understanding that humans have basic needs
Basic Needs
Of Animals
Food
Shelter
Air
Water
To breathe
To protect from
danger
extreme weather
sun & rain
Give energy
Grow
Stay healthy
Drinks
Grow
Stay healthy
1.2 Understanding that animals have basic needs
Types :
holes
cave
nest
beehive
Plants Have Basic Needs
Air Sunlight Water
With :
grow healthy
grow well
not wilted
Without :
wilted
Turn yellow
Die
1.3 Understanding that plants have basic needs
2.1 Analysing life processes that humans undergo
Analysing Life Processes That
Human Undergo
Respond To
Stimuli
Breathing
Reproduce
Organs
Inhale take in air
Exhale give out air
Nose/Mouth Wind-pipe Lungs
A process to produce
their young or offspring
Rate of breath
Number of chest movement
In a period of time
Organs
Eyes - Sight
Nose - Smell
Tongue - Taste
Ears - Sound
Skin - Touch
Excrete Defecate
Lungs
( Carbon dioxide
+ water vapour )
Kidney ( urine + mineral salt )
Skin ( Sweat + mineral salt )
Faeces

Purpose :
avoid danger
avoid getting hurt
avoid getting injured
to survive
2.2 Being aware that certain behaviour can disturb life processes
Behaviour That Can Disturb
Life Processes
Smoking Taking Drug Drinking Alcohol
Effects
Lung cancer
Coughing
Effects
Delay respond to stimuli
Lose ability to walk in straight line
Can cause accidents
How to avoid
Participate in a campaign
Discourage among their peers
Occupied time with beneficial activities
2.3 Analysing the life processes that animals undergo
Animals Life Processes
Breathing Excrete Reproduce
Lay Eggs Give Birth Organs
Lungs
monkey
bird
whale
Gills
fish
prawn
Lungs-book
crab
Moist
Skin
frog
earthworm
Trachea
Structure
insects
Defecate
To get rid of waste product
from their bodies
cat
tiger
bat
whale
butterfly
bird
2.4
Life processes
plants undergo
plants respond to stimuli.
water, sunlight, touch, gravity.



why plants need to reproduce
to ensure the survival of the species.


various ways plants reproduce
throughseeds, spores, suckers, stem cutting,
leaves, underground stem.








what will happen to the world if
plants do not reproduce.

no food supply.



plants reproduce.

Seeds balsam, corn, durian
Spores fern, mushroom
Suckers banana, pineapple
Stem cutting hibiscus, rose, tapioca
Leaves bryophyllum, begonia
Stem potato, onion, ginger and lily


the part of plant that responds
to touch.





the part of plant that responds
to sunlight.

Shoot




the part of plant that responds
to gravity.

Roots


the part of plant that responds
to water



Roots
Science Year 4
INVESTIGATING LIVING THINGS
2. Living Things Undergo Life Processes
Special characteristics
of animals that protect them
from danger.
special behaviour
of animals that protect them
from danger.
The special characteristics and
behaviour of animals help to
protect them from danger.
3.1 animals have specific characteristics and
behaviour to protect themselves
Thick and hard skin
To prevent their enemies from injuring
Hard shell
Snails and tortoise retract their head
And legs into the shell when the are
Attacked by enemies
Hard scales
Pangolins and crocodiles have hard
scales To protect their bodies
from injuries
Spines
Raise the sharp spines when
the enemies
Advance towards them
Horns
Use their horn to attack enemies.
Sharp claws
To protect themselves and their
Young from the enemies- lion ,cat,
Bears, and eagle.
Spray black ink
Dark surrounding helps the animal not
to been seen by enemies
e.g: octopus, squid
Poisonous sting or fangs
Can hurt and kill enemies-e.g..: scorpion,
centipede snake , bee.
Camouflage
Has body colour or patterns that that are
Similar to the surrounding
Pretend to dead
To trick their enemies e.g.: beetle
3.2/3.3
Animals have specific characteristics
and behaviour to protect themselves from
extreme weather and survive

how specific characteristics and
behavior of animals help to protect
them from very hot or cold weather.
specific characteristics and
behavior of animals that protect
them from very hot and cold weather.
Hot weather Cold weather
Wrinkled Skin
Elephant ,hippopotamuses and buffaloes
lose body heat through wrinkled skins
Wallowing
Elephant, hippopotamuses and buffaloes
keep their body cool by wallowing in
mud holes
Humps
Camels store food and water in the form
Of fats in the humps on their back.
Thick Fur
Polar bears have thick fur to prevent the body
From losing heat to cold surroundings.
Fat Layers Under The Skins
Penguins, seals, and whales have fat layers under
their skin to keep their bodies warm
Small Ears
Seals and Walruses have small ears to prevent
Heat loss from their bodies.
Hibernate
Polar bears hibernates during extreme cold
Weather

3.4 Plants have
specific characteristics to protect
themselves from enemy
The specific characteristics
of plants that protect them
from enemies

How the specific
characteristics of
plants help to
protect them
from enemies.
characteristics that
protect plants.

Have thorns

poisonous

Have fine hairs
Produces
latex

Close leaflets
when touch


3.5 Plants have specific characteristics to
protect themselves from dry region and
strong wind

strong wind

dry region

Eg : cactus
.
a. Long roots to absorb water
b. Succulent stem can store
water
c. Thorn can can prevent
the excessive loss of
water
Eg: Coconut tree, bamboo tree,
mangrove tree
a. Have stems that bend easily
b. Have buttress roots
c. Have separated leaves
d. Needle- shaped leaves
INVESTIGATING FORCE AND
ENERGY
Volume
MEASUREMENT
1.1 Length
1.2 Area
1.5 Mass
1.6 Time
1.7 Standard units
1.3 Solid
1.4 Liquid
1.1Length
Terminology
- The distance
between two
points/place/position
Ways to measure
Measuring tape
Cubit
Arm span String
Ruler
Standard Tools
Measuring tape Ruler
Unit
mm cm m km
Correct technique
- The eye must be
directly above the
end of object
1.2 Area
- Area is the amount of
Space taken up by the
surface of an object.
Terminology
- Using square card with a
sides of 1 centimetre
Standard unit
- Square millimetre (mm
2
)
- Square centimetre (cm
2
)
- Square metre (m
2
)
- Square kilometre (km
2
)
- Using formula
Area = length X width
1cm
1cm
Different ways to measure area
2cm
4cm
= 4cm X 2 cm
= 8cm
2
3cm
3cm
- by placing uniform
objects such as tiles,
books and stamps
on the surface of
the objects
Volume
Terminology
The amount of space that
something takes up
1.3 Solid
1.4 Liquid
Formula
Length x width x height
Standard Units
mm3, cm
3
, m
3
Tools
Standard Units
measuring
cylinder
ml, l
Correct technique
a) taking the reading at the
lowest part of the meniscus.
b) eyes must be at the same level
as the lowest part of the meniscus
1.5 Mass
Terminology
- Amount of matter in
an object
Tools
Electronic
balance
Simple
balance
Beam
balance
Kitchen
scale
Bathroom
scale
Lever
balance
Standard unit
mg g kg
Correct technique
1.6 Time
Terminology
- Duration between
two event
Way to measure
- Sundial , sand clock ,
candle clock
Process that repeats uniformly
can be used to measure time
-Swinging pendulum
-Pulse rate candle
-water dripping
-Changing day and night
Tool
Standard unit
- Second , minute , hour
- Digital clock , watch ,
wrist watch , clock
Old clock
Events can be used measuring time
1.7 The Importance of Standard Units
- for accuracy and
consistency
- easy to communicate
and understanding

Investigating
Materials

1.1
The properties of materials
Insulator
Float on water
Conduct
electricity
metal
conduct heat
Sink in water
Light to pass
through
Can be stretch
wood
stone rubber ring
glass carbon plastics
metal wood
1.2
Applying knowledge
properties of materials in everyday life
Suggest ways
to keep things hot
Covered with insulators
Suggest ways
to keep things cold
hot thing
cold thing
To prevent
heat loss
prevent from
absorbing heat
1.3
Uses of
materials based on their properties
List of object
and materials that they
are made of
object materials properties
spoon metal hard
tissue wood Soft
glasses glass transparent
Reason why particular
materials are used to
make an object
cheap
easy to get
strength
good quality
natural
materials
Man-made
materials
wood metal
rubber
cotton
plastics synthetic cloth
glass
State that man-made materials
comes from natural materials
reducing reusing recycling
public transport plastic bag bottle plastics glass
1.4
The importance of
reuse, reduce and recycle of materials
RUSTING CAN BE PREVENTED
DIFFERENT WAYS TO
PREVENT OBJECTS FROM
RUSTING
Coating with non
rusting materials
*paint
*oil
*grease
THE NECESSARY TO
PREVENT RUSTING
*Everlasting Live
*Save Natural
material
*Save Cost
*Looking good
1.6
*Conclusion; Rusting can be avoided by preventing iron contact
with air and water.
UNDERSTANDING THAT SOME
MATERIALS CAN BE RUST
RUSTY OBJECTS
NON RUSTY
OBJECTS
OBJECT MADE OF
IRON AND STEEL
OBJECT MADE OF
GLASS PLASTIC,
WOOD, CLAY AND SILK
*Nail
*Spoon
*Knife
*Needle

*Glass
*Bottle
*Cup
*Pencil

INVESTIGATING
THE EARTH
AND
THE UNIVERSE
1.1
The solar system
List of
constituents
List of planets
Planets
move around
the Sun
-Nine Planets
-Natural satellites
-Meteors
-Comets
-Asteroids

Mercury My
Venus Very
Earth Excellent
Mars Mother
Jupiter Just
Saturn Served
Uranus Us
Neptune Nine
Pluto Pudding
THE
SOLAR
SYSTEM
1.2 The relative size
and distance between
the Earth, the Moon
and the Sun
Size of the Sun
relative to the size
of the Earth.
Size of the Earth
relative to the size
of the Moon.
The relative distance from
the Earth to the Sun compared
to the relative distance from the
Earth to the Moon.
the Sun
1
the Earth
100
the Earth
1
the Moon
4
the Sun
the Earth
the Moon
150 000 000 km
382 500 km
1 : 400
1.3
Appreciating the perfect placement
of the planet Earth in the
Solar System
Why certain planets
are not conducive
for living things.
EFFECT
The Earth is
the only planet in the
Solar System that
has living things.
The nearer a planet to the Sun is,
the hotter is the surface of the planet .
The farther a planet from the Sun is,
the colder is the surface of the planet.
Do not have enough air and water.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun, it receives enough light
and heat from the Sun.
It is not too hot or too cold.
The atmosphere of the Earth contains air and there is water
on Earth.
Much nearer :
The temperature on the Earth would rise.
Water on Earth would evaporate.
No water and the temperature would be
very hot.
Much farther :
The temperature on the Earth would drop.
Water would freeze into ice.
All living things would die.
INVESTIGATING
TECHNOLOGY


1.1.Understanding the importance of technology in everyday life
Limitation of human ability

Examples of human limitations are
Unable to see fine objects
Unable to speak loud
Unable to walk for long distance
Unable to see far away objects

Devices to overcome
human limitation
Microscope
- The usage of lens to see fine
features of objects and microbes
Microphone
-To increase the voice volume
Telephone
-To communicate from long distance
Bicycle, motorcycle, airplanes
-Can travel long distance
in a shorter time
Telescope, binocular
- To see far away objects
TECHNOLOGY
1.2
Understanding The
Development Of
Technology
Agriculture
e.g.:
hoe plough tractor
combine harvester



Transportation
Land: Animal bicycle
car train
Air: hot air balloon airship
glider aeroplane
Water: canoe raft
sampan ferry
ship
Communication
Drawing carrier pigeon
Telephone
Construction
Cave hut wooden house
apartment

Examples
Problems they
encounter in their daily life
TECHNOLOGY
Ideas to solve
the problems identified

Device to solve
the problem identified.


Demonstrate that device
invented can be used to
solve the problem
identified


1.3
Synthesising
how technology
can be used to
solve problems
Cannot move and lift heavy thing
Cannot move farther
Sketch the model
Brain storming
lever
wheelbarrow
Pulley can lift everything
Wheel barrow can move heavy thing easily
1.4 Analysing That Technology Can Benefit Mankind If Used Wisely
Advantages of Technology
Disadvantages of Technology
Communication
Enable human to learn more about
things happening around the world
Transportation
Enable human to travel
far away places in shorter time
Agriculture
Machines make it easier to plants
and harvest their crops
Construction
Roads, highways, bridges and
building is easier and faster to build
Environmental pollution from increase
In waste materials

Environmental destruction result from
excessive usage of natural resources

Social problem

Bad effects on health result from
environmental pollution and excessive
use of chemicals