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Statistics Data Analysis

and Optimization V4.0


for HUAWEI GSM/GPRS/EDGE System

Compiled by Jin/Jiangxin
E-mail: jinjiangxin@hxdi.com
2008/5/8
Chapter 1 GSM system
1. Work items in an optimization project
2. Review of the GSM system
3. Based technology in GSM system
4. Drive test and analysis
5. Parameters in common use
6. OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use
7. Main methods in the performance analysis procedure
8. Selection and reselection
9. SDCCH congestion
10. TCH congestion and drops
11. Call progress introduction in common use
12. Power control algorithm
13. Handover algorithm
14. Cases according to statistics data
course contents
Chapter 1 GSM system
1. Work items in an optimization project
2. Review of the GSM system
3. Based technology in GSM system
4. Drive test and analysis
5. Parameters in common use
6. OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use
7. Main methods in the performance analysis procedure
8. Selection and reselection
9. SDCCH congestion
10. TCH congestion and drops
11. Call progress introduction in common use
12. Power control algorithm
13. Handover algorithm
14. Cases according to statistics data
Work items in optimization
Find the problems
Statistics data
DT and CQT
Alarm check
Custom complain
Analysis the problems
Statistics analysis
DT and analysis
Alarm analysis
Call process analysis
Frequency plan and reuse
Solve the problems
Trouble shooting
Improve coverage
Adjust TRX configuration
Adjust antenna system
Edit freq.plan table
Neighbor relations
Parameters
Checking and compare results
Before and after modify
Different BSC/Cells
Different network

Problems in network
Hardware trouble problem
Freq. interfering problem
Coverage problem
HO relations problem
busy or idle problem
Traffic balance
Underlay and overlay problem
KPI
Wireless parameter problem
Especial problems
(access,roaming,crossed talk,A-interface .)

Steps for problem
Find the problems
Analysis the problems
Resolve the problems
Checking and compare results
are throughout the optimization process.
Emphasis of the optimization
System performance
Access
Channel success
Congestion
Drop
Handover
Traffic
Quality
Coverage
Frequency
1. Immediate assignment rate
2. CSSR
3. Wireless access rate
4. Sdcch success rate
5. Sdcch congestion rate
6. Sdcch drop call rate
7. Tch success rate
8. Tch congest rate
9. Tch drop call rate(including HO)
10. Tch drop call rate(excluding HO)
11. Ho success rate(from attempt)
12. Ho success rate(from command)
13. SD/TCH traffic
14. TCHF and TCHH traffic balance
15. Overlay and underlay traffic balance
16. Coverage rate (DT)
17. BER/MOS
Optimization flowing(1)
Collect system data
Analysis data and make
optimization plan
Performance data of past week
Engineer parameter table
Freq. plan table
Neighbor list relation (internal and external)
Antenna information
System topology
Customer complain
Make optimization plan, hardware problem list,
DT plan, check cell health, consistency, frequency,
LAC data, neighbor
Start optimization
Hardware solved and
system test
Hardware solved and system test
Start optimization meeting
Output coverage chat,congestion rate,drop
calls,interfering area according to the DT data.
And optimize frequency, adjust channels in the
congestion cells and concentric lay, adj. parameters
Check and optimize the neighbor relation, correct
neighbor data (internal and external neighbors)
Optimize parameters( general)
Put in suggestions and good plan
Optimization summarize and
technology communion
Optimization flowing(2)
Coverage, frequency,
channels, configuration,
parameter
Neighbor relations
optimization
Optimize parameters
compare the performance
and put in suggestions
Optimization
summarize
Chapter 1 GSM system
1. Work items in an optimization project
2. Review of the GSM system
3. Based technology in GSM system
4. Drive test and analysis
5. Parameters in common use
6. OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use
7. Main methods in the performance analysis procedure
8. Selection and reselection
9. SDCCH congestion
10. TCH congestion and drops
11. Call progress introduction in common use
12. Power control algorithm
13. Handover algorithm
14. Cases according to statistics data
PSTN Network
Billing Center
GBTS
TE
MT
MS
GBSC
Internet
A
Pb
Um
Gi
GSM network review
HLR/Auc/EIR
SMS-GMSC/IWMSC
MSC/VLR
SS7 Network
GSM Core Network
GGSN
CG
SGSN
DNS
GPRS Backbone
Gb Gb
Gs
Abis
Um
GPRS Core Network
EDGE PCU
OMC
FAN BOX
SWITCH BOX
FAN BOX
AIR BOX
AIR BOX
P
S
U
P
S
U
P
S
U
P
S
U
P
S
U
P
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P
M
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E
S
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M
U
T
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S
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D
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D
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T
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T
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S
C
U
C
D
U
TDU
Common
equipment
TRX
CDU
air/fan
Review of BTS312
CDU: Combiner & Divider Unit
TRX: Transceiver Module
PMU: Power Monitoring Unit
TMU: Timing/Transmission & Management
PSU: Power Supply Unit
TES: Transmission Extension power Supply
TEU: Transmission Extension Unit
TDU: Time Distribution Unit
Function:
Core of site
Timing
Transmission
Management
BSC
External synchronous clock
MMI man-
machine
interface
External
Alarming
control
BIU
OMU
EAC MCK
Standby MCK
Extended BIU
DBUS Internal data bus
CBUS Internal control bus
TDU
Internal
clock bus
TMU
Combiner
Distributor
Distributor
Coupler
TX1
TX2
TX-COMB
TX-DUP
RX1
RX2
RX3
RX4
HL-out
RX2
RX3
RX4
RX1
HL-in
RXD
TX/RX-ANT
RXD-out
CDU
In common use way:
2TRX+1CDU: TX-COMB and TX-DUP ,HL_in and RXD-out connected
2TRX+2CDU: TX-COMB and TX-DUP connected or not connected( less loss)
4TRX+2CDU: TX-COMB and TX-DUP connected
6TRX+1SCU+1/2CDU: TX-COMB and TX-DUP ,HL_in and HL_out connected
8TRX+2SCU+1/2CDU: TX-COMB and TX-DUP ,HL_in and HL_out connected
Especially the TX_out can be connected with TX_DUP and it can decrease 3db of
combination loss.
Distributor
Coupler
TX1
RX1
RX2
TX/RX-
ANT1
Distributor
Coupler
TX1
RX3
RX4
TX/RX-
ANT2
EDU and SCU
SCU: no coupler
Four carriers are combined
output through 2steps of 3dB bridges
plug loss is 6.8dB.

EDU: No combined loss

Review of BTS3012
DPU: Digital Power Unit
TRU: Transceiver Unit
PMU: Power Monitoring Unit
TMU: Timing/Transmission & Management

Principle for RF send and receive mode:
Send: combining when TRU combined actually
no combining when TRU not combined actually
Receive: dividing receiver when TRU combined
indepandent receiver when TRU no combined
Access link check
Dual polarization
antenna
TTA
option
Lightning arrester
BTS rack
Jumper
connector(DIN)
DIN connector
Lightning arrester/feeder
connector(DIN)
Jumper/TTA
Connector (DIN)
jumper
Jumper/TTA
connector(DIN)
Antenna
Connector(DIN)
FAN BOX
SWITCH BOX
FAN BOX
AIR BOX
AIR BOX
P
S
U
P
S
U
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S
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P
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P
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C
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C
D
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T
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T
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S
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D
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T
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T
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T
R
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T
R
X
S
C
U
C
D
U
TDU
Inside jumper
TRX jumper
TX and RDX cables
Chapter 1 GSM system
1. Work items in an optimization project
2. Review of the GSM system
3. Based technology in GSM system
4. Drive test and analysis
5. Parameters in common use
6. OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use
7. Main methods in the performance analysis procedure
8. Selection and reselection
9. SDCCH congestion
10. TCH congestion and drops
11. Call progress introduction in common use
12. Power control algorithm
13. Handover algorithm
14. Cases according to statistics data
Um layer
Communicate MNG(CM)
Radio resource (RR)
Mobility MNG(MM)
CPU
RACH BCCH AGCH/PCH SDCCH SACCH TCH FACCH
TCH0 TCH1 TCH2 ..SACCH ..TCH24 IDL
Multi-frame
Phy. link layer(L1)
Data link layer(L2)
Application layer(L3)
CM
MM
RR
LAPDm
SigL1
L3
L2
L1
MS
RR
BTSM
LAPDm
SigL1
LAPD
SigL1
LAPD
SigL1
BTSM
RR
SCCP
MTP
BSSMAP
CM
MM
BSSMAP
SCCP
MTP
MSC BSC BTS
Um A Abis
GSM protocol stake
Speech/channel coding
Speech
A/D
8KHz, 260bit
Speech code Section
20ms
13kbit/s
Channel code
Interleaving Burst pulse Cipher
22.8kbit/s,456 bits,20ms
Modulate
33.8kbit/s
transmission
Speech coding :
Coding type: RPE-LTP
sampling 8Khz,and 20ms/frame,
in each frame there are 4 sub-frame
then get a rate of 13kbit/s.
260bits/20ms=13kbit/s
Channel coding:
456bit/20ms=22.8kbit/s
From 260 bits to 456 bits in a speech frame
Parity check 3bits
Convolution
Coder
50bit
*2
132bit
78bit
456bit
Tail 4bits
Interleave
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 ... ...452 453 454 455 456
Block
8
16
.
.
.
456
2
10
.
.
.
450
6
14
.
.
.
454
1
9
.
.
.
449
4
12
.
.
.
452
7
15
.
.
.
455
3
11
.
.
.
451
5
13
.
.
.
453
....
....
B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7


{A4,B0} {A5,B1} {A6,B2} {A7,B3} {B4,C0} {B5,C1} {B6,C2} {B7,C3}
Rectangular interleave
Diagonal interleave
456bit/8=57bit/frame
Two type of interleave: rectangular type and diagonal type
Frame structure and burst frame
0 1 2 3 2044 2045 2046 2047
0 1 2 3 48 49 50 47
0 1 24 25
0 1 24 25 1 49 50 0
0 1 4 5 7 6 2 3
TB
3
TB
3
GP
8.25
TB: Tail bit
TB
3
TB
3
GP
8.25
GP: Guard period
TB
3
TB
3
GP
8.25
TB
3
TB
3
GP 68.25
58 information bits 26 TSC
58 info bits
Constant bit 142
Info bit 39
Extended TS 64
Info. bit 39
sequence 41
Info bit 36
Normal burst (NB for traffic)
Freq correct burst(FB for
for freq synchronization)
Sync burst (SB for time sync)
Access burst (AB for access)
1 hyper frame(for hopping FN)=2048 super-frames=2715648TDMA frames (3 hours, 28 minutes, 53 seconds and 760 milliseconds)
1 super-frame=1326TDMA frames (6.12 seconds)
1SACCH multiframe=26TDMA frames (120ms)
1 multiframe=51TDMA frames (235.4ms)
1TDMA frame=8 timeslots (120/26=4.615ms)
1 timeslot=156.25 bit duration (4.615/8=0.577ms)
(1 bit duration: 0.577/156.25=3.69us)
BCCH
CCCH
SDCCH
TCH
SACCH/T
FACCH
1SACCH super-frame=104TDMA frames (480ms)
TS: training sequence
26-frame multi-frame
24TCH/F+FACCH/F+1SACCH/TF+1idle (full-rate TCH)
1SACCH super-frame=4SACCH multi-frame=4*26=104frames(480ms)
Full (Rxlevel/Rxqual)=(26-1idle) *4=100frame measure average
Sub (Rxlevel/Rxqual)= 12 frame measure average( under DTX allowed)
(52-59 frame and 4 SACCH frame)
TCH/H+FACCH/H+SACCH/TH (half-rate TCH)
51-frames multi-frame
Main BCCH: 5FCCH+5SCH+20BCCH+20CCCH+1idle=51frame
Combined BCCH: (5FCCH+5SCH+4BCCH+12CCCH+16SDCCH/4+8SACCH/C4 )*2=102frame
Main SDCCH : (32SDCCH/8+16SACCH/C8 +3idle)*2=102 frame
Combinations of frame and TA
TB
3
Information
57
1
Training sequence
26
1
TB
3
Information
57
147+8.25=156.25bit(0.577ms)
GB
3
1Bit period=0.577ms/156.25=3.68us
TA=63bit/max*3.69us/bit=233us for normal cell
Radius/max twice(ms to BTS to ms): 233us*300000km/s=70km
Max cell radius is 70km/2 35km
1TA=1bit=554m
TA=219bit/max in 2 timeslot extended cell,radius/max=120km

Channels
Broadcast control channel
(BCCH)
Control channel Common control channel
(CCCH)
Voice channel
(TCH)
FCH SCH BCCH
(system information)
TCH/F AGCH RACH
SDCCH
FACCH
SACCH
TCH/H
TCH/9.6F
TCH/ 4.8F, H
TCH/ 2.4F, H
PCH
Common channel
(CCH)
Dedicated channel
(DCH)
Logical channel
FCCH
SCH
BCCH
PCH
AGCH
BCCH
CCCH
Common
Channel
SDCCH
SACCH
FACCH
TCH/F
TCH/H
DCCH
TCH
Dedicated
Channel
PCH AGCH
Downlink CCCH
RACH
CCCH
Common
Channel
SDCCH
SACCH
FACCH
TCH/F
TCH/H
DCCH
TCH
Dedicated
Channel
RACH
Uplink CCCH
Downlink and uplink channels
CCCH configuration
Ccch_conf: ccch blocks in a 51 CCCH-multi-frames
When one no-combined case:
bs_ag_blks_res: AGCH reserve blocks : 2
bs_pa_mfrms: paging blocks : 2
Paging sub-frame: (9-2)*(bs_pa_mfrms)=14
Ccch config Ccch blocks
one combined 3
one no-combined 9
two no-combined 18
three no-combined 27
four no-combined 36
Pch blocks=Ccch blocks-(bs_ag_blks_res),
if ccch_config=1 non_combined, bs_ag_blks_res=2, then PCH=9-2=7.
each CCCH 51-multi-frames will be lasted 235.4ms
Pch blocks/sec= Pch blocks/0.2354ms=29.7 blocks/sec
2 times in each Pch blocks for IMSI paging type
4 times in each Pch blocks for TMSI paging type
So total paging times/max=Pch blocks/sec*(times in each Pch blocks)

Search for frequency correction burst
Search for synchronization sequence
Read system information

Listen paging message
Send access burst
Wait for signaling channel allocation

Call setup
Assign traffic channel
Conversation
Call release

FCCH
SCH
BCCH


PCH
RACH
AGCH

SDCCH
SDCCH
TCH
FACCH
idle mode
off state
dedicated
mode
idle mode
Functions of Channels
Rxlevel calculation and transmit model
RxLev=EIRP-Path Loss
2, PATH LOSS (predigest formula, need to corrected in project)
Okumura/Hata transmission model for 900M macro network.
Lp=69.55+26.16lg (f) -13.82lg (hb) +(44.9-6.55hb)lg (d) -A (hm)
Lp: path loss (db)
f : frequency (Mhz)
hb : BTS antenna height (m)
hm : MS antenna height (m)
d: distance between MS with BTS
Cost-231/Hata transmission model for 1800 macro network
Lp=69.55+26.16lg(f) -13.82lg(hb) +(44.9-6.55hb)lg(d) -A(hm)-K
Cost-231/Walfish ikegami model for 900/1800 micro network
Keenan-motley model for 900/1800 indoor distribution system.
Planning software for 900/1800 macro system
Path Loss(dB)=k1+k2log(d)+k3Hms+k4log(Hms)+k5log(Heff)+k6log(Heff)log(d)
+k7(Diffraction Loss)+Clutter Loss
1, EIRP: efficient power of BTS.
EIRP=10log[P_Forward(mW)-P_Reflected(mW)]+Tx_Antenna_Gain+Rx_Antenna_Gain-Rx_Feeder_Loss
P_Forward: power of forward direction(mW)
P_Reflected: power of reflected direction(mW)
Tx_Antenna_Gain: TX antenna gain of BTS (dbi)
Rx_Antenna_Gain: RX antenna gain dbi)
Rx_Feeder_Loss: loss of feeder cable
Path Loss(dB)=k1+k2log(d)+k3Hms+k4log(Hms)+k5log(Heff)+k6log(Heff)log(d)
+k7(Diffraction Loss)+Clutter Loss

Note: the values are only reference to, and need to corrected in planning project.
K1: loss constant for freq.
Density urban: K1=69.55+26.16lg(F)
Urban : K
1
=69.55+26.16lg(F)-2[lg(F/28)]2-5.4)
Country : K
1
=69.55+26.16lg(F)-4.78[lg(F)]2+18.33lg(F)-40.94)
K2: loss constant for distance:
K3,K4: corrected coefficient for mobile antenna height
K5,K6: corrected coefficient for BTS antenna height
K7: corrected constant for diffraction
Kclutter: corrected coefficient for clutter.

D: distance between mobile and (km)
Hms: height of mobile antenna (m)
Heff: efficient height of BTS antenna (m)

The case parameters in urban and country cities.
Planning software transmission model
Down-tilt, height and coverage
tg(B-A/2)=H/R
B: down-tilt
A: vertical beam width
H: antenna height
R1,2,3: coverage range

Frequency band and channels
890
915 935 960
Dulplex distance band : 45 MHz
GSM 900:
GSM 1800:
uplink downlink
1710
1785 1805 1880
Dulplex distance band : 95 MHz
uplink downlink
Uplink: F1=890.2+(n-1)*0.2 (MHz) ARFCN: 0-124
Downlink: F2=uplink+45=f1+45 (MHz)
Uplink: F1=1710+(n-512)*0.2 (MHz) ARFCN: 512-884
Downlink: F2=uplink+95=f1+95 (MHz)
Layers and priorities in dual band network
Background:
Traffic increase rapidly
Limited channels in 900 band
Frequency re-use more difficult
Quality decrease
More free channels in 1800 band
Offer loose frequency re-use in 1800
band
Parameters set:
900 cells offer coverage service (Layer 3)
1800 cells offer traffic service (Layer 2)
MS stay in Layer 2 more (high cell priority)
Set much CRO in 1800 cells
Set easy access parameters in 1800 cells
Set easy handover to 1800 cells
Set 1800 TRU as overlay in concentric HO
Set 900 TRU as underlay in concentric HO

RLT (DL) and SACCH multi-frame (UL)
Radio_link_timeout (DL,S(T100) )
S+2 when MS decode a SACCH multi-frame correctly, S<= RLT/max.
S -1 when MS cant decode a SACCH multi-frame correctly.
S=0,MS gives up the radio resource connection, a drop call occurs.

SACCH-multi-frames(UL)
Value +2 when BTS decode a SACCH multi-frame,<= SACCH-multi-frames/max.
Value 1 When BTS cant decode a SACCH multi-frame,
Value=0.BTS stop transmitting downlink SACCH. and start T3109.
When T100 timeout in handset ,a drop call occurs.
When T3109 timeout in BTS,BTS release channel, BSC sends Clear request to MSC.

Reasons of RF loss
Interfering
Bad rx_lev
Incorrect PWR control parameter.
Hardware problem.
TRX Pwr class difference in the same cell.
HO drops.
Neighbor cell relations problem.
Incorrect HO algorithm and parameters
RLT,SACCH-multi-frame not correct.
Measure reports (MR) and SACCH frame
MS measure the uplink and downlink during the dedication mode.
MS/BTS measures and report the uplink/downlink information.
The results are prepare for HO, pwr control

A SACCH super-frames is made of 4 SACCH multi-frames.
Total 26 frames in one SACCH multi-frame.
The MS deals with a full MR in a SACCH super-frames, the period is 480ms(4*120ms),
MS retains the previous MR result of 480ms when it is in the next 480ms
MS decode the neighbor cellss BSIC in idle frame
MS retain MR result for 10s if MS find that a BCCH go out from best 6 neighbor cells
to prevent stopping the MR when HO request is sent to this cell.
Contents in MR
Actual TA of MS
Actual tx-pwr of MS
The BA changes indicator
DTX used indicator
The rx_lev and rx_qual in uplink and downlink
The rxlev,freq, BSIC of the 6 best neighbors
Frequency reuse and hopping
Common Reuse 4*3 pattern : 4 sites and 3 sector in one frequency group
Lack of channel mode: BCCH 4*3, TCH 1*3 or 1*1 hopping
MRP:(multi-reuse pattern) freq. number of Bcch1 Tch2Tch3 Tch4 ...... Tchn
IUO: intelligence underlay and overlay
Hopping: 4*3, 1*3, 1*1(1*3: MA >=2*TRX, ,1*1: MA >=2*TRX(total))
C/I=(useful signal)/(useless signal)
=carrier/interference
Standard: C/I=9db project: C/I=12db
Standard: C/A=-9db, project: C/A=-6db
C/I must be comply for the formula as below:
D=Distance of frequency re-use
R=Radius of cell
N=No. of frequency re-use (E.g. 4*3=12,1*3=3)
Hopping
Frequency
F0
Frame
F1
F2
F3
F4
Time
Hopping algorithm(HSN=0)
MAI=(FN+MAIO)mod N, RFCHN=MA(MAI)
FH mode: base-band and RF hopping
MA: hopping frequency, 1*3,1*1 need MA>=2TRXs
MAIO: No.of TRX-1
HSN: 0-63
TSC: BCC
FN: 2048*51*26 used in hopping algorithm
N: total of MA in one cell
BCCH channel no hopping (benefit to decode BCCH)
SDCCH and TCH channel can hopping
Band hopping and RF hopping

Band hopping
Using fixed frequency in each TRX
Using different TRX in different time
TCHs in BCCH TRX are hopping (option)
MA=TRXs
TRX problems Will effect performance
RF hopping
Using vary frequency in each TRX
Using different TRX in different time
TCHs in BCCH TRX are no hopping
TRX problems will not effect performance
More common than Band hopping

Frequency hopping (4*3, 1*3, 1*1)
4*3 hopping
Same frequency as 4*3(MA)
1*3 hopping
Each cell have a MA in same site
Same MA and MAIO in same
direct cells in different sites
Be sure no neighbor-MAIO in same
cell or in the same direct cells.
Will get more interfering if the
azimuth of sites is not regular

1*1 hopping
Each cell have the same MA in all cells
Different MAIO in each cell in one site
Same MAIO in same direct cells in different sites
No co-channel frequency carriers in one BTS.
The frequency separation between BCCH and TCH in the same cell should be not less
than 400K.
When frequency hopping is not used, the separation of TCH in the same cell should be
not less than 400K.
In non-1*3 reuse mode, co-channel should be avoided between the immediately neighbor
BTS.
Neighbor BTS should not have co-channels facing each other directly.
Normally, with 1*3 reuse, the number of the hopping frequencies should be not less than
twice of the number of frequency hopping TRX in the same cell.
Pay more attention to co-channel reuse, avoiding the situation that the same BCCH and
BSIC in adjacent area.
Frequency planning principles
Principle of AMR
AMR (Adaptive Multi Rate) is the set of different speech code rate. BTS and MS select and adjust
the appropriate rate according to RQI, so that to improve the MOS quality of network.
system select and adjust to low AMR when RQI is bad (or interfering is high);
System select and adjust to high AMR when RQI is good (or interfering is low)
AMR-FR set (8):12.2k(GSM EFR)/10.2k/7.95k/7.40k(IS-641)/6.70k/5.90k/5.15k/4.75k
AMR-HR set (5):7.40k(IS-641)/6.70k/5.90k/5.15k/4.75k
Benefits to network:
Offer better speech quality: the speech quality is
better than EFR/HR when system use AMR-FR
and AMR-HR whether the interfering is high or low.
Improvement the re-use rate of frequency: the
performance is better when system use the No. of
frequency re-use=9(3*3) and 12(4*3) than
N=12(4*3) and 18(6*3), It means that the system
can offer higher No. of frequency re-use mode in
the condition of the same speech quality.
Improvement the edge coverage. For C/I, AMR-FR
4.75k need 3dB while EFR 8dB to keep the
FER<1%. It means that the performance is
improved from 3dB to 8 dB in the coder-encoder
between AMR-FR and EFR. So the MOS is
improved at the edge of coverage.
Channel assignment of AMR
Channel assignment principle of AMR
adjust AMR supports according to the busyness type, speech version, circuit pool when BSC receive
the assignment command message which sent from MSCBSC.
Prefer to assign AMR channel if system support AMR.
Prefer to assign common channel if system not support AMR
Parameters for AMR:
A interface tag: Phase II+
(BSC32)CIC pool:27
Support FR speech version 1~3
Support HR speech version 1~3
(BSC32)Query TC: support FR/HR speech version 3
Support AMR:AMR switch support
active ACS(FR/HR):4 selected rate for AMR-FR, 3 selected rate for AMR-HR
AMR start mode: the original AMR rate
AMR UL/DL coding rate adj.th1: adjust threshold between 0-1, stet: 0.5db
AMR UL/DL coding rate adj.th2: adjust threshold between 1-2, stet: 0.5db
AMR UL/DL coding rate adj.th3: adjust threshold between 2-3, stet: 0.5db
AMR UL/DL coding rate adj.hyst1: adjust hysist between 0-1, stet: 0.5db
AMR UL/DL coding rate adj. hyst2: adjust t hysist between 1-2, stet: 0.5db
AMR UL/DL coding rate adj. hyst3: adjust hysist between 2-3, stet: 0.5db

The parameters need to comply for these items:
0 < th[i] < th[i+1] < 63; i = 1, 2
0 < th[i] + hyst[i] < th[i+1] + hyst[i+1] < 63; i = 1, 2
Chapter 1 GSM system
1. Work items in an optimization project
2. Review of the GSM system
3. Based technology in GSM system
4. Drive test and analysis
5. Parameters in common use
6. OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use
7. Main methods in the performance analysis procedure
8. Selection and reselection
9. SDCCH congestion
10. TCH congestion and drops
11. Call progress introduction in common use
12. Power control algorithm
13. Handover algorithm
14. Cases according to statistics data
DT analysis and bad coverage/quality
DT analysis items
Coverage analysis (over CV, less CV, CV confusion, reflection, antenna connection wrong)
BER analysis and suggestion
Freq.interfering and C/I,C/A analysis HO analysis frequency HO, HO failure, HO drop)
Call setup fail analysis
Handover analysis
Drop call analysis and suggestion
Leak of micro cell and suggestion
TA analysis
PWR control analysis
CQT
DT KPIs
Rxlev(Full&Sub)
Coverage rate
Rxqual(Full&Sub)
Call setup success rate
Drop call rate
Handover Success rate
TA
Power control level
Reasons of bad coverage
VSWR alarm and loss much in downlink
Down-tilt or azimuth is not in reason
Static power class is too low
Bar of the building and the surrounding
Hardware problem or jump cable problem
Far distance between sites
Wrong neighbor cell relation
Over shooting
Coverage confusion
Wrong Antenna connections
Alone island effect
Incorrect parameters
Reasons of bad quality
C/I,C/A interfering (freq.planning)
Bad rx_level coverage
VSWR and reflective freq.interfering (overlap)
Hardware problem
Parameters of HO
TMU and reference clock
RF drop call process
Middle frequency interfering
Crossed cables and Yuanyang Crossed cables
Wrong crossed cables
Planning azimuth 0/160/260
DT azimuth 160/0/260
Crossed cables between Cell 16101/16102
Yuanyang crossed cables
same Rxlevel in anywhere along azimuth directions
Rxlevel in one direction are better than the other
2 TX/RX are connect to Cell 1091(good signal)
2 RDX are connect to Cell 1093(bad signal)

Wrong azimuth or Confused coverage
Wrong azimuth
Planning azimuth 85/170/240
DT azimuth 330/220/60
Neighbor relationship and frequency

Confused coverage
Need to check azimuth in cell 3201/3203
Need to confirm in every cables
Pending? Reflection?
Neighbor relationship?

Wrong location and interfering
Wrong Long/Lati
Planning coverage
Neighbor relationships
Frequency interfering

Channel interfering
Planning coverage and azimuth
Bad Frequency plan
Wrong coverage against planning

Overshooting and low coverage
Overshooting and interfering
12km overshooting
Adjacent frequency interfering
Neighbor relationships
Drop call

Low coverage
Down-tilt, antenna height
PWR, VSWR, OOS,
Surrounding


Spliter and Combiner problems
Spliter problem
There is a Spliter in cell id =GSP3671
Azimuth=40/160
no signal of GSP-1 in direction of 40 degree
No installed Spliter yet
Combiner problem
Crossed cables between 3011 and 3012
Almost no signal in 3011
Rxlevel loss have 30db via the combiner between
GSM and CDMA
Jump cables or TRX problem in cabinet
Jump cables problem in cabinet
TCH allocation always failure in some TRX
Very less times in TCH seizure successful times
Incoming handover failure
One TRX OOS in cabinet
One of TRX in a cell have low signal suddenly
The other TRXs have no problem
VSWR alarm or OOS
OOS and no main service cell
Out of service (OOS)
VSWR-2 alarm?
LapD or transmission broken?
No power supply?
Locked?
No main service cell
Simulate rxlevel
No cell can offer main service
offer a main service cell
Install a new main service cell or site
Wrong CGI in MSC
Wrong CGI in MSC
MS cant make any calls
All calls are blocked
TCH seizure times for call are 0 times
Support incoming and outgoing handover
Drop call analysis
Process of RF drop calls
RLT+2 and until to the max_RLT if MS decode SACCH frame correctly ,
RLT-1,if MS cant decode SACCH frame ,
RLT is decreased to 0 when MS continue un-decoded SACCH frame, RF drop call occurs.
uplink is as the same as downlink,the counter SACCH multi-frame.
Main reason of drop calls
interfering
Bad rx_lev
hardware problem.
RLT, Sacch-multi-frame not correct.
TRX Pwr class difference in the same cell.
HO drops.
Nei cell relations problem.
Incorrect HO algorithm and parameters
Handover drop call
Incorrect PWR control parameter.
Chapter 1 GSM system
1. Work items in an optimization project
2. Review of the GSM system
3. Based technology in GSM system
4. Drive test and analysis
5. Parameters in common use
6. OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use
7. Main methods in the performance analysis procedure
8. Selection and reselection
9. SDCCH congestion
10. TCH congestion and drops
11. Call progress introduction in common use
12. Power control algorithm
13. Handover algorithm
14. Cases according to statistics data
BSC level task
BSC measurement performance
Cell level task
Immediate assignment
SDCCH
TCH
Congestion
Drop
Handover
Concentric
Channel capacity and availability
TRX level task
Path balanced
Received Level
Received Quality
Channel allocation
Interfering on idle
Timing Advanced
RQI
Other task
A-interface performance
MTP statistics
GPRS/EGPRS resource
Frequency scan
GSM cell to cell outgoing/incoming handover
Especial abnormal cell tasks (according users need)
Traffic statistics task introduction
Channels
CA300J:Channel Requests (Circuit Service)
CA303J:Call Setup Indications (Circuit Service)
CA304:Call Setup Indications Timed Out
RA303G:Success Rate of Call Setup (Immediate Assignment)
K3006:Configured SDCCH
K3004:Traffic Volume on SDCCH
K3000:SDCCH Seizure Requests
K3003:Successful SDCCH Seizures
CM30:Call Drops on SDCCH
K3001:Failed SDCCH Seizures due to Busy SDCCH
K3015:Available TCHs
K3016:Configured TCHs
CR3027:Mean Number of Available Channels (TCHF)
CR3028:Mean Number of Available Channels (TCHH)
K3014:Traffic Volume on TCH (Traffic Channel)
K3024:Traffic Volume on TCH (Signaling Channel)
Traffic Volume on TCHH
K3010A:TCH Seizure Requests (Traffic Channel)
K3013A:Successful TCH Seizures (Traffic Channel)
K3011A:Failed TCH Seizures due to Busy TCH (Traffic Channel
Total TCH Call Drops
K3022:Call Drops on TCH (Signaling Channel)
K3012A:Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Traffic Channel)
K3012B:Call Drops in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel)
CM330:Call Drops on Radio Interface in Stable State (Traffic Channel)
CM3300:Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Error Indication)
CM3301:Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Connection Failure)
CM3302:Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Release Indication)
CM331:Call Drops on Radio Interface in Handover State (Traffic
Channel)
Cell level statistics items introduction(1)
Handovers
CH310:Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover Requests
CH311:Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover Commands
CH313:Successful Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover
H312A:Failed Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handovers (No Channel Available)
CH312C:Failed Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handovers (Timer Expired)
CH330:Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Requests
CH331:Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Commands
CH333:Successful Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers
H332Kc:Failed Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers (Handover Request Rejected)
(No Radio Resource Available)
H332Kf:Failed Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers (Handover Request Rejected)
(Invalid Cell)
CH332C:Failed Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers (T8 Expired)
CH342C:Failed Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers (Timer Expired)
CH300:Internal Intra-Cell Handover Requests
CH301:Internal Intra-Cell Handover Commands
CH303:Successful Internal Intra-Cell Handovers
CH302A:Failed Internal Intra-Cell Handovers (No Channel Available)
CH302C:Failed Internal Intra-Cell Handovers (Timer Expiry)
CH320:Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handover Requests
CH321:Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handover Responses
CH323:Successful Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handovers
H3229A:Failed Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handovers (No Channel Available) (TCH)
H322D:Failed Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handovers (Reconnection to Old Channels)
CH340:Incoming External Inter-Cell Handover Requests
CH341:Incoming External Inter-Cell Handover Responses
CH343:Successful Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers
H3429A:Failed Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers (No Channel Available) (TCH)
H3429Ca:Failed Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers (Timer Expired) (TCH) (Traffic
Channel)
Cell level statistics items introduction(2)
Concentric
H3001:Internal Intra-Cell Handover Requests (Overlay to Underlay)
CH3031:Successful Internal Intra-Cell Handovers (Overlay to Underlay)
R3225K:Failed Handovers from Overlaid Subcell to Underlaid Subcell due to Busy Channels in Underlaid Subcell
H3002:Internal Intra-Cell Handover Requests (Underlay to Overlay)
CH3032:Successful Internal Intra-Cell Handovers (Underlay to Overlay)
R3224K:Failed Handovers from Underlaid Subcell to Overlaid Subcell due to Busy Channels in Overlaid Subcell
R3200:Channel Assignment Requests (Underlaid Subcell Only)
R3202:Channel Assignment Requests (Underlaid Subcell Preferred)
R3202B:TCH Assignment Requests (Underlaid Subcell Preferred)
R3201:Channel Assignment Requests (Overlaid Subcell Only)
R3203:Channel Assignment Requests (Overlaid Subcell Preferred)
R3203B:TCH Assignment Requests (Overlaid Subcell Preferred)
CR3557:Traffic Volume of TCHs (Underlaid Subcell)
CR3558:Traffic Volume of TCHs (Overlaid Subcell)
Statistics in Trx level
In common use
Mean Number of SDCCHs in Interference Band 1-5
Mean Number of TCHFs in Interference Band 1-5
Mean Number of TCHHs in Interference Band 1-5
Uplink/Downlink Interference Indication Messages (SDCCH)
Uplink/Downlink Interference Indication Messages (TCH)
Number of MRs (Uplink-and-Downlink Balance Level = 1-11)
Number of MRs (TA = 0-63)
CR440A:Attempted Immediate Assignments
CR440B:Successful Immediate Assignments
R4419A:Attempted Assignments (TCH)
R4419B:Completed Assignments (TCH)
CR443A:Attempted Handovers
CR443B:Completed Handovers
S4350D:Radio Link Failures (SDCCH)
S4357D:Radio Link Failures (TCHF)
S4358D:Radio Link Failures (TCHH)
Received quality
quality 0=bit error rate 0.00-0.20% (average 0.14%)
quality 1=bit error rate 0.20-0.40% (average 0.28%)
quality 2=bit error rate 0.40-0.80% (average 0.57%)
quality 3=bit error rate 0.80-1.60% (average 1.13%)
quality 4=bit error rate 1.60-3.20% (average 2.26%)
quality 5=bit error rate 3.20-6.40% (average 4.53%)
quality 6=bit error rate 6.40-12.80% (average 9.05%)
quality 7=bit error rate >12.80% (average 18.10%)
Received rxlevel
Number of MRs on uplink/downlink TCHF (receive level
Rank 0-7 receive quality rank 0-7
Number of MRs on uplink/downlink TCHH (receive level
Rank 0-7 receive quality rank 0-7


Formulas in common use-1
TCH drop call rate (excluding HO) (%)=
K3022:Call Drops on TCH (Signaling Channel)+
K3012A:Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Traffic Channel)+
K3012B:Call Drops in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel)
K3013A:Successful TCH Seizures (Traffic Channel)
TCH congestion rate (include ho)(%)=
K3011A:Failed TCH Seizures due to Busy TCH (Traffic Channel)+
CH302A:Failed Internal Intra-Cell Handovers (No Channel Available)+
H3229A:Failed Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handovers (No Channel Available) (TCH)+
H3429A:Failed Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers (No Channel Available) (TCH)
K3010A:TCH Seizure Requests (Traffic Channel)+
CH300:Internal Intra-Cell Handover Requests+
CH320:Incoming Internal Inter-Cell Handover Requests+
CH340:Incoming External Inter-Cell Handover Requests
CA303J:Call Setup Indications (Circuit Service)
CA300J:Channel Requests (Circuit Service)
Imm-assignment success rate(%)=
K3022:Call Drops on TCH (Signaling Channel)+
K3012A:Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Traffic Channel)+
K3012B:Call Drops in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel)
K3023:Successful TCH Seizures (Signaling Channel)
K3013A:Successful TCH Seizures (Traffic Channel)
K3013B:Successful TCH Seizures in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel)
TCH drop call rate (all)(%)=
SDCCH congestion rate (%)=
K3001:Failed SDCCH Seizures due to Busy SDCCH
K3000:SDCCH Seizure Requests
SDCCH drop rate (%)=
CM30:Call Drops on SDCCH
K3003:Successful SDCCH Seizures
TCH success rate(%)=
K3013A:Successful TCH Seizures (Traffic Channel)
K3010A:TCH Seizure Requests (Traffic Channel)
Wireless Access success rate(%)= (100%-TCH congesting Rate)X(100%-SDCCH congesting Rate)
Handover outgoing success rate(%)=
CH313:Successful Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover+
CH333:Successful Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers+
CH303:Successful Internal Intra-Cell Handovers
CH310:Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover Requests+
CH330:Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Requests+
CH300:Internal Intra-Cell Handover Requests
Radio outgoing HO success rate(%)=
CH313:Successful Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover+
CH333:Successful Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers+
CH303:Successful Internal Intra-Cell Handovers
CH311:Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handover Commands+
CH331:Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handover Commands+
CH300:Internal Intra-Cell Handover Requests
CSSR(%)=
RA303G:Success Rate of Call Setup (Immediate Assignment) *
(100%-CM30:Call Drops on SDCCH/K3003:Successful SDCCH Seizures)*
(K3013A:Successful TCH Seizures (Traffic Channel)
K3010A:TCH Seizure Requests (Traffic Channel)
Formulas in common use-2
Chapter 1 GSM system
1. Work items in an optimization project
2. Review of the GSM system
3. Based technology in GSM system
4. Drive test and analysis
5. Parameters in common use
6. OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use
7. Main methods in the performance analysis procedure
8. Selection and reselection
9. SDCCH congestion
10. TCH congestion and drops
11. Call progress introduction in common use
12. Power control algorithm
13. Handover algorithm
14. Cases according to statistics data
Top 20 worst cells from statistics data
Compositor according to the cell level KPIs
Select the top bad 20(or 10)cells in the main items according to times or rate
Analysis the relative bad KPI items
Solved the bad cells that affect the BSS level performance result
Worst cells
TOP 20 worst cells and DT method
BSC level
Cell level
TRX level

We can resolve the problems from
easy to difficult step by step.
DT method
Analysis the coverage rationality
Bad coverage area and betterment
Analysis the abnormal layer 3 message
Interfering analysis
Call setup failure analysis
HO parameters
PWR control parameters
Signal analysis method:
Signaling analysis method requires engineer master every step and statistic counter.
Trace the calls and analysis the signaling information
Analysis problems in the call-process step
Compare the counters in the call process step and find out the max lost count point.
Analysis the every detail call-process step
Find out the problem result
Signalling analysis and compare method
Parameter compare method:
Compare the same parameters in different BSC
Compare the different results in different parameter value
Get the best parameter results
Chapter 1 GSM system
1. Work items in an optimization project
2. Review of the GSM system
3. Based technology in GSM system
4. Drive test and analysis
5. Parameters in common use
6. OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use
7. Main methods in the performance analysis procedure
8. Selection and reselection
9. SDCCH congestion
10. TCH congestion and drops
11. Call progress introduction in common use
12. Power control algorithm
13. Handover algorithm
14. Cases according to statistics data
Boundary model of cells and BA table
HO outgoing
boundary,HO_out
Select boundary,
Reselect
HO Incoming
boundary,HO_in
BCCH neighbor list
Transmit insystem information message type 2 in BCCH
In use of select and reselect cells
64 cells max
SACCH neighbor list
Transmit insystem information message type 5 in SACCH
In use of handover
32 cells max

The two tables can be different,but they are almost the same in common use.
Process of mobile turn on (selection)
MS have not save the present BCCH info. (initial turn on)
Scan all the channel and assess the rx_lev in each ARFCN
MS tune to the max rx-levand judge if it is the BCCH
If it is the BCCH ,then MS try to decode the BCCH info.
MS select the cell as flowing
Decode info.correctly,and the cell is among the PLMN
The cell is not BARED;
C1>0

MS saved the present BCCH info. (When turn off)
MS scan the saved BCCH when turn on the next time
MS select the cell as flowing
The cell is not bared
C1>0
Else MS check if there is correct cells in the neighbor list.
If there is one,then select the cell as service cell
If there are more,then select the C1/max cell
If there is no,then scan as the case of no BCCH info.

Cell reselection(C1&C2)
C1= (A - Max. (B, 0))
predigest=(Rxlev Average-rxlev_access_min )
thereinto:
A=Rxlev Average - rxlev_access_min
B= ms_txpwr_max_cch - ms Max allowed power
ms Max allowed power(ms pwr class)
ms_txpwr_max_cch(ms pwr class when access)
Reselect principle: (1)C1>0;(2)select C1/max cell

Ms occurs reselect cell in case of any one as below:
Downlink failure (DSC=90/bs_pa_mfrms timeout)
The cell is bared in BCCH
The C1 of the service cell is < 0 last 5s
Ms hasnt reselect the cells in the past 15s:
To the same LAC, C1 of neis >present cells 5s
To the different LAC,C1 of neis >present cells value (C1+cell_reselect_hysteresis)
Ms not reselection if has reselected in 15s
PT-T<0, H(pt-t)=0
PT-T>=0, H(pt-t)=1
T: time from set 6 best
candidate cell to out of 6 cells
C2=C1+CRO-TO*H(pt-t)+CRH (for PT< 31)
C2=C1-CRO+CRH (for PT= 31)
MS assess C2 of nei cell and service cell at least 5s
If C2of best nei cell>C2of service cell for 5s,then Ms select cell
If nei cell and service cell are in different LAC,should add CRH
Other parameters about reselect(1)
CBA:
No: normal, Yes: barred
PI:
No: C2 not used
Yes: C2 used
PHASE2 MS reselection according to C2
PHASE1 MS reselection according to C1
CBQ:
No: normalYes: low

CRO: =2*n dB
TO: =10*n dB
PT: =20*(n+1)s
CRH=2*n dB
Cases:
PI=0,C2 has no affect (suppose to the same layer)
micro A: C1=35,
macro B: C1=45,
so micro A: C1<macro B: C1, thus MS prefer to reselect B
PI=1,C2 have some affect (suppose to the same layer)
micro CRO=20macro CRO=0
so micro A: C2=55,> macro B: C2=45, thus MS prefer to reselect A
Chapter 1 GSM system
1. Work items in an optimization project
2. Review of the GSM system
3. Based technology in GSM system
4. Drive test and analysis
5. Parameters in common use
6. OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use
7. Main methods in the performance analysis procedure
8. Selection and reselection
9. SDCCH congestion
10. TCH congestion and drops
11. Call progress introduction in common use
12. Power control algorithm
13. Handover algorithm
14. Cases according to statistics data
SDCCH and Location update
Ms will occur location update as follows:
Choose a new LAC cell as the service
T3212 timeout
ATT(IMSI attach and detach)
Roaming location update (inter mobile operators)
Choose reasonable parameter with SD congestion cell
Partition LAC in reason
Choose correct parameter about T3212
Add SDCCH channels
Active SDCCH dynamic configuration
Choose correct C1,CRO,CRH
SDCCH process died (reset BCCH TRX)
MS BTS BSC MSC
Channel_req Channel_Required(2)
Channel_Active(3)
Channel_Active_Ack(4)
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN COMMAND (5)
Establish_IND(Location Updating Req) (6)
CR(Complete_L3)
Location Updating Accepted (10)
TMSI Reallocation Complete (11)
CC
(NOTE 3) Clear_CMD
Clear_CMP
First SABM
SDCCH traffic includes:
Call setup (MOC,MTC)
Location update
SMS
ATT
CDB (cell database broadcast)
SDCCH dynamic configuration parameters
SDCCH dynamic allocation allowed
switch-yes/no
Idle SD thrth.
TCH change to SD(for TCH>4 or TRXs)
Cell SD maximum
=SD configured +8
Tch minimum recovery times
minimum time from TCH to SDCCH and back to TCH
Idle TCH thrth N1
When TCH change to SD,it is set a count as ResTIME.
And during the period of SD return to TCH,
if idle SD>N1+8, then count-3->0,SD return to TCH
If idle SD<N1+8,then count+12<=restime
If idle SD=N1+8,the not adjust.
Chapter 1 GSM system
1. Work items in an optimization project
2. Review of the GSM system
3. Based technology in GSM system
4. Drive test and analysis
5. Parameters in common use
6. OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use
7. Main methods in the performance analysis procedure
8. Selection and reselection
9. SDCCH congestion
10. TCH congestion and drops
11. Call progress introduction in common use
12. Power control algorithm
13. Handover algorithm
14. Cases according to statistics data
Reasons of congestion
Reasons of TCH congestion
Traffic not balanced between service and neighbors
Traffic not balanced between underlay and overlay in concentric
Hardware problem and some TRX OOS.
Traffic is more than the capacity.
Incorrect coverage area
Incorrect C1,C2 parameters
Incorrect HO parameters
Transmission problem
SDCCH congestion but TCH traffic low
Ways to resolve TCH congestion
Resolve the hardware and transmission problem
Traffic balanced to neighbors or lay with low traffic usage
Adjust azimuth and downtilt so that adjust the coverage and traffic
Adjust handover hysteresis,C1,C2,control the traffic direction
Adjust min DL level on candidate cell in busy cell
Active Half-Rate function
Lower TCH traffic busy threshold%
Active direct retry
Layer and priority
-PBGT handover
Allow load handover function
Add more TCH channels or more TRX
Balance the traffic between underlay and overlay
Normal Cell boundary model
HOoutgoing
boundary,HO_out
Select boundary,
Reselect
HOIncoming
boundary,HO_in
Control traffic by cell boundary
rxlev_access_minC1/C2cell radiusSD/TCH traffic
rxlev_access_min SD/TCH trafficcongestion
Min_DL_level_on candidate celldifficult to incoming HOtrafficcongestion
Adjust HO_hysteresisadjust handover boundaryadjust traffic between service cells and neighbors
Adjust PGBT HO thrsh. as HO parameter relief congestion
Adjust PI, CRO ,PT, TO, CRH,TX_power
Adjust TRXs/channels/cells/sites
Active Half-rate function
OtoU(UtoO) HO Received Level ThresholdMS stay more time in overlay traffic in underlay
congestion in underlay
Abnormal boundary (-PBGT and pingpong HO)
2-HO to nei cells
1-setup



Rselect

HO_out.
Reselect>RHO_out reselect
C1= (A - Max. (B, 0))
predigest=(Rxlev Average-rxlev_access_min )
Thereinto :
A=Rxlev Average - rxlev_access_min
B= ms_txpwr_max_cch - ms Max allowed power(ms pwr class)
1, C1(cell A)-C1(cell B)=RXLEV_BCCH-RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN>0
2, PBGT(N)=-RXLEV_BCCH >HO_MARGIN , so C1(cell B)-C1(cell A)HO_MARGIN+RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN <0
MS will setup calls in the cell A,and handover to cell B immediately.
Note:
Need to select inter-cell ho thrsh. =0 and PBGT ho thrsh<64.
Inter-cell HO thrsh. In cell B to cell A Need more than the value from cell A to cell B
Or this parameter will lead to pingpong HO when using PBGP HO process.


HO to B
RHO_in>RHO_out lead
to pingpong HO



RHO_OUT
HO to A
Rselect
HO_out
HO_in
Eg.1: reselect>HO_out
HO_MARGIN AB= -5, RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN=5(-105dbm)
HO_MARGIN BA=8, RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN=5(-105dbm)
To cell A: RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN+HO_MARGIN(5-5)-5-5<0
The ms setup calls in cell A ,and immediately handover to cell B
Eg.2: reselect<HO_out
HO_MARGIN AB=-5, RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN=15(-95dbm)
HO_MARGIN BA=8, RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN=5(-105dbm)
To cell A: RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN+HO_MARGIN(15-5)-55>0
The ms setup calls in cell A ,but not HO to cell B immediately
Direct retry and load HO
Cell B
Cell A
DR to the nei cells



RHO_out

Rselect
Sharing the traffic by DR
(suggest not allowed)
MS2
MS1
RHO_out
MS1 ho to B



RHO_out

load ho thrsh
Load HO


MS1
MS1
Load ho band
Load HO parameters:
Load ho allowed (original cell and direct cell)
System flux thrsh. For load ho
Load ho thrsh.
Load req. on candidate cell
Load ho bandwidth
Load ho step period
Load ho step level
Conditions of Direct Retry function
MS setup in cell A,
No more free TCH channels in cell A
Active DR in cell A and B
There is free TCH channels in cell B
TCH drops
Reasons of drop calls
Interfering
Bad rx_lev
Bad rx_qual
Coverage confused
Hardware problem and VSWR
HO drops
Neighbor cell relations and data problem.
Antenna physical parameter wrong
Crossed feeder cables
Wrong jump connect cables wrong in cabinet
RLT, Sacch-multi-frame not correct.
Incorrect HO algorithm and parameters
TRX PWR class difference in the same cell.
Incorrect PWR control parameter.
Wrong configuration data
Transmission not in stable
TMU version process problem
Radio link not balanced
Drop statistics items for BSC32 (9 items)
Unsuccessful TCH seizure (connection failure)
Unsuccessful TCH seizure (error indicator)
Unsuccessful TCH seizure (internal clear)
Unsuccessful TCH seizure (release indicator)
Unsuccessful TCH seizure (EMLPP)
Unsuccessful cell internal handover with unsuccessful reversion
Unsuccessful BSC internal handover with unsuccessful reversion
Unsuccessful outgoing BSC handover with unsuccessful reversion
Unsuccessful incoming BSC handover (timeout)
Drop items for BSC6000 (3 summary items)
K3022: Call Drops on TCH (Signaling Channel)
K3012A: Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Traffic Channel)
K3012B: Call Drops in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel)
K3022: Call Drops on TCH (Signaling Channel)=
[Call Drops on Radio Interface in Stable State (Signaling Channel)] +
[Call Drops on Radio Interface in Handover State (Signaling Channel)] +
[Call Drops due to No MRs from MS for a Long Time (Signaling Channel)] +
[Call Drops due to Abis Terrestrial Link Failure (Signaling Channel)] +
[Call Drops due to Equipment Failure (Signaling Channel)] +
[Call Drops due to Forced Handover (Signaling Channel)]
K3012A: Call Drops on TCH in Stable State (Traffic Channel)=
[Call Drops on Radio Interface in Stable State (TCH)] +
[Call Drops due to No MRs from MS for a Long Time (TCH)] +
[Call Drops due to Abis Terrestrial Link Failure (TCH)] +
[Call Drops due to Equipment Failure (TCH)] +
[Call Drops due to Forced Handover (TCH)]
K3012B: Call Drops in TCH Handovers (Traffic Channel)=
[Failed Internal Intra-Cell Handovers (Timer Expired) (TCHF) (Traffic Channel)] +
[Failed Internal Intra-Cell Handovers (Timer Expired) (TCHH) (Traffic Channel)] +
[Failed Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handovers (Timer Expired) (TCHF) (Traffic Channel)] +
[Failed Outgoing Internal Inter-Cell Handovers (Timer Expired) (TCHH) (Traffic Channel)] +
[Failed Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers (T8 Expired) (TCHF) (Traffic Channel)] +
[Failed Outgoing External Inter-Cell Handovers (T8 Expired) (TCHH) (Traffic Channel)] +
[Failed Incoming External Inter-Cell Handovers (Timer Expired) (TCH) (Traffic Channel)]


Chapter 1 GSM system
1. Work items in an optimization project
2. Review of the GSM system
3. Based technology in GSM system
4. Drive test and analysis
5. Parameters in common use
6. OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use
7. Main methods in the performance analysis procedure
8. Selection and reselection
9. SDCCH congestion
10. TCH congestion and drops
11. Call progress introduction in common use
12. Power control algorithm
13. Handover algorithm
14. Cases according to statistics data
Call process of MOC
MSC BSC BTS MS
Channel Request(RACH) 1
Channel Required 2
Channel Activation 3
Channel Activation Ack 4
Immediate Assigment Command 5
Immediate Assigment (AGCH) 6
CM Service Request(SDCCH) 7
CM Service Request 8
CM Service Request 9
UA(SDCCH) 10
Authentication Request 11
Authentication Request(SDCCH) 12
Authentication Reponse(SDCCH) 13
Authentication Reponse 14
Ciphering Mode Command 15
Ciphering Mode Command 16
Ciphering Mode Command(SDCCH) 17
Ciphering Mode Complete(SDCCH) 18
Ciphering Mode Complete 19
TMSI Reallocation Command 20
TMSI Reallocation Command(SDCCH) 21
TMSI Reallocation Complete(SDCCH) 22
TMSI Reallocation Complete 23
Setup(SDCCH) 24
Setup 25
Call Proceeding 26
Call Proceeding(SDCCH) 27
Assignment Request 28
Channel Activation 29
Channel Activation Ack 30
Assignment Command(SDCCH) 31
SABM(FACCH) 32
Establish Indication 33
UA(FACCH) 34
Assignment Complete(FACCH) 35
Assignment Complete 36
Channel Release 37
RF Channel Release Ack 41
Alerting 42
Alerting(FACCH) 43
Connect(FACCH) 45
Connect Ack(FACCH) 46
Connect Ack 47
Measurement Report(SACCH) 48
Prep_Measurement Result 49
Disconnect(FACCH) 50
Disconnect 51
Connect 44
Release 52
Release(FACCH) 53
Release Complete(FACCH) 54
Release Complete 55
Clear Command 56
Channel Release(FACCH) 57
Deactivate SACCH 58
DISC(FACCH) 59
UA(SACCH) 60
Release Indication 61
RF Channel Release 62
RF Channel Release Ack 63
Clear Complete 64
SCCP Release 65
SCCP Release Ack 66
Estableish Indication
Deactive SACCH 38
Release Indication 39
RF Channel Release 40
Call process of MTC
MSC BSC BTS MS
Channel Request(RACH) 4
Channel Required 5
Channel Activation 6
Channel Activation Ack 7
Immediate Assigment Command 8
Immediate Assigment (AGCH) 9
SABM Paging Response(SDCCH) 10
Paging Response(SDCCH) 11
Paging Response 12
UA(SDCCH) 13
Authentication Request 14
Authentication Request(SDCCH) 15
Authentication Reponse(SDCCH) 16
Authentication Reponse 17
Ciphering Mode Command 18
Ciphering Mode Command 19
Ciphering Mode Command(SDCCH) 20
Ciphering Mode Complete(SDCCH) 21
Ciphering Mode Complete 22
TMSI Reallocation Command 23
TMSI Reallocation Command(SDCCH) 24
TMSI Reallocation Complete(SDCCH) 25
TMSI Reallocation Complete 26
Setup(SDCCH) 28
Setup 27
Call Comfirm 30
Call Comfirm(SDCCH) 29
Assignment Request 31
Channel Activation 32
Channel Activation Ack 33
Assignment Command(SDCCH) 34
SABM(FACCH) 35
Establish Indication 36
UA(FACCH) 37
Assignment Complete(FACCH) 38
Assignment Complete 39
Channel Release 40
Alerting 46
Alerting(FACCH) 45
Connect(FACCH) 47
Connect Ack(FACCH) 50
Connect Ack 49
Measurement Report(SACCH) 51
Prep-Measurement Result 52
Disconnect(FACCH) 53
Disconnect 54
Connect 48
Release 55
Release(FACCH) 56
Release Complete(FACCH) 57
Release Complete 58
Clear Command 59
Channel Release(FACCH) 60
Deactivate SACCH 61
DISC(FACCH) 62
UA(SACCH) 63
Release Indication 64
RF Channel Release 65
RF Channel Release Ack 66
Clear Complete 67
SCCP Release 68
SCCP Release Ack 69
Paging 1
Paging Command 2
Paging Request 3
Establish Indication
Deactive SACCH 41
Release Indication 42
RF Channel Release 43
44 RF Channel Release Ack
3. PAGING REQUEST 2. PAGING COMMAND
MS BTS BSC PCU SGSN
MSC/VLR
11'. PAGING
12'. PAGING
REQUEST
13'. PAGING
REQUEST
A2
4.CHANNEL REQUEST
5.CHANNEL REQUIRED
6.CHANNEL ACTIVATION
7. CHANNEL ACKTIVATION
ACKNOWLEDGE
8.IMMEDIATE ASSIGN
CMMAND 9. IMMEDIATE
ASSIGNMENT
10. PAGING
RESPONSE
11. EST IND(PAGING
RESPONSE)
C1
A1
B1
1. PAGING
Circuit paging call flowing
A1: received circuit paging messages from MSC
A2: received circuit paging messages from MSC via G-s interface
B1: circuit paging command to BTS
Circuit Paging (BSC level)
BTS BSC MSC/VLR
CCCH LOAD INDICATION
A1
OVERLOAD B1
CCCH overload call flowing
A1: circuit paging PCH overloads of Abis interface
B1: circuit paging CCCH overloads of Abis interface


MS BTS BSC
.ASSIGN CMMAND
A1
MSC
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
SABM
UA
ESTABLISH INDICATION
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
(directly retry)HANDOVER REQIRED
MODE (MODIFY)
MODE (MODIFY) ACKNOLEDGE
(NEGATIVE ACKNOWLEDGE,REJECT)
(directly retry)HANDOVER FAILURE(REQUEST ACKNOWLEDGE)
CHANNEL ACKTIVATION
CHANNEL ACKTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE
(NACK)
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
In Immediate Assignment or
IntraBSC Handover
ASS FAILURE
H 4
B 2
B 3
B 4B 5
C1
C 2
D1
E1
F1
F1
F2
F3
F3
F3
G1
G 2
G 3
G4
G6
G5
G5
B6
H 2
H 3
H 3
ASS FAILURE
ASS FAILURE
Assignment (BSC level)
Assignment call process
A1: assignment requests
C1-C2: unsuccessful assignments(requested terrestrial resource unavailable
E1: unsuccessful assignments(invalid message content)
G1-G6: unsuccessful assignments(no radio resource available)
B2-B6: unsuccessful assignments(equipment failure)
D1: unsuccessful assignments(terrestrial circuit already allocation
F1-F3: unsuccessful assignments(radio interface fail,reversion to the previous channel)
H2-H4: unsuccessful assignments(other causes)

MS BSC2 BSC1 MSC/VLR
HANDOVER REQUIRED
HANDOVER REQUEST
HANDOVER REQ ACK
HANDOVER COMMAND
HANDOVER COMMAND
MS
HANDOVER ACCESS
HANDOVER DETECT
HANDOVER COMPLETE
HANDOVER COMPLETE
CLEAR COMMAND
CLEAR COMPLETE
A1
B1
C1
D1 , E1, F1
Outgoing BSC handover (BSC level)
Attempt outgoing BSC handovers
A1: attempt outgoing BSC handovers
B1: attempt outgoing BSC handovers (from 900)
C1: attempt outgoing BSC handovers (from 1800)
D1: outgoing BSC handovers
E1: outgoing BSC handovers (900->1800)
F1: outgoing BSC handovers (1800->900)
MS BSC2 BSC1 MSC/VLR
HANDOVER REQUIRED
HANDOVER REQUEST
HANDOVER REQ ACK
HANDOVER COMMAND
HANDOVER COMMAND
HANDOVER DETECT
HANDOVER COMPLETE
CLEAR COMPLETE
A1, B1, C1 , D1, E1
CLEAR COMMAND
Successful outgoing BSC handovers
A1: successful outgoing BSC handovers
B1: successful outgoing BSC handovers (from 900 to 900)
C1: successful outgoing BSC handovers (from 1800 to 1800)
D1: successful outgoing BSC handovers (900->1800)
E1: successful outgoing BSC handovers (1800->900)
BTS BSC1 MSC/VLR
HANDOVER REQUIRED
HANDOVER COMMAND
CLEAR COMMAND
CLEAR COMPLETE
A1
HANDOVER FAILURE
HANDOVER FAILURE
CLEAR COMMAND
CONN FAIL IND
ERROR INDICATION
HANDOVER COMMAND
B1
B2
B3
Unsuccessful outgoing BSC handovers
A1: unsuccessful outgoing BSC handovers with successful reversion
B1-B3: unsuccessful outgoing BSC handovers with unsuccessful reversion
Incoming BSC HO (BSC level)
Unsuccessful incoming BSC handovers
A1-A5 : unsuccessful incoming BSC handovers
B1-B2: unsuccessful incoming BSC handovers(equipment failure)
C1-C3: unsuccessful incoming BSC handovers (other causes)
D1 : unsuccessful channel activation in incoming BSC handovers(NACK)
Successful Incoming BSC handovers
A1: successful incoming BSC handovers
B1: successful incoming BSC handovers(900->1800)
C1: successful incoming BSC handovers(1800-900)
D1: successful incoming BSC handovers(900 to 900)
E1: successful incoming BSC handovers 1800to 1800)
F1: attempt incoming BSC handovers
MS BTS BSC
CHANNEL REQUEST
CHANNEL REQUIRED
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACKNOWLEDGE
IMMEDIATE ASSIGN CMMAND
SD-ATT-C1
TCH-ATT-C1
TCH-ATT-BSC1
SD-ATT-BSC1
TCH-ATT-C 6
TCH-ATT-C 7
TCH-SUCC-C 6
TCH-SUCC-C 1
TCH-ATT-C 62
TCH-ATT-C 61
SD-SUCC-C 1
EST_IND
SD-SUCC-C4
Immediate assignment process
SD-ATT-C1: attempted SDCCH seizures(all)
TCH -ATT-C1: attempted TCH seizures(all)
TCH -ATT-C6: attempted TCH seizures for very early assignment
TCH -ATT-C7: attempted TCH seizures for SDCCH overflow
SD-SUCC-C1: successful SDCCH seizures(all)
SD-SUCC-C4: successful SDCCH seizures for immediate assignment
TCH -SUCC-C6: successful TCH seizures for very early assignment
TCH -SUCC-C1: successful TCH seizures(all)
TCH -SUCC-C61: successful TCH allocation for very early assignment
TCH -SUCC-C62: successful TCH allocation for SDCCH overflow



Immediate assignment (cell level)
MS BTS BSC
.ASSIGN CMMAND
MSC
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
SABM
UA
ESTABLISH INDICATION
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
(directly retry)HANDOVER REQIRED
(directly retry)HANDOVER REQUEST ACK
CHANNEL ACTIVATION
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
TCH-ATT-C 2
TCH-ATT-C 8
TCH-ATT-C 9
TCH-ATT-C 10
TCH-ATT-C 5
TCH-ATT-C13
TCH-ATT-C14
QUEUEING INDICATION
TCH-ATT-C16
TCH-ATT-BSC 2
TCH-SUCC-C23
TCH-SUCC-C21,22
TCH-SUCC-C51,54,55,56
TCH-SUCC-C52,53,54,55,56
TCH-SUCC-C82,83
TCH-SUCC-C81
TCH-SUCC-C91
TCH-SUCC-C101
TCH-SUCC-C92,93
TCH-SUCC-C102,103
TCH-SUCC-C13
TCH -ATT-C2: attempted TCH seizures(all)
TCH -ATT-C5: attempted TCH seizures for call
TCH -ATT-C8: attempted TCH seizures for MOC
TCH -ATT-C9: attempted TCH seizures for MTC
TCH -ATT-C10: attempted TCH seizures for call-reestablish
TCH -ATT-C13: attempted TCH seizures for directed retry
TCH -ATT-C14: TCH queue requests
TCH -ATT-C16: TCH preemption




TCH -SUCC-C21--23: successful TCH seizures(all)
TCH -SUCC-C51--53: successful TCH seizures for call
TCH -SUCC-C81--83: successful TCH seizures for MOC
TCH -SUCC-C91--93: successful TCH seizures for MTC
TCH -SUCC-C101--103: successful TCH seizures for call-reestablish
TCH -SUCC-C13: successful TCH for directed retry
TCH -SUCC-C54: successful assignments of speech v1 TCH
TCH -SUCC-C55: successful assignments of speech v2 TCH
TCH -SUCC-C56: successful assignments of speech v3 TCH


Assignment (cell level)
MS BTS BSC
.ASSIGN CMMAND
MSC
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
SABM
UA
ESTABLISH INDICATION
CHANNEL ACTICATION
CHANNEL ACTIVATION ACK
A1
ERROR INDICATION
CONNECTION FAILURE INDICATION
A2
TCH call drop (cell level)
Call drop process
A1: TCH call drop (error indication)
A2: TCH call drop (connection failure)

MS BTS' BSC Ori-Cell
HANDOVER ACCESS
UA
Intercell Handover Request
TCH-ATT-C11
BSC Des-Cell BTS''
MR
Handover algorithm
HANDOVER COMMAND
Intercell Handover Response
HANDOVER DETECT
CH ACT
CH ACT ACK
HANDOVER COMPLETE
Inter Clear Request
(Handover Success)
TCH-ATT-BSC3
SD-ATT-BSC2
TCH-ATT-C17
TCH-ATT-C3
TCH-SUCC-C17
TCH-SUCC-C3
SD-SUCC-C2
SD-ATT-C2
SABM
TCH-SUCC-C11
Internal inter cell HO
Internal inter cell handovers
SD-ATT-C2: attempted SDCCH seizures(all)
TCH -ATT-C3: attempted TCH seizures(all)
TCH -ATT-C11: attempted TCH seizures for intraBSC incoming cell handover
TCH -ATT-C17: attempted TCH seizures for intracell handover
TCH -SUCC-C17 : successful TCH seizures for intracell handover
TCH -SUCC-C3: successful TCH seizures(all)
TCH -SUCC-C11: successful TCH seizures for intraBSC incoming cell handover
SD-SUCC-C2: successful SDCCH seizures for handover,
successful SDCCH seizures(all)


MS BTS BSC MSC/VLR
HANDOVER COMPLETE
HANDOVER COMMAND
A1, B1, C1, D1, E1
ASSIGNMENT REQUEST
ASSIGNMENT COMPLETE
MS BTS BSC MSC/VLR
HANDOVER COMPLETE
.HANDOVER COMMAND
HANDOVER PERFORMED
A1, B1 , C1, D1, E1, F1
Non_DR incoming inter cell HO in BSC(simulate with SDCCH handover)
A1: successful intracell handovers
B1: successful incoming internal intercell handovers
C1: successful incoming internal intercell handovers (from900)
D1: successful incoming internal intercell handovers (from1800)
E1: successful dual-band intercell handovers
F1: successful incoming internal intercell handovers
successful incoming interBSC intercell handovers
DR incoming inter cell HO in BSC(simulate with SDCCH handover)
A1: successful TCH seizures for intraBSC incoming cell handover
B1: successful incoming internal intercell handovers (from900)
C1: successful incoming internal intercell handovers (from1800)
D1: successful dual-band intercell handovers
E1: successful incoming internal intercell handovers


MS BTS BSC MSC/VLR
HANDOVER COMPLETE
.HANDOVER COMMAND
HANDOVER PERFORMED
CONN FAIL IND
A1 , B1
New Channel
ERROR IND
Old Channel
CHANNEL ACT
CHAN ACT ACK
HANDOVER DETECTIOIN
CHAN ACT NACK
A4
CONN FAIL IND
A2, B2
CONN FAIL IND
A3 , B3
A5, B4
ERROR IND
A6 , B5
ERROR IND
A7 , B6
New Channel
incoming internal inter cell HO failure
A1-A7: unsuccessful incoming internal inter cell handovers
B1-B6: unsuccessful incoming internal inter cell handovers(other causes)

Internal inter cell HO failure
MS BTS BSC MSC/VLR
HANDOVER COMPLETE
.HANDOVER COMMAND
HANDOVER PERFORMED
CONN FAIL IND
New Channel
ERROR IND
Old Channel
CHANNEL ACT
A1 , F2
CONN FAIL IND
A2, F3, H1,J1
A4, F4
ERROR IND
A5, F5, H2, J2
.HANDOVER FAILURE
A3, B1, C1, D1, E1, F1, G1, I1
CLEAR COMMAND
A6, F6
CLEAR COMMAND
A7, F7
Old Channel
Outgoing internal inter cell HO failure
A1-A7: unsuccessful outgoing internal intercell handovers
B1: unsuccessful outgoing internal intercell handovers (channel mode unacceptable)
C1: unsuccessful outgoing internal intercell handovers (TA out of rage)
D1: unsuccessful outgoing internal intercell handovers (freq. not implemented)
E1: unsuccessful outgoing internal intercell handovers (timer expired)
F1-F7: unsuccessful outgoing internal intercell handovers (other causes)
G1: unsuccessful internal intercell handovers with successful reversion
H1-H2: unsuccessful internal intercell handovers with unsuccessful reversion
I1: unsuccessful outging cell handovers with successful reversion
J1-J2: unsuccessful outging cell handovers with unsuccessful reversion


MS BSC2 BSC1 MSC/VLR
HANDOVER REQUIRED
HANDOVER REQUEST
HANDOVER REQ ACK
HANDOVER COMMAND
HANDOVER COMMAND
MS
HANDOVER ACCESS
HANDOVER DETECT
HANDOVER COMPLETE
HANDOVER COMPLETE
CLEAR COMMAND
CLEAR COMPLETE
A1
B1 , C1, D1, E1, F1

HANDOVER REQUIRED
HANDOVER REQUEST
HANDOVER REQ ACK

Outgoing interBSC inter cell HO
outgoing Inter bss inter cell HO attempted
A1: attempt outgoing interBSC intercell handovers
B1: inter BSC outgoing cell handovers
C1: outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers(to900cell)
D1: outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers(to900cell)
E1: successful dual-band intercell handovers
F1: attempted outgoing intercell handovers(12 causes)


MS BSC2 BSC1 MSC/VLR
HANDOVER REQUIRED
HANDOVER REQUEST
HANDOVER REQ ACK
HANDOVER COMMAND
HANDOVER COMMAND
HANDOVER DETECT
HANDOVER COMPLETE
CLEAR COMPLETE
A1, B1, C1, D1, E1
CLEAR COMMAND
outgoing Inter bss inter cell HO successful
A1: successful outgoing interBSC intercell handovers
B1: successful outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers(to900cell)
C1: successful outgoing interBSC inter cell handovers(to900cell)
D1: successful dual-band intercell handovers
E1: successful outgoing intercell handovers(12 causes)


BTS BSC1 MSC/VLR
HANDOVER REQUIRED
HANDOVER COMMAND
CLEAR COMMAND
CLEAR COMPLETE
A1, C1
HANDOVER FAILURE
HANDOVER FAILURE
CLEAR COMMAND
CONN FAIL IND
ERROR INDICATION
HANDOVER COMMAND
B1 , D1
B2 , D2
B3 , D3
inter bss outgling handover failure
A1: unsuccessful outgoing BSC handovers with successful reversion
B1-B3: unsuccessful outgoing BSC handovers with successful reversion
C1: unsuccessful outgoing cell handovers with successful reversion
D1-D3: unsuccessful outgoing cell handovers with unsuccessful reversion

MS Other BSC
HANDOVER ACCESS
UA
HANDOVER REQUIRED
TCH-ATT-C12
HUAWEI BSC HUAWEI BTS
HANDOVER COMMAND
HANDOVER REQUEST ACK
HANDOVER DETECT
CH ACT
CH ACT ACK
HANDOVER COMPLETE
TCH-ATT-BSC4
SD-ATT-BSC3
MSC
TCH-ATT-C15 QUEUEING INDICATION
TCH-ATT-C4
TCH-SUCC-C4
TCH-SUCC-C12
SD-SUCC-C3
SD-ATT-C3
SABM
HANDOVER REQUEST
Incoming interbsc inter cell HO
SD-ATT-C3: attempted SDCCH seizures(all)
TCH -ATT-C4: attempted TCH seizures(all)
TCH -ATT-C12: attempted TCH seizures for inter bsc incoming handovers
TCH -SUCC-C4: successful TCH seizures(all)
TCH -SUCC-C12: successful TCH seizures for inter bsc incoming handover
SD -SUCC-C3: successful SDCCH seizures for handover
successful SDCCH seizures for(all)
Incoming interBSS inter cell HO
MS BTS BSC MSC/VLR
HANDOVER COMPLETE
.HANDOVER DETECTION
A1, B1, C1
CHANNEL ACT
CHAN ACT ACK
HANDOVER COMPLETE
HANDOVER REQ ACK
HANDOVER REQUESTT
incoming inter bss HO Success
A1: successful incoming inter bsc inter cell handover
B1: successful dual-band intercell handovers
C1: successful incoming intercell handovers

MS BTS New BSC MSC/VLR
HANDOVER COMPLETE
.HANDOVER COMMAND
HANDOVER COMPLETE
Old Channel
CONN FAIL IND
HANDOVER DETECTION
A1
New Channel
HANDOVER REQUEST
Old BSC
HANDOVER REQUIRED
CHAN ACT
CHAN ACT ACK
CHAN ACT NACK
New Channel
A2
CLEAR COMMAND
CLEAR COMMAND
CLEAR COMMAND
A3
A4
A5
A3
HANDOVER REQ ACK
HANDOVER COMMAND
inter bss incoming handover failure
A1-A5 : inter bsc incoming cell handovers

MS BTS BSC MSC/VLR
HANDOVER COMPLETE
HANDOVER COMMAND
A1
(Intracell handover)
HANDOVER PERFORMED
Intracell ho success
A1: successful intracell handovers

MS BTS BSC MSC/VLR
HANDOVER COMPLETE
.HANDOVER COMMAND
A2
(Intracell handover)
HANDOVER PERFORMED
CONN FAIL IND
Old Channel
CONN FAIL IND
HANDOVER FAILURE
A3
A1
Old Channel
New Channel
A5
CLEAR COMMAND
CLEAR COMMAND
A4
ERROR IND
A6
ERROR IND
A7
Intracell ho failure
A1-A7: unsuccessful intracell handovers

Intracell HO
Chapter 1 GSM system
1. Work items in an optimization project
2. Review of the GSM system
3. Based technology in GSM system
4. Drive test and analysis
5. Parameters in common use
6. OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use
7. Main methods in the performance analysis procedure
8. Selection and reselection
9. SDCCH congestion
10. TCH congestion and drops
11. Call progress introduction in common use
12. Power control algorithm
13. Handover algorithm
14. Cases according to statistics data
MR pre-processing
Each MR has a serial number. the network will fill up MR according to interpolation algorithm. When
the serial numbers are discontinuous (some MRs missing).
The simple interpolation algorithm is linearity interpolation according the previous and the later MRs
when missing MRs occur.
Calculate average results of several consecutive MRs to obtain current information, reduce the
influence of some abnormal MR for judgment of PWC or HO.
The relation parameters: allowed MR numbers lost, filter length
MR pre-processing and voting
MR MR

MR

MR

MR MR
Consecutive MR flow
Filter length
MR MR MR MR
N
Consecutive MR flow
Interpolation m missing MR
N+1
N+m+1
N+m+2
MR
MR voting (N/P) for GSM0508 protocol
N(N1-N8): MR numbers used to voting process in PC and HO
P(P1-P8): MR numbers exceeded voting threshold in PC and HO,
The process will be performed when the numbers of P over the threshold in N.
Parameters relation to PWR control: P1-4/N1-4
Parameters relation to HO: P5-8/N5-8
P/N5-8 >P/N1-4
When the rxqual or rxlev is not good ,the system try to adjust PWC before HO
Process of power control commands
It takes 3 measurement report periods(3*480ms) from command
sending to execution.
SA0 SA1 SA0 SA0 SA1 SA1 SA2 SA2 SA2 SA3 SA3 SA3
BTS sends the command
for power control and TA
in SACCH header.
MS obtains
SACCH block
MS begins to send the
measurement report of the
last multi-frame.
In the 26 multi-
frames, frame 12
sends SACCH.
BTS receives the
measurement report
SACCCH report period:
26X4=104 frames (480ms)
MS adopts the new
power level and TA
MS begins to set up a new SACCH
header to report the new TA and
power control message.
Power Control Overview
Huawei PC algorithm: HW I and HW II power control
Measurement report
pre-processing

Power control algorithm
selection
Yes
HW I power control
algorithm
HW II power control
algorithm
GSM0508 power control
Algorithm (ordinary)
PWC algorithm overview
Parameters of ordinary PWR control window
MS: uplink
UL PC allowed
Rx-lev thrsh.for UL increase=20(-90)
N1/P1
Rx_lev thrsh.for UL decrease=40(-70)
N2/P2
Rx_qual thrsh.for UL increase=5
N3/P3
Rx_qual thrsh.for UL decrease=1
N4/P4

BTS: downlink
DL PC allowed
Rx-lev thrsh.for DL increase=20(-90)
Rx_lev thrsh.for DL decrease=40(-70)
Rx_qual thrsh.for DL increase=5
Rx_qual thrsh.for DL decrease=1
PC period

MS(uplink) are independence correspondingly and the PWC is rapid
Goal: adjust MS tx pwr to let BTS receive stable signal, reduce the uplink
interference, reduce power of MS.
BTS(downlink) is relations all the MS in this cell and the PWC is slow.
Goal: adjust BTS tx pwr to let MS receive stable signal, reduce the downlink
interference, reduce power of BTS
So it mainly means UL PWC in the Power Control process on this hand.
-110 -110
MS(UL):
Rx_lev thrsh.for UL decrease=40(-70)




Rx-lev thrsh.for UL increase=20(-90)
BTS(DL):
Rx_lev thrsh.for DL decrease=40(-70)





Rx_lev thrsh.for DL increase=20(-80)
-80
-100

-70
-90
-80
-100

-70
-90
Rx_qual thrsh.for UL decrease=1
Rx_qual thrsh.for DL decrease=1
Rx_qual thrsh.for UL increase=5
Rx_qual thrsh.for DL increase=5
0
BER
2
4
6
7
0.14%(0-0.2%)
0.57%(0.4-0.8%)
2.26%(1.6-3.2%)
9.05%(6.4-12.8%)
18.10%(>12.8%)
grade
1 0.28%(0.2-0.4%)
3 1.13%(0.8-1.6%)
5 4.53%(3.2-6.4%)
Ordinary PWC window
The adjust value
=(DL/ul rx_lev expected current dl/ul rx_lev) * DL /ul rx_lev compensation
+[current dl/ul rx_qual DL/ul rx_qual expected]*10* DL/ul rx_qual compensation
The adjust value <MAX PWC step
Stable level = current level + the adjustment value
Huawei I PWC algorithm (average PWC)
MS: uplink
Initial RX_LEV Expected
Stable RX_LEV Expected>UL edge ho
UL RX_LEV Compensation
UL Qual. Expected
UL Qual. Compensation
MAX PWC Step

PWC Interval
MS PWC Period
Filter Length for Initial RX_LEV
Filter Length for Stable RX_LEV
Filter Length for Qual.
Power Increment after HO Fail.

BTS: downlink
DL RX_LEV Expected
DL RX_LEV Compensation
DL Qual. Expected
DL Qual. Compensation
MAX PWC Step

BTS PWC Period
Filter Length for DL RX_LEV
Filter Length for DL Qual.

Huawei II PWC algorithm (self-adapt PWC)
Lack of huawei I PWC algorithm:
Average PWC algorithm has a delay when system analysis the MRs ,so system cant adjust rapidly.
System only analysis the past MR results and cant expected the PC direct well.
Exit the oscillate cases when the PWC process is near to the expected value.

Huawei II PWC algorithm:
Adjust the LEV PWC direct in vary LEV value by comparing expected and current value.
Adjust the QUAL PWC direct in fixed QUAL value by comparing expected and current value
Assess the final PWC direct and PWC value by calculating LEV PWC and QUAL PWC synthetically.
When the PWC direction is the same ,the PWC value take the more value
When the PWC direction is opposition , the PWC is preferred to the value of PWC by LEV.

PC by lev PC by qual PC by lev and qual
AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Qul max(AdjStep_Lev,AdjStep_Qul)
AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Qul
No action
AdjStep_Lev
No action
AdjStep_Lev
AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Qul AdjStep_Lev
AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Qul max(AdjStep_Lev,AdjStep_Qul)
AdjStep_Lev
No action
AdjStep_Lev
No action
AdjStep_Qul AdjStep_Qul
No action
AdjStep_Qul AdjStep_Qul
No action No action No action

Huawei II PWC algorithm (PWC direct and value)
Adj. step_lev in UL:
UL rx_lev<UL rx_lev lower thrsh. ,MS increase pwr
adj. step_lev=(UL rx_lev lower thrsh. +UL rx_lev upper thrsh.)/2-ul rx_lev
UL rx_lev >UL rx_lev upper thrsh., MS decrease pwr.
adj. step_lev=ul rx_lev - (UL rx_lev lower thrsh. +UL rx_lev upper thrsh.)/2
UL rx_lev lower thrsh < UL rx_lev <UL rx_lev upper thrsh,
no adjust pwr.

The adj. step_lev in DL ,adj.step_qual in UL/DL are the same as the adj. step_lev in UL.

PC by lev PC by qual PC by lev and qual
AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Qul max(AdjStep_Lev,AdjStep_Qul)
AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Qul No action
AdjStep_Lev No action AdjStep_Lev
AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Qul AdjStep_Lev
AdjStep_Lev AdjStep_Qul max(AdjStep_Lev,AdjStep_Qul)
AdjStep_Lev No action AdjStep_Lev
No action AdjStep_Qul AdjStep_Qul
No action AdjStep_Qul AdjStep_Qul
No action No action No action

Chapter 1 GSM system
1. Work items in an optimization project
2. Review of the GSM system
3. Based technology in GSM system
4. Drive test and analysis
5. Parameters in common use
6. OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use
7. Main methods in the performance analysis procedure
8. Selection and reselection
9. SDCCH congestion
10. TCH congestion and drops
11. Call progress introduction in common use
12. Power control algorithm
13. Handover algorithm
14. Cases according to statistics data
Summary and classification of HO
Summary of HO
HO can decrease drop calls and relief congestion when MS is moving
Ms report best 6 neighbor cells in MR and BSS votes whether HO occurs and direct nei cell
System sends handover command message ,and start HO process.
inside shows AFRCN,TS,BCCH,BSIC,PC level,TSC,HO cause, sync/Async about the direct cell.
MS send handover complete in the direct cell if MS handovers to direct cell successfully.
When MS HO to direct cell unsuccessfully,
if ms reverse to the source cell successfully,ms sent HO failure message to system
else if reverse unsuccessfully when the timer is timeout, HO call drop occurs in this case.
The message assignment command/complete is used in intra-cell HOs.
Classification of HO
Emergency HO
Timing Advance (TA) Emergency HO
Bad quality (BQ) Emergency HO
Rx_Level_Drop Emergency HO
Interference Emergency HO
Load HO
Normal HO
Edge HO
Layer HO
Power Budget (PBGT) HO
Speed-sensitive HO (Fast moving MS HO)
Concentric Cell HO
Priority level of HO
M.R.
preprocessing
Penalty
processing
Basic ranking
Secondary
ranking
HO voting
emergency HO
TA
bad quality(BQ)
rapid lev decrease
interfering
Load Sharing HO
normal HO
Edge
layer
PBGT
Processing
program
OMC forced HO
Directed retry
Overlaid/
underlaid HO
Fast moving MS
HO
HO penalty process (second step of HO algorithm process )
Penalty on the target cell when a HO fails.
avoid to the ms select this cell again in the next HO voting process.
Penalty on the original serving cell when an emergency HO ( base on BQ and TA ) is performed.
avoid MS to be handed back to the BQ&TA cell again within penalty time.
Penalty on other high priority layer cells after a fast moving HO is performed.
avoid MS to be handed back to the high priority layer again within certain time(layer priority grade is 4).
A new HO attempt is prohibited within the penalty time after an overlaid/underlaid HO fails.
HO penalty and ranking rules
Ranking rules
M rule for ranking neighbor cells
it can be put into the candidate cell list only if the cells comply for following conditions.
To service cell: Rx_lev(s) rxlev access min(s)-MAX(0,Pa(s)) > 0
Pa(0) =ms_txpwr_max_ccch(s) ms_max_allowed_pwr(s)
To nei cell: Rx_lev(n) rxlev access min(n)-max(0,Pa(n)) min_access_level_offset(n)>0
K rule for ranking neighbor cells
Sort the result cells in descending order by rxlev according to M rule cells.
16bits rule for ranking cells:
Both the serving cell and the neighbor cells have their own 16bits value.
The smaller the value is, the higher the priority and position the cell is in the cell list.
Basic/Secondary Ranking(16 bit rule)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
The 6 strongest cell and
service cell rx_lev bit
000-110 and the strongest
cell value is 000
Intercell ho hysteresis bit
Service cell=0
Rx_lev(n)>rx_lev(s)+ho hys. Set 0
else Set 1
Compare intercell_ho_hysteresis and
PBGT thrsh. The higher value is
effective in the HO type
Layer and cell priority bit
4 layers and 16 cell priority/layer=64
Pico is highest and umbrella is lowest.
If rx_lev(s/n) is lower than inter_layer_ho_thrsh.
and inter_layer_ho_hysteresis the bits are set 0
Load sharing bit
Load(s)>load ho thrsh. Is set 1 else 0
Means if it is load busy ,it is put a low
part in the nei list
Co_BSC/MSC bit
Service cell =0
If nei cells and S_cell are in co_BSC/MSC,
value is set 0 else 1
If rx_lev(s/n) is lower than inter_layer_ho_thrsh.
and inter_layer_ho_hysteresis the bits are set 0
If co_BSC/MSC is not allowed the value is set 0.
Cell type bit
Internal =0
external-=1
Inter layer ho thrsh. Bit
Rx_lev(s)>=inter layer ho thrsh.-inter layer ho hysteresis
is set o, and 13,12,10-5 are set 0 ,Else set 1
Rx_lev(n)>= inter layer ho thrsh.+inter layer ho hysteresis
is set o, and 13,12,10-5 are set 0 ,Else set 1

Reserve bit
Emergency HO and load HO voting
Emergency HO voting
TA HO criterion :
TA of the serving cell > TA Thrsh.
BQ HO criterion :
Uplink quality > UL Qual. Thrsh
Downlink quality > DL Qual. Thrsh.
Rx_Level_Drop HO:
C1(nt)=A1C(nt)A2C(nt-t)A8C(nt-7t)
C (nt) is the uplink RX_Level of the serving cell in the MR received at the time of "nt".
Filter A1A8=value-10(A1++A8=80)
Filter B=compare value
If C1(nt)B and C(nt)is below edge ho edge_rx_lev thrsh, it is considered as RLD.
Interference HO (DL&UL) :
rx_lev>rxlev thrsh.for interf. HO
rx_qualrxqual thrsh for interf. HO.
Load HO voting
Cell Load HO Criterions :
System load of BSC < system flux thrsh. for load
HO load > load HO thrsh.
Load of target cell < load HO threshold
Normal HO, fast moving HO and concentric HO voting
Normal HO voting
Edge HO Criterion:
Rx_lev <edge HO rx_lev thrsh. In N/P
Inter layer HO criterions:
Rx_lev(n) > inter layer ho thrsh. + inter layer ho hysteresis.
And target cell priority should be higher than the serving cells.
PBGT HO Criterions :
PBGT(n)>PBGT ho thrsh. In N/P
PBGT(n)=Scell[Min(ms txpwr max ccch,ms max allowed pwr)rxlev dl-PWR_C_D]
Ncell[Min(ms txpwr max ccch,ms max allowed pwr)rxlev dl(n)]
Fast moving HO voting
When the serving cell is micro cell :
MS moves the ms fast-moving valid cells (Q) in ms fast-moving watch cells (P>=Q)
within MS Fast_Moving Time Thrsh.
MS moving time=2Radius/Velocity <MS Fast_Moving Time Thrsh.

Concentric HO voting
Criterion from overlaid(small) to underlaid(large):
TA value >=TA threshold + TA hysteresis
Or Rx_lev <= Rx_lev threshold -Rx_lev hysteresis
Criterion from underlaid to overlaid:
TA value <= TA threshold - TA hysteresis
And Rx_lev <= Rx_lev threshold + Rx_lev hysteresis
Chapter 1 GSM system
1. Work items in an optimization project
2. Review of the GSM system
3. Based technology in GSM system
4. Drive test and analysis
5. Parameters in common use
6. OMCR statistics data and the formula in common use
7. Main methods in the performance analysis procedure
8. Selection and reselection
9. SDCCH congestion
10. TCH congestion and drops
11. Call progress introduction in common use
12. Power control algorithm
13. Handover algorithm
14. Cases according to statistics data
Congestion, interfering and TRX
Problems:
Interfering in PTCSCU-2(interfering level:-60~-80dBm), can not absorb any traffic
PTCIJA-1-2-3 are decrease from 2/2/2 to 1/1/1 because of limit of transmission,
and blocked some timeslot
PTCSCR-1-2-3 are congestion

Resolve ways:
Replace cell from 900 cell to 1800 cell in PTCSCU-2 to avoid interfering, and absorb some traffic.
Add more transmission timeslot and recovery to 2/2/2 in PTCIJA-1-2-3
Make traffic balanced between PTCSCR-1/PTCIJA-3/PTCSCU-2
Adjust azimuth from 240 to 270 in PTCIJA-3
Adjust E-tilt from 2 to 7 in PTCSCR-1
Adjust azimuth from 120 to 150 in PTCSCU-2
Add a TRX in PTCSCR-1/2/3
Hardware problem- crossed feeder cables
Problems:
There are more drop calls and handover failures times in each cell
A little interfering in each cells in uplink(interfering band) and downlink(bad quality)
MR are more in band 0~2 in path balance statistics result
It showed crossed cables in this site: plan azimuth: 160/240/330, DT test 240/330/160.

Resolve ways:
Have wrong frequency plan
Get some frequency interfering
Have wrong neighbor relationship
Get some drop calls in each cells
All statistics and DT test result are normal after adjust crossed cables
Hardware problem-TRX problem
Problems:
TRX configuration:2/2/2 in URJDG-1-2-3
TRX8(2nd in URJDG-3, 1 cabinet) can not seizure any TCH in several days
Have radio link alarm in this TRX
Cant resolve the problems after swapping configuration data/slot in cabinet
Result: TRX hardware problem
Statistics results in cell and TRX level are normal after replaced TRX
Hardware problem-connecting cable wrong-312
Problems:
TRX configuration:3/5/3 in NSRDG-1-2-3
TRX12(5th TRX in NSRDG-2, two cabinet) can not seizure any TCH in some days
Have radio link alarm in this TRX
SCU+2CDU mode in this cell, 4 TRX connect to TX-DUP port in one CDU via 1st CDU.
So that can decrease 1 bridge of combiner( save 3 dB of combiner loss)
The other TRX connect to TX port in 2nd CDU.
Result:wrong jump cables connecting. There is no jump cables between TX-COM and TX-DUP in
2nd CDU.
Statistics results are normal after a jumped cable between TX-COM and TX-DUP.
Hardware problem-connecting cable wrong-3012
Problems:
In TRX 5, TRX configuration is 3/3/2
the path balance is main in RANK11, it
means that uplink is bad.
Check on site, the RDX cables are
connecting wrong, it means there is no
RDX receiver in TRX5
After adjust the connecting cable, the
path balance in TRX5 is normal.

Configuration wrong-HO between systems-1
Analysis-1
Low handover success rate(about 25%) and effect to the KPI of BSC level.
Low handover performance of outgong inter BSC intercell handover success
The target cell of other BSC is belong to different system.
Handover performance are normal from other BSC to present BSC in boundary.
The loss times are local from handover required to handover command
There is no handover ACK from MSC after handover required from BSC.


Analysis-2
BSC receive handover reject from A interface after handover required by Trace function.
It show invalid information content when decoded the handover reject information.
There are 3 type of information are not defined by GSM0508 protocol, they only defined by
different supplier.-- Response RequestCurrent ChannelSpeech Version in BSSMAP.
ECSC information between different band are be included in these 3 type information.
One system defined 2 type of information but the other system defined 3 types.
The result are normal after adjust the content of handover in MSC and activate ECSC in BSC.
The external handover between QRBSCH(T4503XA,XB,T4504XA,XB) and KRBSCN3 (T3013XB),
from external BSC handover performance, handover normal from T3013XB to
T4503XA,XB,T4504XA,XB), but all handovers failures from 4503XA,XB,T4504XA,XB(Huawei) to
T3013XB(Nokia) with the reason of invalid cell.
We checked the Configure external LAC data in MSC,BSC and The external information from
Irancell. the external cell information is the same.
Make a trace in A interface.In the interBSS incoming handover requirement message, it is showing
that the external cell LAC=37F9(14329), but the LAC data which Irancell offered is 14327. this is
the problem why all outgoing interBSS handovers are failure from T4503XAXB,T4504XA,T4504XB
(Huawei) to T3103XB(Nokia).
The results after modify the external LAC number in MSC and BSC
Configuration wrong-HO between systems-2
Configuration problem-frequency and hopping
No hopping zone
hopping zone
hopping zone
Handover success rate is low in T4524XA,
The target cell is T4106XA.
Check the frequency between T4524XA
and T4106XA, and found TCH channel are
the same in TCH=23 (not active hopping)
Check the data near these two site, only
the sites in this zone are not active hopping
function.
Active Hopping function in this zone, the
handover success rate is normal in
T4524XA.
Configuration wrong-TRX receiver mode in 3012
Problems:
TRX configuration is 2/2/2, in TRX 10,11, handover
success times is low after expansion.
Check the data, the received mode is wrong.
After adjust, the KPI is normal
Configuration wrong- MSC information wrong
Problems:
T4055,T4106 TCH seizure success times is 0. TCH traffic is low from incoming handover.
Modified LAC number on 29th-Mar
Wrong plan data (TABSCH6) and wrong BSC data in MSC(TABSCH2).
TCH seizure normal after adjust the BSC information in MSC.
Configuration wrong-NCC permitted
Problems:
Difficult handover from T4110XA, XB to the other cells.
Handover normal from TT4110XC to the other cells.
Compare the parameters between T4110XA,XB,XC
NCC permitted is only selected 0 allowed
The handover recovery to normal in T4110
after adjust NCC permitted.
Configuration wrong-BA table losed
Problems:
Drop call rate increased from 0.29% to 0.41% after some sites was cut over.
RF drop call times are more than cut over.
There almost no neighbor cells information in dedicate mode.
But there are neighbor cells information in idle mode.
BA1(BCCH) are not blank
BA2(SACCH) are blank.
Switch of user input are activate in these cells.

Result:
Somebody activate the switch of user input wrongly when he made the autoconfig file.
System only updated BA1 table, and BA2 need to added manually when user input are
activation.
Transmission-crossed connecting
Problems:
SRBSC has high congestion about 14%.
Select the most congestion site T4781, arranged a DT team to test the site, found that there is only
T4795 CGI and frequency near the T4781. But the two sites distance is 87KM, the only possible
reason is that some wrong data has been configured or wrong connection between the two sites.
Checked the handover of T4795, found that the cell can only handover to the other two cells in same
site. Added the T4795s neighbor cell as the T4781 location. Later, the T4795s handover and
congestion performance is improved. But we do the same to the T4781. this site no any changed, the
KPI of this site was also bad.
Checked other site with the same problem in T4784, high congestion and low HOSR. so it is possible
that the three site has swap relation among T4781, T4795 and T4784. the KPI are rapidly enhanced in
these three sites and SRBSC after we changed the neighborhood T4781 as T4784, T4795 as T4781,
T4784 as T4795. It is proved situation what I suspected after we arranged a DT test.
BSS engineer feed back that they found the optic port of transmit had been swapped among these
three site and recovery on 13th-Apr. And we change back to the neighborhood data in these cells. the
below is the compare of the before and after adjust, total in T4781,T4784,T4795.
Transmission-problem in connector
Problems:
Immediate assignment fail times in BSC fail is 34672, this site is 17912(51.66%), immediate
assignment success rate is about 20%, it lead to immediate assignment success rate in BSC level is
97.4%. it has affected the network for more than 2 months.
The problem is the transmission connector in DDF, the core (for signaling) and shielding (for ground
protect) cable are connected together, The signaling is connecting to the ground.. It will lead to the
transmission cant bear any traffic and business, and TMU with alarms in all time. it is the reason of
why there are so many immediate assignment fail times.
The KPI recovery to normal after re-do the connector
Version abnormal-TMU-1
the TRX was out of service in turns in T4090.
it means that sometime OOS in some TRX, and the other time, the other TRX will OOS in burst.
The traffic in these TRX will all be drop calls.
When we check the result, the problem occurs suddenly, and found that the TRX with phase-loop
alarm.
The KPI is normal after we reset the site in level 4.
Version abnormal-TMU-2
CSSR is low after cutover 18 sites from TABSCH6 to TABSCH5.
Found there are 4939 times for TCH seizure failure times in T4084XC.
TCH availability is 40%, TCH congestion rate is 1.1%
Some channels in available TRX is red (cant seizure any users)
The KPI is normal after reset the site in level 4 on 3th-May.
Interfering-channel interfering
In T4313XB have interference on TRX5, and HOSR is low,
The most idle channels are in band4.
Modify TCH frequency channel from 27 to 28.
After modified frequency T4313B HOSR recover normal.
Chapter 2 GPRS/EDGE system

1. Review of the GPRS/EDGE system
2. Based technology
3. Data rate and coding algorithm
4. Parameters in common use
5. Statistics task and formula in common use
6. Call flowing in GPRS/EDGE
Course contents
PSTN Network
Billing Center
GBTS
TE
MT
MS
GBSC
Internet
A
Pb
Um
Gi
HLR/Auc/EIR
SMS-GMSC/IWMSC
MSC/VLR
SS7 Network
GSM Core Network
GGSN
CG
SGSN
DNS
GPRS Backbone
Gb Gb
Gs
Abis
Um
GPRS Core Network
EDGE PCU
OMC
Review of GPRS/EDGE system
Review of GPRS/EDGE system
POMU: packet operation maintenance unit
HSC: hot swap controller
RPPU: radio packet process unit
13-15 for Gb interface
Others for Pb interface
2 boards of L2PU in each RPPU
Each RPPU support 100 EDGE channels/max
or 120 GPRS channels/max
Suggest 50%fixed/50%dynamic PDCH channels
Course contents
Chapter 2 GPRS/EDGE system

1. Review of the GPRS/EDGE system
2. Based technology
3. Data rate and coding algorithm
4. Parameters in common use
5. Statistics task and formula in common use
6. Call flowing in GPRS/EDGE
Total 52 frame =12blocks*4+4idle
Based technology
TBF: Temporary Block Flow: physical connection in packet network. simulated with RR connection in GSM.
TFI: Temporary Flow Identity: flag of TBF. 5bit(value0-31) and the TFI belongs to especial TBF.
it can use the same or different TFI in one TBF
FBI: final block identity. 1 bit to indicator if it is the LAST RLC block
USF: uplink state flag: 3bit(0-7): control MSs to using channels with UFI in dynamic type
RRBP: Relative Reserved Block Period,3 bit(0-7) ,
defines the location when ms send to network with packet control ACKor packet DL ACK
MAC mode:
Three type of MAC mode: fixed allocation, dynamic allocation, extend dynamic allocation
Fixed type:
BSS allocation data block for MS with fixed type. BSS will re-allocation data block
when the first data block finished transmission but still have data block.
Dynamic type:
BSS allocation data block for ms with temporary type.
BSS assign the USF in different PDCH channels,the packet data will transmission
if the USF are the same between MS decoded and BSS allocated.
Extend dynamic type:
simulate with dynamic but the timeslots can more than the timeslot capacity of MS.
RLC mode:
confirm mode:
each packet block need to confirm in each TBF with MS and network during transmission.
Or the packed block will resent until be confirmed by each other.
And TBF will release after be confirmed finish with each other.
Non-confirm mode:
need not to confirm in each TBF. TBF will release after finish transmitting the packet blocks.
Classes of MS
Class A: can use circuit and packet business in the same time
Class B: MS can attach on GSM and GPRS/EDGE network in the same time,
but only can use one of circuit or packet business in the same time.
MS select GSM or GPRS/EDGE network automatically.
Class C: MS can not attach on GSM and GPRS/EDGE network in the same time.
MS select GSM or GPRS/EDGE network manually.
.
Network operate mode:
NO1: the core network send paging message in Gs(SGSN to MSC) interface.
MS only need to detect paging in one type of channel(PCH or PPCH).-with Gs interface
NO2: paging message only be sent in PCH for CS and PS paging.
Because the PPCH is not configuration with neither Gs nor PPCH
. NO3: paging message is sent in PCH (for CS) and PPCH (for PS),
MS need to detect PCH and PPCH message in the same time. with no Gs but PPCH
Multi-timeslots capacity(1-29)
it shows the capacity of MS in uplink and downlink for packet service.
1+4 or 2+3 timeslots in common by now.
Multi-TBF in PDCH channel:
it shows the capacity for TBF connection in each PDCH channel.
default value: 4 uplink+4 downlink TBF in each PDCH channels in the same time.
7 uplink TBF or 8 downlink TBF/max in each PDCH channels
Based technology
LQC(link quality control mode)
LA: link adaptation: using different MCS scheme in same Family to retransmit
and can re-divided 2 RLC blocks to re-transmit.(bad BEP in low MCS, good BEP in high MCS)
IR: Incremental redundancy: different MCS scheme in same Family to retransmit
LLC PDU divide to RLC PDU
Data packet
RLC/MAC
header
LLC
header
SNDCP
header
LLC FCS Dummy bits
LLC PDU
RLC/MAC BLKS
SNDCP PDU
BSN=0 BSN=1 BSN=2 BSN=3 BSN=127 BSN=0 BSN=1
Data packet
RLC/MAC
header
LLC
header
SNDCP
header
LLC FCS Dummy bit
LLC PDU
RLC/MAC blks
BSN=0 BSN=1 BSN=2 BSN=N
1560bit/max
LLC PDU delivery turns
in confirm mode
LLC PDU delivery turns
in non-confirm mode
RLC PDU recombine to LLC PDU

PDU t ransmission
PDP cont ext
READY t imer expiry
or
Force t o TANDBY
PDP deact ive
PDP cont ext
PDU recept ion
PDP deact ive or
Cancel Locat ion
MM State Model of MS MM State Model of SGSN
IDLE
READY
STANDBY
IDLE
READY
STANDBY
READY t imer expiry
or
Force t o STANDBY
or
Abnormal RLC
condit ion
Implicit Det ach
or
t imer exprit y
Implicit Det ach
or
Cancel Locat ion
Three state of MM:
Idle: without available RA information
Standby: can implement RA update, selection, reselection, paging function,
finished attached to GPRS network
Can active PDP context, but no TBF,no transmission with data block
Ready: can send and receive UDP, selection, reselection, no paging, cell information
sometime with data block transmission in uplink/downlink on TBF
Conversion among different states in MM
Course contents
Chapter 2 GPRS/EDGE system

1. Review of the GPRS/EDGE system
2. Based technology
3. Data rate and coding algorithm
4. Parameters in common use
5. Statistics task and formula in common use
6. Call flowing in GPRS/EDGE
Modulating bits
D
3i
,

d
3i+1
, d
3i+2
Symbol
parameter l
(1,1,1) 0
(0,1,1) 1
(0,1,0) 2
(0,0,0) 3
(0,0,1) 4
(1,0,1) 5
(1,0,0) 6
(1,1,0) 7
Coding scheme and rate
Coding scheme and rate
MCS-3
Family A
Family B
Family C
Family A
padding
37 octets 37 octets 37 octets 37 octets
MCS-6
MCS-9
28 octets 28 octets 28 octets 28 octets
MCS-2
MCS-5
MCS-7
22 octets 22 octets
MCS-1
MCS-4
34 +3 octets 34 +3 octets
MCS-3
MCS-6
MCS-8
34 octets 34 octets 34 octets 34 octets
Modem type Coding
scheme
Bytes in
RLC/MAC
Rate
(kbps)
PDCH
/16kbps
Binding idle
ts(16kbps)/max
Family
CS-(1-4)/
GMSK
CS-1 23 9.05 1 / /
CS-2 33 13.4 1 / /
CS-3 39 15.6 2 6 /
CS-4 53 21.4 2 6 /
MCS-(1-4)
GMSK
MCS-1 22 8.8 1 3 C
MSC-2 28 11.2 1 3 B
MSC-3 37 14.8 2 6 A
MCS-4 44 17.6 2 6 C
MCS-(5-9)
8PSK
MCS-5 56 22.4 2 6 B
MCS-6 74 29.6 2 6 A
MCS-7 2*56 44.8 3 9 B
MCS-8 2*68 54.4 4 12 A
MCS-9 2*74 59.2 4 12 A
Coding scheme and rate
8PSK mode
GMSK mode
9.1
12.2
14.4
20.2
8.8
11.2
14.8
17.6
22.4
29.6
44.8
54.4
59.2
0.0
10.0
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0
60.0
CS-1 CS-2 CS-3 CS-4 MCS-1 MCS-2 MCS-3 MCS-4 MCS-5 MCS-6 MCS-7 MCS-8 MCS-9
kbps
GPRS
EGPRS
Coding scheme and rate
Course contents
Chapter 2 GPRS/EDGE system

1. Review of the GPRS/EDGE system
2. Based technology
3. Data rate and coding algorithm
4. Parameters in common use
5. Statistics task and formula in common use
6. Call flowing in GPRS/EDGE
Uplink
Number of successful uplink TBF establishment
Number of uplink TBF establishment attempts
(UL) TBF successful assignment rate (user defined)
Number of uplink TBF abnormal release due to no channel
Number of uplink TBF establishment failures due to no channel
(UL) TBF congestion rate (user defined)
Number of uplink TBF abnormal release due to N3101 overflow (MS no response)
Number of uplink TBF abnormal release due to N3103 overflow (MS no response)
(UL) TBF drop rate (user defined)
Number of successful uplink assignments
Number of uplink assignments
(UL) successful packet assignment rate (user defined)
TBF and packet performance
Downlink
Number of successful downlink TBF establishment
Number of downlink TBF establishment attempts
(DL) TBF successful assignment rate (user defined)
Number of downlink TBF abnormal release due to no channel
Number of downlink TBF establishment failures due to no channel
(DL) TBF congestion rate (user defined)
Number of downlink TBF abnormal release due to N3105 overflow
(DL) TBF Drop rate (user defined)
Number of successful downlink assignments
Number of downlink assignments
(DL) successful packet assignment rate (user defined)
PDCH occupy
Mean number of occupied PDCHs
Mean number of available PDCHs
Number of PDCHs occupied by downlink TBF
Number of PDCHs occupied by uplink TBF
Total number of PDCHs occupied by TBF
PDCHs occupied rate
Number of attempts at converting TCH to PDTCH
Number of successful conversions from TCH to PDTCH
Number of dynamic PDCHs reclaimed by BSC
PDCH resource, access and retain
Accessibility and retainability
Packet Accessibility
Packet Retainability
Formulas in common use
Packet Retainability(%)=100%--
Number of uplink TBF abnormal release due to N3101 overflow (MS no response)
Number of uplink TBF abnormal release due to N3103 overflow (MS no response)
Number of downlink TBF abnormal release due to N3105 overflow)
Number of successful uplink TBF establishment
Number of successful downlink TBF establishment
Number of Successful Uplink TBF Establishment
Number of Uplink TBF Establishment Attempts
Packet Accessibility(%)=
TBF uplink congestion rate(%)=
Number of uplink TBF establishment failures due to no channel
Number of uplink TBF abnormal release due to no channel
Number of uplink TBF establishment attempts
TBF downlink congestion rate(%)=
Number of downlink TBF establishment failures due to no channel
Number of downlink TBF abnormal release due to no channel
Number of downlink TBF establishment attempts
Number of Successful Uplink TBF Establishment
Number of Uplink TBF Establishment Attempts
TBF uplink assignment success rate(%)=
Number of Successful downlink TBF Establishment
Number of downlink TBF Establishment Attempts
TBF downlink assignment success rate(%)=
Uplink TBF call-drop rate(%)=
Number of uplink EGPRS TBF abnormal release due to N3101 overflow
Number of uplink EGPRS TBF abnormal release due to N3103 overflow
Number of successful uplink TBF establishment
Downlink TBF call-drop rate(%)=
Number of downlink TBF abnormal release due to N3105 overflow
Number of successful downlink TBF establishment
packet uplink assignment success rate(%)=
Number of successful uplink assignments
Number of uplink assignments
packet downlink assignment success rate(%)=
Number of successful downlink
Number of downlink assignments
EDGE RLC/MAC DL performance
Mean rate of downlink EGPRS RLC( kbits/s )
Mean throughput of downlink single EGPRS TBF( kbits )
Number of downlink EGPRS RLC control blocks(NUMBER)
Number of downlink EGPRS RLC data blocks using MCS1~9
Number of downlink EGPRS RLC dummy blocks(NUMBER)
Number of MCS demotions on downlink EGPRS TBF
Number of MCS upgrades on downlink EGPRS TBF
Retransmission rate of downlink EGPRS RLC data block using MCS1~9(%)
Total number of downlink EGPRS RLC data blocks
EDGE RLC/MAC UL performance
Mean rate of uplink EGPRS RLC( kbits/s )
Mean throughput of uplink single EGPRS TBF( kbits )
Number of uplink EGPRS RLC control blocks(NUMBER)
Number of uplink EGPRS RLC data blocks using MCS1~9
Number of uplink EGPRS RLC dummy blocks(NUMBER)
Number of MCS demotions on uplink EGPRS TBF
Number of MCS upgrades on uplink EGPRS TBF
Retransmission rate of uplink EGPRS RLC data block using MCS1~9(%)
Total number of downlink EGPRS RLC data blocks
EDGE RLC/MAC performance
GPRS RLC/MAC DL performance
Mean rate of downlink GPRS RLC( kbits/s )
Mean throughput of downlink single EGPRS TBF( kbits )
Number of downlink GPRS RLC control blocks(NUMBER)
Number of downlink GPRS RLC data blocks using MCS1~4
Number of downlink GPRS RLC dummy blocks(NUMBER)
Number of MCS demotions on downlink EGPRS TBF
Number of MCS upgrades on downlink EGPRS TBF
Retransmission rate of downlink EGPRS RLC data block using MCS1~4(%)

GPRS RLC/MAC UL performance
Mean rate of uplink GPRS RLC( kbits/s )
Mean throughput of uplink single GPRS TBF( kbits )
Number of uplink GPRS RLC control blocks(NUMBER)
Number of uplink GPRS RLC data blocks using MCS1~4
Number of uplink GPRS RLC dummy blocks(NUMBER)
Number of MCS demotions on uplink GPRS TBF
Number of MCS upgrades on uplink GPRS TBF
Retransmission rate of uplink GPRS RLC data block using MCS1~4(%)
Total number of downlink GPRS RLC data blocks
GPRS RLC/MAC performance
LLC DL performance
Downlink throughput(kbits/s)
mean length of downlink LLC_PDUs
mean LLC_PDU bytes per downlink TBF
number of downlink LLC_PDUs discarded due to FLUSH_LL received
number of downlink LLC_PDUs discarded due to timeout
total bytes of downlink LLC_PDUs received
total bytes of downlink LLC_PDUs sent
total number of downlink LLC_PDUs received
total number of downlink TBFs
total number of LLC_PDUs sent

LLC RLC/MAC UL performance
mean length of uplink LLC_PDUs
mean LLC_PDUs bytes per uplink TBF
total bytes of uplink LLC_PDUs sent
total numbers of uplink LLC_PDUs sent
total number of uplink TBFs
uplink throughput(kbits/s)

BEP performance
Times of 8PSK_MEAN_BEP=1~32(times)
Times of GMSK_MEAN_BEP=1~32(times)


LLC and BEP performance
Course contents
Chapter 2 GPRS/EDGE system

1. Review of the GPRS/EDGE system
2. Based technology
3. Data rate and coding algorithm
4. Parameters in common use
5. Statistics task and formula in common use
6. Call flowing in GPRS/EDGE
Attach call flowing
Note:
step2: option, occurs when MS move to new SGSN
Step3: option,occurs when step 2 fail.
Step4: option,occurs if there is no PDP context active
Step5: option
Step6: option, occurs when MS move to new SGSN
or attach to network for the first time.
Step7: relation with step1. Occurs when IMSI attach
and Gs interface is configured
Detach ,packet paging, RA update(internal SGSN)
Detach: MS request Detach in most time .
Also can SGSN.
Packet paging: shows in Network Operator II
(PCH configured only)
RA updating : shows in internal SGSN.
PDP context active and deactivate in request by MS and network
Conversion between PS and CS
Conversion between PS and CS
Reason: relation with Class B of MS.
Initial state: PS mode (in attach or standby or ready mode).
Convert state: CS active (location update, cell reselection, incoming calls.)
Suspend: plug up from PS.
When finished CS ,MS will resume to PS mode (back to attach mode)
+T3190
-T3190
+T3141 +T3164
-T3164
+T3168
-
T3141
Reset N3101 -T3168
For EDGE: EDGE packet channel request (11bit or 8bit)
and indicate phase 1,phase 2, short access inside.
For PS block:
require to phase 1 and try to phase 2 access in non-confirm mode
require and try to phase 2 access in confirm mode.
For PS signalling (MM):
require to phase 1 access.
There is TFI and defined TBF in immediate assignment

Broken lines shows the phase 2 access polling information (TLLI)
Establish TBF in PS idle mode
Establish UL TBF in CCCH
phase 1 access
phase 2 access
Establish DL TBF in CCCH

Establish TBF in PS transmission mode
Establish UL TBF in DL transmission
Establish DL TBF in UL transmission

Establish TBF (1)
Establish TBF in PS idle mode
Establish UL TBF in CCCH
phase 1 access
phase 2 access
Establish DL TBF in CCCH

Establish TBF in PS transmission mode
Establish UL TBF in DL transmission
Establish DL TBF in UL transmission
Establish TBF (2)
S/P: supplyment /polling:
to indicator if RRBP is efficiency
S/P=0: no efficiency
S/P=1: efficiency

UL transmission in confirm and NON-confirm mode
Ws: windows size64~1024, need (Vs-Va)mod(SNS) Ws
relation with multi-timeslot capacity
Vs: 0~SNS-1 variable for sending state,
Vs=Vs+1 when finish sending blocks of BSN=Vs
Va: 0-SNS-1 variable for ACK state,update from ACK/NACK message

If T3182 timeout ,then N3102-pan_dec, until n3102=0 TBF release
If ms receive packet uplink ACK for (vs<va+ws),then N3102+pan-inc,
Timeslots 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Window size 64~192 64~256 64~384 64~512 64~640 64~768 64~896 64~1024
In ONE TBF, WS only increase in RLC layer
WS : 64~1024
Relation with PDCH ts.

MS
BSS
RLC data block(TFI)
RLC data block(TFI,S/P=1(ES/P=01/10/11))
RLC data block(TFI)
Packet Downlink Ack/Nack
RLC data block(TFI)
RCL data block(FBI=1, S/P=1(ES/P=01/10/11))
Packet Downlink Ack/Nack( )
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
T3190
Packet Downlink Ack/Nack(FAI=1)
T3191
T3191
.
.
.
RLC data block(TFI )
RCL data block(FBI=1, S/P=1(ES/P=01/10/11))
T3191
T3191 T3193
PACKET DL ASSIGNMENT/PACKET TIMESLOT RECONFIGURE
(Control Ack=1)
T3190
T3190
T3190
T3190
T3190
T3190
T3190 T3192
T3190
.
.
.
RCL data block(FBI=1, S/P=1(ES/P=01/10/11))
Packet Downlink Ack/Nack(FAI=1)
T3191
T3191 T3193 T3190 T3192
T3190
MS
BSS
RLC data block(TFI)
RLC data block(TFI)
RCL data block(FBI=1, S/P=1(ES/P=01/10/11))
Packet Control Acknowledgement
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
T3190
T3191
T3191
.
.
.
PACKET DL ASSIGNMENT/PACKET TIMESLOT RECONFIGURE
(Control Ack=1)
T3190
T3190
T3190
T3190 T3192
RCL data block(FBI=1, S/P=1(ES/P=01/10/11))
T3191
T3191
T3193
T3190 T3192
T3193
T3192
Packet Control Acknowledgement
DL transmission in confirm and NON-confirm mode
network
MS
PACKET TBF RELEASE
(release UL TBFRRBP)
PACKET CONTROL ACKNOWLEDGMENT
RLC DATA BLOCK
(CV)
RLC DATA BLOCK
(CV=0)
Release UL TBF
network MS
PACKET TBF RELEASE
(release DL TBFRRBP)
PACKET CONTROL ACKNOWLEDGMENT
To idle mode if there is no UL TBF
Stop detech DLPDCH
Release TBF in UL/DL