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CHAPTER 10:

RADIOACTIVITY
10.1 Understanding Nucleus of atom
10.2 Radioactivity
10.3 Uses of Radioisotope
10.4 Nuclear Energy

Composition of the Nucleus


MODEL OF ATOM
MODEL OF ATOM
Geiger-Marsden Experiment

Geiger-Marsden Experiment


MODEL ATOM RUTHERF0RD

MODEL OF ATOM


NUCLIDE
Nuclide A nuclide is an atom of a particular structure.
Each element has nucleus with a specific number of
protons.
Proton
number, Z
Proton number, Z is the number of protons in a nucleus. It
is also known as the atom number.
The number of protons = the number of electrons
An element is identified by its proton number
Nucleon
number, A
Nucleon number, A is defined as the total number of
protons and neutrons in a nucleus.
It is also known as mass number.
Nucleon number, A = number of proton Z + number of
neutrons
NUCLIDE NOTATION


NUCLIDE NOTATION

NUCLIDE NOTATION

NUCLIDE NOTATION

NUCLIDE NOTATION

NUCLIDE NOTATION

NUCLIDE
NUCLIDE NOTATION
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6
6
6
13
27
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ISOTOPES
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Z
SAME
A
DIFFERENT
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ISOTOPE

Isotopes of an element contain the same number of
protons and the same number of electrons. So
isotopes have the same chemical properties /
chemical reactions involve the electrons in an atom.

However they have different physical properties
because their mass is different.

Some isotopes exist naturally. Isotopes can also be
made artificially.

Radioisotopes are unstable isotopes which decay
and give out radioactive emissions

ISOTOPE

ISOTOPE

ISOTOPE

ISOTOPE

ISOTOPE OF ELEMENT

ISOTOPE
ISOTOPE
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Characteristic of Radioactive
emission
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Characteristic of Radioactive
emission
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Characteristic of Radioactive
emission
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DETECTOR
JAUHARI
IONISATION EFFECT OF
ALPHA PARTICLES CAUSE
AIR
POSITIVE ION
NEGATIVE ION
POSITIVE ION
ATTRACTED
TO CAP
(- VE)
ELECTROSCOPE
DISCHARGED,
GOLD LEAF FALLS
GOLD LEAF ELECTROSCOPE
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Radioactive Decay
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ALPHA DECAY
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BETA DECAY
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GAMMA RAY
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Radioactive Decay
10.2 Radioactivity
10.2 Radioactivity
10.2 Radioactivity
Decay Series
Some nuclei are still unstable after one decay;
the new nuclei are still radioactive and will
continue decay.
A series of decay will happen until a more stable
nucleus is obtained.



Decay Series
A decay series can be shown with two different types of graphs, as shown
below. Both graphs show the same decay series. However, only alpha and
beta decay can be shown in the graph.

10.2 Radioactivity
Po Pb

Po

Pb
214
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210
82

210
84
2
206
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10.2 Radioactivity
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HALF LIFE
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Half-Life
Half-Life
Half-Life
The decay curve shows the how the radioactive element decays over time.
It can be plotted as the count rate against time, or mass against time.
A radioactive nuclide with a shorter half-life will decay at a faster rate than another
radioactive nuclide that has a longer half-life.
Half-Life
Half-Life
The decay curve for the radioactive gas radon-222 which has a half-life of 55 seconds.
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Half-Life
Example 1
The radioactive atoms in
a substance decay to
become stable atoms. It
was found that after 288
s, 6.25% of the atoms
have not decayed. What
is the half-life of the
substance?
Example 2
The half-life of iodine-131
is 8 days. A
radioactive sample
contains 64 g of iodine-
131. Determine the mass
of iodine that has
decayed and has not
decayed after 24 days.
Example 3
A sample of lead-211 of
mass 96 g has a half-life
of 36.1 minutes.
(a) What fraction of the
sample has not decayed
after 108.3 minutes?
(b) What is the mass of
the decayed products
after this period of time?
Half-Life
Example 4
The figure shows the decay curve for a radioactive
sample.








(a) What is the half-life of the sample?
(b) State the value of
Example 5
The diagram shows a graph activity against time for a
radioactive element. What is its activity after 12 hours?

Example 6
The activity of a radioactive sample is reduced to 1/16 of
its initial value after 156 minutes. What is the half life of
the sample?
Example 7
The table shows the count rate recorded from a
radioactive substance at two different times on the same
day. What is the half-life of the substance?





Use OF
RADIOISOTOPES
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NUCLEAR ENERGY
NUCLEAR ENERGY
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A chain reaction is a self-sustaining reaction in
which the products of a reaction can initiate another
similar reaction.

Graphite can act as
moderators to slow down the
chain reaction to occur at a
smaller critical mass
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NUCLEAR ENERGY
The loss of mass (a.k.a. mass defect) of
reactants is converted to energy

Einsteins law of energy-mass conservation:

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Example 3
A possible fusion reaction is represented by the following equation:


Calculate the energy released in joules.
H-2 = 2.014102 amu
H-3 = 3.016049 amu
H-1 = 1.007825 amu
1 a.m.u = 1.66 x 10
-27
kg
c = 3.0 x 10
8
ms
-1

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NUCLEAR REACTOR
Component Description
Fuel rod
A long rod that has trace amounts of enriched uranium-235. Nuclear
reactions occur within these rods when the uranium nuclei undergo
fission due to continuous neutron bombardment.
Control rod
Boron or cadmium rod.
Absorbs excess neutrons so that the rate of chain reactions can be
controlled.
Graphite
moderator
Slows down the fission neutrons. Neutrons with low kinetic energy
can be easily captured by the uranium nucleus to initiate the fission
process
Coolant

Liquid sodium, water, heavy water (water molecule but with the
isotope) or carbon dioxide gas which have large specific heat
capacity. The heat generated from the reactor core is transferred to
the heat exchange unit.
Heat exchange
unit
Heat is transferred via piping that contains water. The water in these
pipes boil and undergo transition to the gas state. The flow of steam
rotates the turbine which then drives the generator to generate
electricity
Radiation shield
A 2 m thick wall of solid concrete, steel, graphite and lead. Ensures
the gamma rays and neutrons do not escape from the reactor core.
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Radioactive Waste
Management
Determining how to handle radioactive wastes depends on:
The half-lives of the radioisotopes
The concentration of the radioactive waste
The heat emitted from the radioactive waste