PIGMENT PRINTING OF COTTON

Prof. R. B. CHAVAN INSTITUTE OF TEXTILES BAHIR DAR UNIVERSITY, BAHIR DAR ETHIOPIA Formerly : Dept. of Textile Technology Indian institute of technology, New Delhi, India E-mail. rbchavan@hotmail.com

PIGMENT PRINTING
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN DYE AND PIGMENT PIGMENT NO AFFINITY TO FIBRE INSOLUBLE IN WATER NEED BINDER FOR FIXATION ONTO FIBRE DYE AFFININTY TO FIBRE WATER SOLUBLE OR CAN BE MADE WATER SOLUBLE. EXCEPTION DISPERSE DYE HELD ON FIBRE DYE-FIBRE INTERACTIVE FORCES

BINDER
IT IS PRE-POLYMER AVAILABLE IN THE FORM OF AQUESOUS EMULSION (MILK LIKE SOLUTION) CHEMICAL NATURE COPOLYMER OF STYRENE-BUTYL ACRYLATE-N-METHYLOL ACRYL AMIDE

MECHANISM OF BINDING
SEQUENCE PRINT > DRY > CURE (DRY HEAT)

DURING CURING: BINDER POLYMERISES AND FORMS A STRONG FILM BINDER FILM EMBEDES PIGMENT COLOUR AND ALSO STRONGLY ADHARES TO THE FIBRE

CHOICE OF THICKENER
CONVENTIONAL THICKENER USED FOR DYE PRINTING ARE NOT SUITABLE THEY INTERACT WITH BINDER AND REDUCE ITS INTERATION WITH FIBRE. THUS AFFECTING THE FASTNESS PROPERTIES SUITABLE THICKENERS EMULSION THICKENER – ZERO SOLID CONTENT THICKENER SYNTHETIC THICKENER - VERY LOW SOLID CONTENT THICKENER

EMULSION THICKENER
OBTAINED BY EMULSIFICATION OF TWO IMMISCIBLE LIQUIDS WITH THE HELP OF EMULSIFIER

TWO TYPES OIL-IN-WATER EMULSION WATER-IN-OIL EMULSION COMMONLY USED IS OIL-IN-WATER

PREPARATION OF OIL-IN-WATER EMULSION
BINDER 100 PARTS WATER 100-150 PARTS EMULSIFIER 20 PARTS UREA 20 PARTS CMC (4-6% PASTE) 10 PARTS KEROSENE OIL OR 750-800 PARTS MINERAL TURPENTINE OIL VERY SLOW ADDITION OF OIL CONTINUOUS HIGH SPEED STIRRING EMULSIFIER: REDUCE SURFACE ENERGY BETWEEN OIL AND WATER UREA: HYGROSCOPIC AGENT, MINIMIZE WATER EVAPORATION IN CONTINUOUS PHASE CMC: PROTECTIVE COLLOID

EMULSION THICKENER
MERITS IDEAL FOR PIGMENT PRINTING DEMERITS INFLAMMABLE- FIRE HAZARDS AIR POLLUTION HIGH COST FABRIC SMELL DUE TO RESIDUAL K.OIL OR MTO. NOT ACCEPTABLE IN EXPORT MARKET

SYNTHETIC THICKENER
CHEMICAL NATURE HIGH MOL.Wt. COPOLYMERS OF ACRYLIC OR METHACRYLIC ACID HAVE FREE –COOH GROUPS ON POLYMERIC CHAINS WHICH PLAY IMP. ROLE IN VISCOSITY BUILD UP TRADE PRODUCTS: AQUEOUS EMULSION, ACID pH CONCENTRATION FOR PRINTABLE VISCOSIT 1-2%

MECHANISM OF THICKENING
SYNTHETIC THICKENER IN ACID FORM WATER INSOLUBLE, LOW VISCOSITY, NON-IONIZED –COOH GROUPS

SYNTHETIC THICKENER IN NEUTRIZED FORM WATER SOLUBLE, SWELLABLE, HIGH VISCOSITY IONIZED –COOH GROUPS

SYNTHETIC THICKENER
MERITS NO AIR POLLUTION NO RISK OF FIRE AND EXPLOSION NO SPECIAL STORAGE REQUIREMENTS NO FABRIC SMELL DEMERITS ELECTRLYTE SENSITIVITY SLIGHTLY DULL PRINTS AND HARSH FABRIC FEEL LONGER DRYING TIME

PREPARATION OF THICKENER PASTE

BINDER 100 PARTS WATER 80-890 PARTS SYNTH. THICKENER 10-20 PARTS LIQUOR AMMONIA TO pH 8

PRINT PASTE COMPOSITION PIGMENT COLOUR X PARTS THICKENER PASTE TO MAKE 1000 PARTS DIAMM. PHOSPHATE 10 PARTS MELAMINE FORMALDEHYDE 10 PARTS SEUENCE PRINT > DRY > CURE AT 140-1500 C FOR 4-5 MIN. NO WASH

MERITS AND DEMERITS
PRACTICALLY ALL TYPES OF FIBRES AND BLENDS CAN BE PRINTED PIGMENT COLOURS CAN BE READILY MIXED WITH EACH OTHER TO GET QUICK SHADE MATCHING NO AFTER TREATMENT SUCH AS WASHING, SOAPING REQUIRED DEMERITS HARSH FABRIC FEEL DUE TO BINDER FILM LOW RUBBING FASTNESS

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