You are on page 1of 16

The Hall Effect Sensor

Rene Dupuis
Background Information
The Hall effect was discovered by Edwin Hall
in 1879; electron was not experimentally
discovered; had to wait until quantum
mechanics came
Development of semiconductor compounds
in 1950's led to first useful Hall effect magnetic
instrument
In the 1960's, first combinations of Hall
elements and integrated amplifiers
Resulted to classic digital output Hall switch
In 1965, first low-cost solid state sensor

Theory of the Hall Effect
Hall effect principle, no
magnetic field
Hall effect principle,
magnetic field present
Potential Difference
(voltage) across output:
V = I * B
Basic Hall Effect Sensor
Hall element is the basic
magnetic field sensor
Differential Amplifier
amplifies the potential
difference (Hall voltage)
Regulator holds current
value so that the output of the
sensor only reflects the
intensity of the magnetic field
BOP Operate point
A positive magnetic
field > BOP will switch
the sensor on (output
low).
BRP Release point
Removal of the
magnetic field < BRP
will switch the sensor
off (output high).
Bhys Hysteresis
Unipolar
Latching
Bipolar

Types Magnetic Parameters
Unipolar
Requires single polarity
magnetic field for operation
Positive magnetic field
(South pole)
Directed towards branded
face of the sensor for
activation
True-Power-On State
<BOP or >BRP
Latching
Require both positive
and negative magnetic
fields
Symmetrical Duty Cycle
operation
Guaranteed power-up
state
>BOP or <BRP


Bipolar
Involves either Unipolar or
Latching characteristics
Same principle

Unipolar Mode
Latching Mode
Sensor switch operation
Power-up states
Hall Effect Sensor Example
Application: Response to South or
North Polarity
Motor-Tachometer application
where each rotation of the
motor shaft is to be detected

When ring magnet rotates w/
motor, South Pole passes the
sensing face of the Hall sensor
after each revolution.

Sensor
Actuated when the South Pole
approaches sensor
Deactuated when South Pole
moves away from sensor

Single digital pulse produced
for each revolution.
Application: Gear Tooth Sensing
Sensor detects change
in flux level
Translates it into a
change in the sensor
output (high to low)
Sense movement of
ferrous metal targets
(magnetically biased)
Benefits
Small and rugged non-contact sensors
Insensitive to oil, dirt, humidity and dust
High magnetic sensitivity
Accurate and Reliable
Delivers low
Power consumption
Supply voltage capability
Average current consumption

Prices and Sources
Range from $1-$60


Allied Electronics
Allegromicro
Digi-Key
Sensor Indicates
Direction
Output
Rotational
or Linear
Notes
Optical
Incremental
Encoders
Yes
Digital
(Quadrature)
Both
Uses light and
optics to sense
motion
Interrupters
No
Digital
(Single Pulse)
Rotational
Senses light
with light beam
interrupt
Photo-
reflective
sensors
No
Digital
(Single Pulse)
Linear
Generates
pulse whenever
sensor receives
reflected light
Laser
Interferometer
Yes
Digital
(Quadrature)
Linear

Laser supply
linear
displacement of
an object
Triangulation
Sensors
Yes
Analog Linear

Laser supply
non-contact
linear
displacement of
an object
Hall-Effect
Sensors
No
Digital
(Single Pulse)
Rotational
QUESTIONS?