## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Modelling Diode Characteristics

**Diode Circuit Symbol
**

Current Flow

Anode Cathode

+ -

Forward Biased Reverse Biased

+

A one-way valve

Today’s problem

Given a circuit with a diode in it, calculate q the voltage VD across the diode and

q

the current ID through it

Three stages: q Observe how it behaves q Describe this mathematically q Use the maths to calculate VD and ID

Stage 1

Observe how it behaves Imagine diodes have just been invented and we have the first one to test (In practice, look it up in a book!) Vary VD, see how ID changes

**Diode I-V Characteristics – NonLinear (approximate graph)
**

Forward Biased I Breakdown Voltage V b> -100v V V ~ 0.7v on Threshold Voltage Reverse Biased

Is it linear?

Can we view it as a linear component, e.g. a resistor?

DC Resistance.

DC resistance from ohms law V=RI

0.8

I

0.7

0.6 D io d e C u rre n t (A )

A I 1 R C

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 V o lt a g e a c ro s s d io d e (V )

0.5

I R

0.4

0.3

V B

0.2

0.1

0

V

Is it linear?

Can we view it as a linear component, e.g. a resistor? “Hmm...” (sounds of disbelief) Yes, for any fixed voltage it has an effective resistance That resistance varies with voltage “A fudge”? Yes, but can be made to work and useful sometimes

**Two modes of operation
**

(A) +10v 1K (B) +10v 1K

V ? d

V ? d

0v 0v Which diode is forward biased and which is reverse biased ? What is the approximate voltage across each diode?

+0.2v 1K

V ? d 0v Is this diode forward biased and conducting (turn-on) ?

Stage 2

Describe it mathematically

(Why? At the end of the day we will need numbers, and maths is what gives these)

**Device Model - Forward Bias
**

Simplified Device Equation I

0.8

I D = IS ( e

VD / nVT

− 1)

D

D io d e C u rre n t (A )

0.7

0.6

IS, n and VT are constants

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

V o lta g e a c ro s s d io d e (V )

VD

That equation ...

I D = IS ( e

VD / nVT

− 1)

How do you read this? What does it tell you? q What is the approximate shape of the curve? q Does the -1 matter? (Minor detail? Dominate?) q What is ID when VD = 0? Equations are part of our life If you can sketch one as a curve, you make it visual

**Device Model - Forward Bias
**

Simplified Device Equation I

0.8

I D = IS ( e

VD / nVT

− 1)

D

D io d e C u rre n t (A )

0.7

0.6

Thermal Voltage V = 25 mV T ‘Fudge Factor’ n=2: discrete diodes Reverse Bias Saturation Current -8 -12 I = 10 to 10 A s

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2

V o lta g e a c ro s s d io d e (V )

VD

**That equation (reprise)
**

I D = IS ( eVD / nVT − 1)

VT = q / kT (about 25 mV at room temperature) q is charge on electron k is Boltzmann’s constant T is absolute (i.e. Kelvin) temperature A ‘constant’ that depends on temperature so

ID = IS e

(

qVD / nkT

−1

)

Stage 3

Use our mathematical description (i.e. model*) to predict what a circuit will do

*

If it doesn’t have predictive value, it gets the sack!

**Analysis of Simple Diode Circuit.
**

How to analyse circuits containing nonlinear elements.

Consider the circuit: r s + Vs ID Vd RL

VS = I D (rS + RL ) + VD

Can we solve it?

We have 2 unknowns, VD and ID To solve for them, we need 2 equations q The exponential equation gives us one (from several slides ago) q The other comes from adding up the voltages round the circuit (previous slide)

**Technique 1: with equations
**

q

**Circuit Equation, Load Line.
**

VS = I D (rS + RL ) + VD

Rearranging Load Line :q

1 VS ID = − VD + rs + RL rS + RL

Device Equation.

I D = IS ( eVD / nVT − 1)

**Technique 2: with a graph
**

ID

0.8 0.7

**Device Eqn Solution: ‘operating point’ Circuit Eqn ‘Load Line’ V =V D S
**

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2 V o lta g e a c ro s s d io d e (V )

0.6

D io d e C u rre n t (A )

Vs R +r L s

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0

V

D

**Is this always necessary?
**

Sometimes exact solutions are needed q Often an approximate one will suffice q In such cases, a simpler view (=model) of the diode is enough

q

**Ideal Diode - Approximation
**

Fictitious Circuit Element called an

Ideal Diode.

q

Reverse Bias: No current flow through the diode, open circuit.

When VD ≤ 0 then I D = 0

q

Forward Bias: No voltage drop across the diode, short circuit.

When I D > 0 then VD = 0

**The ideal diode
**

Short Circuit r s Vs + ID Vs I = D R +r L s RL Vs + V = Vs D Open Circuit r s RL

**Example using the Ideal Diode
**

Reverse Biased Diode +10v 1K +10v 1K Forward Biased Diode +10v 1K +10v 1K

0v

0v

0v

0v

Voltage across the diode V = 10v D

Voltage across the diode V =0 D

**The Ideal Diode in circuit analysis.
**

Disadvantages q Gross approximation of the I-V characteristics Advantages q Simple to apply. q Yields a quick approximation

Summary

q q

q

q

Diodes have nonlinear I-V characteristics. The slope from any point on the diode I-V curve to the origin defines the DC resistance. The operational point of a simple diode circuit can be obtained graphically by the construction of a load line on the diode I-V. In the Ideal Diode approximation, the diode is modelled as:

– An open circuit for the diode reverse biased. – A short circuit for the diode forward biased.

- Electro is Loveuploaded byJerimiah Miranda
- Zener Diode[1]uploaded bySahil Bhagat
- Ch2 the Welluploaded bym1cr0sp1ce
- Bypass Diode - Solar Pv Paneluploaded bylayziness_killsyahoo
- A Full Wave Rectifieruploaded byPawan Kumar Singh
- Lecture1(1)uploaded bySmiley Grace Goo
- Zener Diodesuploaded byUtkarsh Arjaria
- Edc Assignment 1uploaded byJanardhan Reddy T
- EDC 3rd semuploaded byvijay kumar
- Laser_Diodesuploaded byDjRocky2007
- expWeek1NEWuploaded bykimberly
- CHAPTER 2 DIODE.pptxuploaded byzahir
- Physics Project Report 2uploaded byArk Dutta
- Fwruploaded byVedant Tandon
- EC_EDCControluploaded byakki_9800
- 10640uploaded byDan Esenther
- EE 303 Syllabusuploaded byashaw002
- Research of Perspective Decisions Мulti Mesa Impatt Diodes of the Millimeter Wave Banduploaded bySEP-Publisher
- Datasheet Power Supply SX450 MERuploaded byMuhammad Mawardi
- Test1-Solutions Fall 2012uploaded bymehtajay1993
- EIEuploaded bysureshh52
- New Part 66 Syllabusuploaded byShrawan Shrestha
- Gallium Nitride Nanowire Nanodevicesuploaded byBhabani Sankar Swain
- Electric Circuits Lab Manualuploaded byTammanurRavi
- Pro Electron Component Designation Systemuploaded bySean Michaels
- LDCE EEE Q1uploaded byGayathri Gayathrir
- Ee102 Lab_report 6uploaded byNawaz Ali
- Example Question - 1uploaded byNisarg Parekh
- Power Electronics Lab Manualuploaded byRamesh Kumar
- Projuploaded byDanielle Tio

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading