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# Section 2.

2-1
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Lecture Slides
Elementary Statistics
Twelfth Edition
and the Triola Statistics Series
by Mario F. Triola
Section 2.2-2
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 2
Summariin! and "raphin! #ata
2-1 \$e%iew and &re%iew
2-2 Frequency Distributions
2-' (isto!rams
2-) "raphs that Enli!hten and "raphs that
#ecei%e
Section 2.2-'
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Key Concept
*hen wor+in! with lar!e data sets, it is often
helpful to or!anie and summarie data by
constructin! a table called a fre-uency
distribution.
.ecause computer software and calculators can
!enerate fre-uency distributions, the details of
constructin! them are not as important as what
they tell us about data sets.
Section 2.2-)
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Fre-uency #istribution
/or Fre-uency Table0
shows how a data set is partitioned amon! all of
se%eral cate!ories /or classes0 by listin! all of the
cate!ories alon! with the number /fre-uency0 of
data %alues in each of them.
Definition
Section 2.2-1
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
IQ Score Frequency
12-34 2
52-64 ''
42-124 '1
112-124 5
1'2-1)4 1
IQ Scores of Low Lead Group
Lower Class
Limits
are the smallest numbers that can
actually belon! to different classes.
Section 2.2-3
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
IQ Score Frequency
12-34 2
52-64 ''
42-124 '1
112-124 5
1'2-1)4 1
IQ Scores of Low Lead Group
pper Class
Limits
are the lar!est numbers that can
actually belon! to different classes.
Section 2.2-5
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
IQ Score Frequency
12-34 2
52-64 ''
42-124 '1
112-124 5
1'2-1)4 1
IQ Scores of Low Lead Group
Class
!oundaries
are the numbers used to separate
classes, but without the !aps created
by class limits.
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Section 2.2-6
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
IQ Score Frequency
12-34 2
52-64 ''
42-124 '1
112-124 5
1'2-1)4 1
IQ Scores of Low Lead Group
Class
*idpoints
are the %alues in the middle of the
classes and can be found by addin!
the lower class limit to the upper class
limit and di%idin! the sum by 2.
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+#\$%
##\$%
((#\$%
(,#\$%
Section 2.2-4
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
IQ Score Frequency
12-34 2
52-64 ''
42-124 '1
112-124 5
1'2-1)4 1
IQ Scores of Low Lead Group
Class
-idt.
is the difference between two
consecuti%e lower class limits or two
consecuti%e lower class boundaries.
2)
2)
2)
2)
2)
Section 2.2-12
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
1. Lar!e data sets can be summaried.
2. *e can analye the nature of data.
'. *e ha%e a basis for constructin!
important !raphs.
/easons for Constructin0
Frequency Distributions
Section 2.2-11
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
'. Startin! point7 Choose the minimum data %alue or a con%enient
%alue below it as the first lower class limit.
). 8sin! the first lower class limit and class width, proceed to list the
other lower class limits.
1. List the lower class limits in a %ertical column and proceed to enter
the upper class limits.
3. Ta+e each indi%idual data %alue and put a tally mar+ in the
appropriate class. 9dd the tally mar+s to !et the fre-uency.
Constructin0 1 Frequency Distribution
1. #etermine the number of classes /should be between 1 and 220.
2. Calculate the class width /round up0.
class widt.
2ma3imum 4alue5 6 2minimum 4alue5
number of classes

Section 2.2-12
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
/elati4e Frequency Distribution
relati%e fre-uency :
class fre-uency
sum of all fre-uencies
includes the same class limits as a fre-uency distribution,
but the fre-uency of a class is replaced with a relati%e
fre-uencies /a proportion0 or a percenta!e fre-uency / a
percent0
percenta!e
fre-uency
class fre-uency
sum of all fre-uencies
122; :
Section 2.2-1'
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
/elati4e Frequency Distribution
IQ Score Frequency /elati4e
Frequency
12-34 2 2.3;
52-64 '' )2.';
42-124 '1 )).4;
112-124 5 4.2;
1'2-1)4 1 1.';
Section 2.2-1)
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Cumulati4e Frequency Distribution
C
u
m
u
l
a
t
i
%
e

F
r
e
-
u
e
n
c
i
e
s
IQ Score Frequency Cumulati4e
Frequency
12-34 2 2
52-64 '' '1
42-124 '1 52
112-124 5 55
1'2-1)4 1 56
Section 2.2-11
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Critical 7.in8in09 sin0 Frequency
Distributions to nderstand Data
<n later chapters, there will be fre-uent reference to data with a
normal distribution. =ne +ey characteristic of a normal distribution
is that it has a >bell? shape.
The fre-uencies start low, then increase to one or two hi!h
fre-uencies, and then decrease to a low fre-uency.
The distribution is appro@imately symmetric, with fre-uencies
precedin! the ma@imum bein! rou!hly a mirror ima!e of those
Section 2.2-13
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
Gaps

"aps
The presence of gaps can show that we have data from two or
more different populations.
(owe%er, the con%erse is not true, because data from different
populations do not necessarily result in !aps.
Section 2.2-15
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
:3ample
The table on the ne@t slide is a fre-uency distribution of
randomly selected pennies.
The wei!hts of pennies /!rams0 are presented, and
e@amination of the fre-uencies su!!ests we ha%e two different
populations.
&ennies made before 146' are 41; copper and 1; inc.
&ennies made after 146' are 2.1; copper and 45.1; inc.
Section 2.2-16
Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.
:3ample 2continued5
7.e presence of 0aps can su00est t.e data are from two or more
different populations\$