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3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Slides

Elementary Statistics

Twelfth Edition

and the Triola Statistics Series

by Mario F. Triola

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 3

Statistics for Describing,

Exploring, and Comparing Data

3-1 Review and Preview

3-2 Measures of Center

3-3 Measures of Variation

3-4 Measures of Relative Standing and

Boxplots

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Key Concept

Discuss characteristics of variation, in particular,

measures of variation, such as standard deviation,

for analyzing data.

Make understanding and interpreting the standard

deviation a priority.

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Basics Concepts of Variation

Part 1

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Definition

The range of a set of data values is the difference

between the maximum data value and the

minimum data value.

Range = (maximum value) (minimum value)

It is very sensitive to extreme values; therefore, it is

not as useful as other measures of variation.

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Round-Off Rule for

Measures of Variation

When rounding the value of a measure of

variation, carry one more decimal place than

is present in the original set of data.

Round only the final answer, not values in the

middle of a calculation.

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Definition

The standard deviation of a set of

sample values, denoted by s, is a

measure of how much data values

deviate away from the mean.

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Sample Standard

Deviation Formula

2

( )

1

x x

s

n

E

=

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Sample Standard Deviation

(Shortcut Formula)

( )

2 2

( )

( 1)

n x x

s

n n

E E

=

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Standard Deviation

Important Properties

The standard deviation is a measure of variation

of all values from the mean.

The value of the standard deviation s is usually

positive (it is never negative).

The value of the standard deviation s can

increase dramatically with the inclusion of one or

more outliers (data values far away from all

others).

The units of the standard deviation s are the same

as the units of the original data values.

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example

Use either formula to find the standard

deviation of these numbers of chocolate

chips:

22, 22, 26, 24

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example

( )

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )

2

2 2 2 2

1

22 23.5 22 23.5 26 23.5 24 23.5

4 1

11

1.9149

3

x x

s

n

+ + +

=

= =

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Range Rule of Thumb for

Understanding Standard Deviation

It is based on the principle that for many

data sets, the vast majority (such as

95%) of sample values lie within two

standard deviations of the mean.

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Range Rule of Thumb for

Interpreting a Known Value of the

Standard Deviation

Informally define usual values in a data set to be

those that are typical and not too extreme. Find

rough estimates of the minimum and maximum

usual sample values as follows:

Minimum usual value (mean) 2 (standard deviation)

=

Maximum usual value (mean) + 2 (standard deviation) =

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Range Rule of Thumb for

Estimating a Value of the

Standard Deviation s

To roughly estimate the standard deviation from

a collection of known sample data use

where

range = (maximum value) (minimum value)

~

4

range

s

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example

Using the 40 chocolate chip counts for the

Chips Ahoy cookies, the mean is 24.0 chips

and the standard deviation is 2.6 chips.

Use the range rule of thumb to find the

minimum and maximum usual numbers of

chips.

Would a cookie with 30 chocolate chips be

unusual?

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example

( )

( )

. . .

. . .

= =

= + =

minimum "usual" value 24 0 2 2 6 18 8

maximum "usual" value 24 0 2 2 6 29 2

*Because 30 falls above the maximum usual value, we

can consider it to be a cookie with an unusually high

number of chips.

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Comparing Variation in

Different Samples

Its a good practice to compare two sample

standard deviations only when the sample

means are approximately the same.

When comparing variation in samples with very

different means, it is better to use the coefficient

of variation, which is defined later in this section.

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Population Standard

Deviation

This formula is similar to the previous formula,

but the population mean and population size

are used.

2

( ) x

N

o

E

=

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Variance

Population variance:

2

- Square of the

population standard deviation

The variance of a set of values is a

measure of variation equal to the square

of the standard deviation.

Sample variance: s

2

- Square of the

sample standard deviation s

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Variance - Notation

s = sample standard deviation

s

2

= sample variance

= population standard deviation

= population variance

2

o

o

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Unbiased Estimator

The sample variance s

2

is an unbiased

estimator of the population variance

, which means values of s

2

tend to

target the value of instead of

systematically tending to overestimate

or underestimate .

2

o

2

o

2

o

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Beyond the Basics of

Variation

Part 2

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Rationale for using (n 1)

versus n

There are only (n 1) independent values. With

a given mean, only (n 1) values can be freely

assigned any number before the last value is

determined.

Dividing by (n 1) yields better results than

dividing by n. It causes s

2

to target whereas

division by n causes s

2

to underestimate .

2

o

2

o

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Empirical (or 68-95-99.7) Rule

For data sets having a distribution that is

approximately bell shaped, the following properties

apply:

About 68% of all values fall within 1 standard

deviation of the mean.

About 95% of all values fall within 2 standard

deviations of the mean.

About 99.7% of all values fall within 3 standard

deviations of the mean.

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

The Empirical Rule

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chebyshevs Theorem

The proportion (or fraction) of any set of data

lying within K standard deviations of the mean is

always at least 11/K

2

, where K is any positive

number greater than 1.

For K = 2, at least 3/4 (or 75%) of all values

lie within 2 standard deviations of the mean.

For K = 3, at least 8/9 (or 89%) of all values

lie within 3 standard deviations of the mean.

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example

IQ scores have a mean of 100 and a standard

deviation of 15. What can we conclude from

Chebyshevs theorem?

At least 75% of IQ scores are within 2 standard

deviations of 100, or between 70 and 130.

At least 88.9% of IQ scores are within 3 standard

deviations of 100, or between 55 and 145.

Section 3.3-#

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Coefficient of Variation

The coefficient of variation (or CV) for a set of

nonnegative sample or population data,

expressed as a percent, describes the

standard deviation relative to the mean.

Sample Population

100%

s

cv

x

=

100% cv

o

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