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4-1

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Slides

Elementary Statistics

Twelfth Edition

and the Triola Statistics Series

by Mario F. Triola

Section 6.4-2

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 6

Normal Probability Distributions

6-1 Review and Preview

6-2 The Standard Normal Distribution

6-3 Applications of Normal Distributions

6-4 Sampling Distributions and Estimators

6-5 The Central Limit Theorem

6-6 Assessing Normality

6-7 Normal as Approximation to Binomial

Section 6.4-3

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Key Concept

The main objective of this section is to

understand the concept of a sampling

distribution of a statistic, which is the distribution

of all values of that statistic when all possible

samples of the same size are taken from the

same population.

We will also see that some statistics are better

than others for estimating population

parameters.

Section 6.4-4

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Definition

The sampling distribution of a statistic (such as

the sample mean or sample proportion) is the

distribution of all values of the statistic when all

possible samples of the same size n are taken

from the same population. (The sampling

distribution of a statistic is typically represented as

a probability distribution in the format of a table,

probability histogram, or formula.)

Section 6.4-5

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Definition

The sampling distribution of the sample mean

is the distribution of all possible sample

means, with all samples having the same

sample size n taken from the same population.

Section 6.4-6

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Properties

Sample means target the value of the population

mean. (That is, the mean of the sample means

is the population mean. The expected value of

the sample mean is equal to the population

mean.)

The distribution of the sample means tends to

be a normal distribution.

Section 6.4-7

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Definition

The sampling distribution of the variance is the

distribution of sample variances, with all samples

having the same sample size n taken from the

same population.

Section 6.4-8

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Properties

Sample variances target the value of the

population variance. (That is, the mean of the

sample variances is the population variance.

The expected value of the sample variance is

equal to the population variance.)

The distribution of the sample variances tends to

be a distribution skewed to the right.

Section 6.4-9

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Definition

The sampling distribution of the proportion is

the distribution of sample proportions, with all

samples having the same sample size n taken

from the same population.

Section 6.4-10

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Definition

We need to distinguish between a population

proportion p and some sample proportion:

p = population proportion

= sample proportion

p

Section 6.4-11

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Properties

Sample proportions target the value of the

population proportion. (That is, the mean of the

sample proportions is the population proportion.

The expected value of the sample proportion is

equal to the population proportion.)

The distribution of the sample proportion tends

to be a normal distribution.

Section 6.4-12

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Unbiased Estimators

Sample means, variances and proportions

are unbiased estimators.

That is they target the population

parameter.

These statistics are better in estimating

the population parameter.

Section 6.4-13

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Biased Estimators

Sample medians, ranges and standard

deviations are biased estimators.

That is they do NOT target the population

parameter.

Note: the bias with the standard deviation

is relatively small in large samples so s is

often used to estimate.

Section 6.4-14

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example - Sampling Distributions

Consider repeating this process: Roll a die 5

times. Find the mean , variance , and the

proportion of odd numbers of the results.

What do we know about the behavior of all

sample means that are generated as this

process continues indefinitely?

x

2

s

Section 6.4-15

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example - Sampling Distributions

All outcomes are equally likely, so the population

mean is 3.5; the mean of the 10,000 trials is 3.49.

If continued indefinitely, the sample mean will be

3.5. Also, notice the distribution is normal.

Specific results from 10,000 trials

Section 6.4-16

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example - Sampling Distributions

All outcomes are equally likely, so the population

variance is 2.9; the mean of the 10,000 trials is

2.88. If continued indefinitely, the sample variance

will be 2.9. Also, notice the distribution is skewed

to the right.

Specific results from 10,000 trials

Section 6.4-17

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Example - Sampling Distributions

All outcomes are equally likely, so the population

proportion of odd numbers is 0.50; the proportion

of the 10,000 trials is 0.50. If continued indefinitely,

the mean of sample proportions will be 0.50. Also,

notice the distribution is approximately normal.

Specific results from 10,000 trials

Section 6.4-18

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Why Sample with Replacement?

Sampling without replacement would have the very practical

advantage of avoiding wasteful duplication whenever the same item

is selected more than once.

However, we are interested in sampling with replacement for these

two reasons:

1. When selecting a relatively small sample form a large

population, it makes no significant difference whether we

sample with replacement or without replacement.

2. Sampling with replacement results in independent events that

are unaffected by previous outcomes, and independent events

are easier to analyze and result in simpler calculations and

formulas.

Section 6.4-19

Copyright 2014, 2012, 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

Caution

Many methods of statistics require a simple

random sample. Some samples, such as

voluntary response samples or convenience

samples, could easily result in very wrong

results.

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