NANOTECHNOLOGY

Presented byPraveen Singh Rana Rahul Shah

Introduction
• • • • • • • NanoHistory NanoTechnology NanoMaterial NanoBiology NanoElectronic “NanoComputational Science” “NanoFunding”

History of NANO
• • • • • Tools 2,000,000 B.C. Metallurgy 3600 B.C. Steam power 1764 Mass production 1908 Automation 1946
– Moving from micrometer scale to nanometer scale devices

• Sixth industrial revolution NOW

Milestone
• 1959 Bottom” • 1974 • 1981 • 1986 • 1987 • 1991 • 2000 • 2002. 01 R. Feynman Delivers “ Plenty of Room at the First Molecular Electronic Device Patented Scanning Tunneling Microscopic (STM) Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) Invented First single-electron transistor created Carbon Nanotubes Discovered US Launches National Nanotechnology Initiative ITRI Nano Research Center Established

What is Nanomaterial?
• Materials with an average grain size less than 100 nanometers. • One billion nanometers = one meter

Comparisons
The average width of a human hair is on the order of 100,000 nanometers A single particle of smoke is in the order of 1,000 nanometers.

Why Nanotech?
A small science with a huge potential

Why Nanotech?
• Nanotechnology exploits benefits of ultra small size, enabling the use of particles to deliver a range of important benefits…
– Small particles are ‘invisible’ :
• Transparent Coatings/Films are attainable

– Small particles are very weight efficient:
• Surfaces can be modified with minimal material.

Components

Weight efficient and Uniform coverage
• Large spherical particles do not cover much surface area • Nanoparticles Equal mass of small platelet particles provides thorough coverage (1 x 106 times more)

Nanotechnology
• Nanotechnology: The creation of functional materials, devices and systems through control of matter on the nanometer(1~100nm) length scale and the exploitation of novel properties and phenomena developed at that scale. • Why nano length scale ? - By patterning matter on the nano scale, it is possible to vary fundamental properties of materials without changing the chemical composition

Approaches
• Top-down – Breaking down matter into more basic building blocks. Frequently uses chemical or thermal methods. • Bottoms-up – Building complex systems by combining simple atomic-level components.

Different types of Nanomaterial
• Nanopowder
– Building blocks (less than 100 nm in diameter) for more complex nanostructures.

• Nanotube
– Carbon nanotubes are tiny strips of graphite sheet rolled into tubes a few nanometers in diameter and up to hundreds of micrometers (microns) long. – The Strongest Material

Nanopowders
• Advanced nanophase materials synthesized from nanopowders have improved properties. • Such as increased stronger and less breakable ceramics. They may conduct electrons, ions, heat, or light more readily then conventional materials. • Exhibit improved magnetic and catalytic properties.

Advantages of Nanopowders
• Continuous connections between large numbers of grains make the material more stretchable and ductile so it doesn't easily crack. • Made of tight clusters of very small particles, resulting in overlapping electron clouds that induce quantum effects. Possibly resulting in more efficient conduction of light or electricity.

Nanopowder Applications
• Useful in manufacturing inhalable drugs. • Particles in the micrometer scale are deposited in the alveoli of the lung, often leading to clumping problems. • Could use smaller nanoparticles to prevent clumping by forcing spacing.

Pictures

Nanotube
• Carbon Nanotube(CNT) - Originally, discovered as by products of fullerenes and now are considered to be the building blocks of future nanoscale electronic and mechanical devices.

Nanotube
• Discovery of CNT (1) Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube(MWNT) - Sumio Ijyma(Nature,1991) (2) Single-Walled carbon Nanotube(SWNT) - Ijyma,Bethune,et al. (1993) (3) Single Crystals of SWNT - R.R.Schlittler,et al. (Science, May.2001)

Structure of Nanotube
• SWNT atom structures - Basically,sheets of graphite rolled up into a tube as shown figure. - The hexagonal two dimensional lattice of graphite is mapped on a cylinder of radius R with various helicities characterized by the rolling vectors (n,m).

Manufacturing

Manufacturing

Nanotube applications
 Structural elements in bridges, buildings, towers, and cables  Material for making lightweight vehicles for all terrains  Heavy-duty shock absorbers  Open-ended straws for chemical probing and cellular injection  Nanoelectronics including batteries capacitors, and diodes  Microelectronic heat-sinks and insulation due to high thermal conductivity  Nanoscale gears and mechanical components  Electron guns for flat-panel displays  Nanotube-buckyball encapsulation coupling for molecular computing with high RAM capacity

Research from IBM
• The IBM scientists used nanotubes to make a "voltage inverter" circuit, also known as a "NOT" gate . They encoded the entire inverter logic function along the length of a single carbon nanotube, forming the world's first intramolecular -- or single-molecule -- logic circuit. • Carbon nanotube transistors transformed into logic-performing integrated circuits; major step toward molecular computers • Aug 28 2001-breakthrough development of

transistor technology

Spinach Proteins and Carbon Nanotubes
• Spinach contains a chlorophyll-containing protein called Photosystem I (PSI, pronounced PS One) that upon receiving a photon of light, exhibits an electrical current that flows through it in one direction in 10 to 30 picoseconds — 100 times faster than in a silicon photodiode. • Applications in photo battery or solar electric cell. Next generation opto-electronics might be spinach based rather than silicon.

Nanodevices in the Treatment of Cancer

Nanostructures in Biological Systems
• Two major concerns
1. To be large enough they don’t just pass through the body. 2. Need to be small enough they don’t accumulate in vital organs and create toxicity problems.

Biological Nanodevices
• Bottom-up approach frequently used when constructing nanomaterials for use in medicine • Most animal cells are 10 to 20 thousand nanometers in diameter. • Nanodevices smaller than 100 nanometers would be able to enter the cells and organelles where they could interact with DNA and proteins.

Biological Nanodevices (cont)
• This could assist with the detection of disease in very small cell or tissue samples. • Could also allow less invasive examination of living cells within the body.

Cancer Detection and Diagnosis
• Currently done by physical examination or imaging techniques • Early molecular changes not detected by these methods. • Need to detect changes in small percentage of cells, need very sensitive technology, “enter” nanostructures.

Improvements in Diagnostics
• Nanodevices could exam tissue or cell samples without physically altering them. • Improving miniaturization will allow nanodevices to contain the tools to perform multiple tests simultaneously. • Leading to faster, more efficient, and less sample consuming diagnostic tests.

Cantilevers
• Tiny levers that bind to molecules associated with cancerous tissue. (such as altered DNA sequences or proteins) • Surface tension changes lead to bonded cantilevers bending, which can be used to detect the presence of these molecules. • May allow detection of earlier stages of cancer.

Nanopores
• Helps researchers detect errors in the genetic cause that may lead to cancer. • Funnels DNA through, one strand at a time, resulting in more efficient DNA sequencing. • Monitor shape and electrical properties of each base as they pass through the nanopore. • Properties, which are unique to the bases, allow the nanopore to help decipher information encoded in the DNA.

Nanotubes
• Carbon rods approximately half the diameter of a DNA molecule. • Used to detect the presence, and exact location, of altered genes. • Bulky molecules designed to “tag” specific DNA mutations.

Nanotubes (cont)
• Nanotubes trace the physical shape of the DNA, outlining the mutated regions. • Important because location of mutations influence the effects they have on the cell.

Quantum Dots
• Tiny crystals that glow when they are stimulated by ultraviolet light. • Color of glow dependent on size. • Create latex beads designed to bind to specific DNA sequences. Quantum dots within the beads can be used to identify specific regions of DNA. • Diversity allows creation of many unique “dot labels” for DNA sequences. • Useful because cancer often results from accumulation of many different changes in cells.

Cancer Treatment
• Nanotechnology may allow treatments that target cancer cells without harming nearby healthy cells. • May allow creation of therapeutic agents that have a controlled, time-release strategy for delivering toxins.

Nanoshells
• Upon absorbing infrared light, release a lethal dose of intense heat. • Linking nanoshells to antibodies that recognize cancer cells has successfully allowed researchers to kill cancer cells without harming neighboring noncancerous tissue. (in a laboratory)

Dendrimers
• Man-made molecule comparable in size to average protein. • Has a branching shape, allowing the attachment of therapeutic devices and biologically active molecules. • May be used to detect and treat cancer while reporting on the results of its attempts.

Timetables (according to the NCI)
• Quantum dots, nanopores, and other detection and diagnosis devices may be available for clinical use in 5 to 15 years. • Therapeutic agents have a similar timeframe. • Integrated devices may be available clinically in about 15 to 20 years.

Nanotechnology in Electronic Applications

Moore’s Law
• Gordon Moore (co-founder of Intel) predicted in 1965 that the transistor density of semiconductor chips would double roughly every 18 months. • It's not a law! It's a prediction about what device physicists and process engineers can achieve

Moore's Law Holding!

Ambitious Predictions
• Moore's Law will have run its course around 2019. By that time, transistor features will be just a few atoms in width. But new computer architectures will continue the exponential growth of computing. • For example, computing cubes are already being designed that will provide thousands of layers of circuits.

Facts
• Nanotechnology’s ability to continually increase the amount of data that fits on a microchip provided the industry with escalating computing speed and power, which led to even-morepowerful products and a strong motive for customers to upgrade. • However, at some point, that miniaturization process collides with the physical limits of silicon.

Back In the Days

Transistors
• The transistor, invented by three scientists at the Bell Laboratories in 1947, rapidly replaced the vacuum tube as an electronic signal regulator.

Transistors
• A transistor regulates current or voltage flow and acts as a switch or gate for electronic signals. • Transistors are the basic elements in integrated circuits (ICs), which consist of very large numbers of transistors interconnected with circuitry and baked into a single silicon microchip or "chip."

Silicon
• Silicon is a chemical element present in sand (source is readily available). It is one of the best known semiconductor material in electronic components.

• Silicon conducts electricity to an extent that depends on the extent to which impurities are added

Molecular Devices
• Molecular Scale Electronic Devices
– Molecular Computers are constructed from Molecular Scale Electronic Devices which are electronic devices that consist of only a few atoms and are constructed and interconnected by chemical means.

• Major Benefits
– The major benefits of molecular electronics are a dramatic reduction in size and power consumption.

Computational Science in NM
• Computational Science comes in to develop tools for modeling and designing nanoscale systems. • The development of a range of computational tools, integrated with each other, easily used and widely available to industry, is the goal of the Nanomaterials researchers

Why Computational?
Modeling and simulation provides an opportunity to be smarter, quicker!
Whilst experimental programs are vital, modeling ensures that more value is obtained from experiments

Examples
• In electronics -dealing with electrons, the density functional methods and the Monte Carlo modeling are employed in Molecular dynamics to make predictions concerning nanoparticles (e.g defect electronic properties, wetting properties), or macromolecules.

Tools / software
• NanoCad in Java A freeware nanotech design system • NanoDesign: Concepts and software for nanotechnology based on functionalized fullerenes • AccuModel Accurate 3-D models using the MM3 force field • Amoeba A simulator for nanotechnology • etc

Funding – in the US
As a measure of the interest and commitment by the U.S. government, - For fiscal year 2001 the U.S. government allocated $422M - For fiscal year 2002 the U.S. government will allocate $485M -On March 9th 2003, Congress approved $849 million for nanotechnology R&D for the fiscal year 2003

Funding – Individual States
Individual States are also investing to ensure that they can share in the prosperity and employment that this will bring, California has invested $100M to prime the creation of a $300M California Nanosystems Institute.

Funding - elsewhere
Similarly, in Japan the importance of nanoscience to their economy is exemplified by the spending of $410M in the last fiscal year and the setting up of 30 university centers with expertise in nanoscale science and technology. In the EU In terms of research funding, the most important programs are: Improving the Quality of Life (QoL); Information Society Technologies (IST); and Competitive and Sustainable Growth (GROWTH)

Reference

http://www.ornl.gov/ORNLReview/rev32_3/brave.htm http://arxiv.org/ftp/cond-mat/papers/0210/0210187.pdf http://www.mpg.de/doku/wb_materials/wb_materials_166_176.pdf http://www.anl.gov/OPA/logos19-1/nanotech02.htm http://archive.ncsa.uiuc.edu/alliance/partners/ApplicationTechnologies/Na http://www.matmod.com/FAQ.html http://www.aist.go.jp/aist_e/ressearch_units/research_section/nanotech/na http://press2.nci.nih.gov/sciencebehind/nanotech/nano03.htm http://www.nanotechfoundation.org/what.html http://www.riken.go.jp/labwww/library/publication/review/pdf/No_45/45_00 http://www.ul.ie/~childsp/CinA/Issue58/TOC12_Nanomaterial.htm http://europa.eu.int/comm/research/growth/gcc/projects/in-action-nanotech

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