# “On the Internet…” you are nothing but an IP Address!

www.redhat.com 66.187.232.50 www.google.com 216.239.39.99 www.apnic.net 202.12.29.20

www.ietf.org 4.17.168.6 202.12.29.142

www.ebay.com 66.135.208.101

www.ebay.com 66.135.208.88

www.dogs.biz 209.217.36.32

www.doggie.com 198.41.3.45

www.gnso.org 199.166.24.5

Introduction

For a host to communicate with any other host
 

Need a universal identification system Need to name each host

Internet address or IP address is a 32-bit address that uniquely defines a host or a router on the internet The IP addresses are unique in the sense that two devices can never have the same address. However, a device can have more one address.

Internet Address Routing
Global Routing Table

The Internet

4.128/9 60.100/16 60.100.0/20 135.22/16 … 202.12.29.0/24 …

Announce 202.12.29.0/24 Traffic 202.12.29.0/24

202.12.29.0/24

Internet Address Routing
Traffic 202.12.29.142
Local Routing Table

Local Router

202.12.29.0/25 202.12.29.128/25

202.12.29.142

202.12.29.0/24

Finding the class in decimal notation

Netid and Hostid

 

Each IP address is made of two parts; netid and hostid. Netid defines a network; hostid identifies a host on that network.

Netid and Hostid (cont’d)

IP addresses are divided into five different classes: A, B, C, D, and E

Classes and Blocks

Blocks in class A

Class A is divided into 128 blocks with each block having a different netid.

Millions of class A addresses are wasted.

Classes and Blocks (cont’d)

Class B is divided into 16,384 blocks with each block having a different netid

Many class B addresses are wasted.

Classes and Blocks (cont’d)

Class C is divided into 2,097,152 blocks with each block having a different netid. netid

The number of addresses in a class C block is smaller than the needs of most organizations

Subnetting and Supernetting

Subnetting

A network is divided into several smaller networks with each subnetwork (or subnet) having its subnetwork address Combining several class C addresses to create a larger range of addresses

Supernetting

IP Addresses are designed with two levels of hierarchy

Subnetting

Classes A, B, C in IP addressing are designed with two levels of hierarchy (not subnetted)

Netid and Hostid

Subnetting (cont’d)
 

Further division of a network into smaller networks called subnetworks R1 differentiating subnets

Subnetting (cont’d)

Three levels of hierarchy : netid, subnetid, and hostid

Subnetting Example
128.10.1.1

H1

128.10.1.2

H2

Sub-network 128.10.1.0

Internet

G
All traffic to 128.10.0.0 128.10.2.1

Net mask 255.255.0.0

H3

128.10.2.2

H4

Sub-network 128.10.2.0

Subnet mask 255.255.255.0

Where do IP addresses come from?
IPv4 IPv6
Allocation
Allocation
Assignment
end user

IPv4 lifetime
n ti o a loc al
RI

s
t ca lo ns io
s se res dd A ted u ro

A AN I

al R

Reclamation?

Historical Data

Projection

http://bgp.potaroo.net/ipv4

why IPv6 was developed?

Address depletion concerns
space

Increase of backbone routing  Squeeze on available addresses table size

Probably will never run out, but will be harder to obtain

Current backbone routing table size > 230K

End to end connectivity no longer visible

CIDR does not guarantee efficient and scalable hierarchy

Routing aggregation is still a concern in IPv6

IPv6 provides much larger IP address space than

IPv6 address architecture is more hierarchical than IPv4

Compare IP v4 and v6 addresses
 

IPv4 example 201.56.211.12 IPv6 example

234F:0000:0300:1234:ABC4:0000:1123:34B3  IPv4 address is 32 bits; IPv6 address is 128 bits  IPv4 address is expressed in decimal or hex; the IPv6 address is always expressed in hexadecimal  The IPv4 address has four bytes separated by a dot; the IPv6 address has 8 double bytes separated by a colon

IPv6
 

  

Larger Address Space Aggregation-based address hierarchy – Efficient backbone routing Efficient and Extensible IP datagram Security (IPsec mandatory) Mobility

128-bit IPv6 Address 3FFE:085B:1F1F:0000:0000:0000:00A9:1234

8 groups of 16-bit hexadecimal numbers separated by “:” Leading zeros can be removed

3FFE:85B:1F1F::A9:1234 :: = all zeros in one or more group of 16-bit hexadecimal numbers

Header comparison
0 vers hlen 15 16 TOS flags total length flag-offset 31

Removed (6)
• ID, flags, flag offset • TOS, hlen • header checksum

identification 20 bytes TTL protocol

header checksum

source address destination address options and padding

Changed (3)
• total length => payload • protocol => next header • TTL => hop limit
hop limit

IPv4
vers traffic class flow-label next header

payload length 40 bytes

Added (2)
• traffic class • flow label

source address

destination address

Expanded
• address 32 to 128 bits

IPv6

Major Improvements of IPv6 Header

 

No option field: Replaced by extension header. Result in a fixed length, 40-byte IP header. No header checksum: Result in fast processing. No fragmentation at intermediate nodes: Result in fast IP forwarding.

IPv4-Mapped IPv6 Address

IPv4-Mapped addresses allow a host that support both IPv4 and IPv6 to communicate with a host that supports only IPv4.

The IPv6 address is based completely on the IPv4 address.

IPv4-Mapped IPv6 Address

80 bits of 0s followed by 16 bits of ones, followed by a 32 bit IPv4 Address:
0000 . . . 0000 80 bits FFFF 16 bits IPv4 Address 32 bits

Conclusion

IPv6 is NEW … – built on the experiences learned from IPv4 – new features – large address space – new efficient header – autoconfiguration … and OLD – still IP – build on a solid base

Case Study

This section of the report aims to show the rationale for a few selected IPv6 implementations. In what follows, case studies for NTT Communications and Google are considered. A further source of information beyond the case studies below is the IPv6 Forum.

1. NTT Communication

• NTT Communications began offering IPv6 Internet service in April 2001. One of the largest ISPs in Japan, NTT Communications, provides several commercial IPv6 services.

• Dual stack (IPv4 and IPv6) ADSL services have been offered since 2002. In addition NTT Com has operated a dual-stack IPv6/IPv4 backbone connection since 2004. • Since 2005, NTT Com has provided dual-stack Ethernet access (e.g. for fibre) for enterprise users.

2.Google
• Google started to consult vendors in 2004 and received a “/32” IPv6 delegation from ARIN in 2005. There are three facets to Google‘s IPv6 deployment: 1. 2. 3. Production networking infrastructure i.e. peering and transit,whereby IPv6 is stretched to each data centre. Corporate deployment, for all Google‘s internal networks and staff to be using IPv6; and Deploying IPv6 in Google‘s software and services including gmail, search, or Google maps in production quality.

To ensure that service over IPv4 is not affected, Google is likely to use separate domain name for its IPv6 service • Another challenge for Google is that in its search for minimal latency, it has been implementing very fast IPv4 Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) chips

References
http://www.nro.net/statistics/ Accessed on 2 april 2009 http://faculty.yu.edu.jo/ALAJLOUNI/DownloadHandler.ashx?pg=7eba14be85f4-42bd-a8e1-06efb535a25&section=cf8eda12-0cde-4ff8-b67d76de74fad17d&file=Chap-04.pdf Accessed on 8 april 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ip_address Accessed on 8 april 2009

Sign up to vote on this title